back from extinction

Twenty-third Christmas

the series is as follows so far:

FirstSecond ThirdFourthFifthFifth Christmas, Part 2SixthSeventhEighthNinthTenthEleventhTwelfthThirteenthFourteenthFifteenthSixteenthSeventeenthEighteenthNineteenthTwentiethTwenty-firstTwenty-secondTwenty-third

Here’s the last one … 23 chapters later … no idea it woud turn into this … and am totally glad it did :)

Thanks everyody who reblogged, noted, commented and tagged … you are all gods in my world and I appreciate you from the bottom of my soul :)


Sitting quietly on the couch, fire crackling on the hearth, wind whistling in the eaves, Mulder put his head back, nestling in beside Scully’s as she read something or other with a pastel cover and a beach scene and a faceless woman wearing a floppy hat, “hey, Scully?”

Patiently, she put her finger in her book to hold her spot, “yeah?”

“I want to decorate the hell out of this place.”

She couldn’t fight the smile that burst forth, “only you would use hell to describe Christmas.”

“Come on. I think Maggie would like us to do it up right, our first Christmas back together and in her house to boot. We can intermingle her stuff and our stuff and I can go buy stuff for the front yard and porch.” Having sank his teeth into the idea, it was now exploding in his head, visions of inflatable things and blinking lights and evergreen garland, pointsettas and pinecones and cinnamon-smelling potpourri boiling on the stove, “I mean, it’ll be the stuff of Christmas dreams!”

“Okay, you had me with your overuse of the word ‘stuff’ but then you rolled out the emphatic Christmas dreams ending and moved it right on into over-saccharined insanity.”

Shifting sideways, he pulled his leg up, the ever present Flab jumping on his lap while Dagoo looked on, comfy from his blanket near the heat of the fireplace, “look, even Flab appreciates my saccharine enthusiasm. Look at her. She’d dying to have you say yes because she wants her own Grinch costume and Dagoo needs a Rudolph nose.”

“I think Dagoo wants you to be quiet so he can keep napping.”

He saw the moment he won and grinning, “we should go shopping.”

“Yes, we should.” Will’s voice drifted down the stairs where he’d been listening rapturously, with both mind and ear, feeling his father’s win and his mother’s amusement. Coming down further and poking his head past the wall, “right now. The Uncles will love it when they come over for Christmas.”

“That’s right, Scully. We’re gonna have like 20 people here for two days. We owe it to them to make this completely Maggie Christmas worthy.”

Not about to deny Will or Mulder a damn thing ever in life, Scully stood up, holding her hand out to pull him with her then gesturing towards the fire, “put that out so we don’t burn the house down and we’ll go buy out the Christmas sections of everywhere.”

Will hooted, racing back upstairs for a sweatshirt, Mulder gave her a big, wet kiss on the cheek and did as told while Scully just giggled in happy glee.


When the Gunmen had shown up with Will on that bridge, the world didn’t end but began anew, saving Mulder, getting everyone back to the hospital, aiming a homemade and completely genius EMP handheld device at the hovering ship, sending it and its government fuckers as Frohike called them, away for long enough to get the gang safely away in the boat parked just below the bridge.

She’d saved the world but more importantly, she’d saved Mulder with the help of Will’s blood and her ability to completely compartmentalize the fact that her friends were alive and had been hiding her son from her for the past 16 years. Science kicked in, she brought human beings back from the brink of extinction and when it was all over, she screamed at the Gunmen for three minutes apiece then broke down, crying with her equally emotional son in her arms.

Eventually, over the course of the following three days, while the world was vaccinated, her and Mulder learned the story of the past decade and a half of the Gunmen and Will in abstentia. In the silence that hung around them when Frohike finished, Scully breathed out the largest sigh of relief in her entire, God-damned life and looked at her boy, “will you come home with me and be our son again … if you can ever forgive me?”

More crying ensued and an hour or three later, Will moved into the Unremarkable guest room, which was neither a guest room nor unremarkable anymore, given it had proudly been a resting spot for Maggie and would now be the home of her grandson. Within a few weeks, an agreement was floated between the six of them, Scully, Mulder and William moving into Maggie’s home while the Gunmen took over the farmhouse, the basement perfect for computer equipment, enough room for the three of them and the solitude to which they’d become accustom.

They came over three times a week for dinner to see their nephew.


Shopping had never been so much fun. Both Mulder and Will had carts, racing down aisles in the local Wal-mart, doing their best not to steer into rows and nearly failing with regularity and hilarity combined. They called back and forth over tall things because, as Mulder put it, Scully was a short thing and needed to be kept track of. They debated icicle lights or fat LEDs for the front porch. They held up garish stockings and neon pink garland and giggled in unison at the metallic orange Christmas tree on display.

They ended up spending nearly all of Scully’s paycheck and she couldn’t have cared in the slightest.

Once back in the car, they stopped for Frosties, eating them while shivering their way home before finally pulling in the driveway and unloading Scully’s filled to the brim SUV. In typical teenage boy fashion, Will informed them that since he was out of school for Christmas break and had absolutely no reason to get up early in the morning, he would like to start the decorating now.

Mulder couldn’t think of one reason to argue and Scully gave them an approving smile, “why don’t you two start and I’ll go make the hot chocolate.”


It took until the next evening to finish, sleep finally taking the three of them down around two a.m. and lasting until noon. By that night, however, the only thing left were the Christmas trees, standing bare on either side of the fireplace, Maggie’s on the left and theirs on the right. William sat between them, boxes of ornament surrounding his crossed legs, lids off, treasures waiting patiently to be hung. “So, Scullly, would it be better to mix all the ornaments or would you like to keep them separate? Maggie’s on Maggie’s and ours on ours?”

She couldn’t give him a definite answer through the tears suddenly streaming down her cheeks.

Mulder’s heart cracked and with his own eyes damp, he pulled her into a hug, “I think we should mix ‘em all up. I have a feeling Maggie’d like it that way; she’d know that we’re really back together for good this time because, I mean, nothing says steadfast togetherness like mixing the mother-in-law’s holiday decorations in with our own.”

Scully laughed against his shirt, wiggling one arm from her hold on him to ruffle through their son’s hair, “what do you think, Will? Mix or separate?”

“Already mixing, mom, so the question is moot.” He had his own small box on his lap from which he was pulling homemade things, a popsicle-sticky, glittery, shiny, gluey, messy, intricate, woven, carved assortment of historically significant baubles he’d made with the Gunmen over the years. He lay them out on the rug, “we should keep taking one from each pile, nine ornaments each, put them on one tree then do the same for the other. We’ll have an even distribution that way or at least as even as we’ll be able to get given I don’t know your ornament count but we’ll make do.” The silence that hung above him made him look up to see his father shaking his head in befuddlement and his mother about to burst into laughter, “what?”

Mulder nudged Scully with his elbow, “he is totally your kid.”

Pointing to one of Will’s ornaments, “he made a green sequin alien head. He’s both of ours.”

Will held the alien head up to Mulder, “I sure am.”


It took most of the evening to hang 78 years worth of bulbs and memories, backstories being told for most, Will curious and open, questioning, commenting, loving the fact that he had a history, that he had a family with a history, that he was a part of that history. It was only when they’d finished that Scully suddenly realized, “if these are the things you made with your Uncles, what are they putting up on their Christmas tree?”

Will grinned, “I was confined to a building with them for 15 years, I made so many things that they’ll never miss what I took and besides, they wanted to give me more to bring home but I knew they wanted to keep a lot of it so believe me when I say, these aren’t even the tip of the iceberg … but I need to crash now so g’night and I’ll see you in the morning.” Giving both of them the long hugs they all needed all the time lately, he disappeared upstairs, leaving his parents to their standing and hugging and enjoying and occasional quick kissing.

Before anything got out of hand, Mulder pulled away from her, “I’ve got a gift for you.”

Because after several decades she was sure she knew what it was, she sat down, ready and waiting, grin on and hand out. Seeing her once he came back in the room, he chuckled, “no more surprising you is there?”

“Nope.” Waving her fingers in a hand it to me motion, “gimme.”

Laughing louder now, he sat down beside her, “it’s actually a two-fold gift. Here’s number one.” Opening the plain box, she found, resting quietly on the bed of cotton, the quarter necklace she had found in her mother’s possessions at the hospital, chain gone, Christmas hook attached. Before she could utter more than a small, confused, “Mul-,” he stopped her with a hand to the knee, “I know what that quarter is.”

She’d been wondering since the moment she found it, in the items envelope at her mother’s bedside, “how?”

“I gave it to her. Well, actually, she gave it to me. Back then, it was just a quarter from her purse but she gave it to me the night I met her, the night you were abducted by Barry. I was standing there, lost and confused and angry and scared out of my mind and I had to go do something, anything, just … find you. She’d watched me throw my cellphone at the wall at one point, frustrated as hell that no one was doing anything immediately, all talking and thinking instead of finding. Once I’d decided I needed to do something myself, she stopped me and gave me a quarter and told me to call her if I heard anything, regardless of time or information.” Stopping for a deep breath, he continued in a whisper, “I didn’t find anything out to call and tell her but I kept the quarter in my pocket anyway, holding it and hoping I’d need to use it soon. Eventually I got … we got you back but I kept the quarter anyways. I saw it as kind of my good luck charm at that point but then Maggie yelled at me and put me in my place for running with you so I had the quarter made into a necklace and I gave it back to her, telling her she’d never need a quarter to call me because we’d never be that far away again.”

Scully had been turning it over and over in her fingers, holding, spinning, twirling absently while she listened. When Mulder fell silent, she looked up at him, confusion still evident, “why didn’t you tell me when I found it or years ago, really?”

“Don’t be mad but it was a Maggie and me thing. It was ours. Our link. Our … connection to each other that was just ours. I never really had anything like that with my mother and …” now going sheepish on her, ducking his head, “I didn’t want to share it in case we went our separate ways. I didn’t want you to think of anything of your mom’s with a bad taste. I guess I figured a mystery was better than anger.”

Completely appreciating the logic, she first kissed his cheek, then kissed the quarter, dangling it in front of them, smiling through her ever-present tears, “I love it and the story and regardless of what may happen in the future, I’ve always loved you and always will so you don’t have to worry about that. I do however, wonder why you’re telling me now.”

“Because that was my last secret from you forever. I wanted everything out there when you got your second gift.” Reaching under the couch, he slid out a larger box, perfect size for a round bulb, “Merry Christmas part two.”

With that quizzical eyebrow he so very much loved to the ends of the Earth, he watched her open the box to a clear ornament, a piece of parchment paper rolled inside it, a handful of iridescent confetti heaped underneath it. Carefully unscrewing the sphere, she withdrew the paper, unrolling it carefully, reading intently then shaking her head in wonder, reading a second time just to be sure.

Once she looked up at him, eyes filled with twinkling amazement, he tossed the confetti in the air, covering them both, “so, will you be there?”

Her affirmative answer came in the form of her climbing eagerly onto his lap, straddling him, hugging him tightly as she whispered her, “I could never be anywhere else,” as she clutched her wedding invitation in her hand, the date printed as December 26, the time 2pm, the place being their front room.

“Gonna change your name? Let me make an honest Mulder out of you?”

As she kissed him once more behind the ear before shifting sideways, sliding down next to him, legs still akimbo around his thighs, “I was thinking more about Fox Scully. What do you say?”

Before he could answer, Will’s voice called down to them, in that uncanny way he had with timing, “I’m best man, right?”

Scully buried her head in his neck while he called back up to his son, “of course but you may have to battle it out with Frohike.”

“Naw, we’ll just tell him he’s Gunmen of Honor. He can be on mom’s side.”

“G’night, Will.”

“Night, Mom.”

Turning her attention back to her finally, very near future husband, “Merry Christmas, Mrs. Mulder.”

“Merry Christmas, Mr. Scully.”


Accredited zoos and aquariums do not focus on the entertainment factor. Modern zoos aren’t theme parks solely for entertainment like they used to be. SeaWorld is a theme park and not a zoo, for example. Good zoos and aquariums focus on education and awareness to the public, not giving a good show.

Besides, if nobody came to “gawk” at the animals, how do expect the zoos and aquariums to make enough money to continue upkeep for those animals? Conservation is expensive. 

And you’re SO right!! Zoos don’t do anything for conservation!!! At all! The Arabian oryx, golden lion tamarin, Puerto Rican parrot, black footed ferret, Californian condor, Kihansi spray toad, Przewalski horse, Karner blue butterfly, giant panda, red wolf, and the freshwater mussel just somehow magically came back from the brink of extinction without any sort of human intervention in the form of zoos. 

And it’s not like zoos and aquariums are currently working to save the blue-crowned laughing thrush, mountain chicken frog, white clawed crayfish, amur leopards, potosi pupfish, partula snail, blue eyed black lemur, ploughshare tortoise, scimitar horned oryx, african lions, african elephants, asian elephants, northern white rhino, black rhino, gharial, and more or anything.

Zoos dont do anything, am i rite lads :)

On my way to the airport yesterday, I was picked up by a cabbie named Chuck.

Chuck served in the Navy for 22 years. He worked, lived, and partied across the Pacific Islands until deciding to collect his retirement. When he saw my poster tube, we naturally got on the subject of why I was in Vegas, how I studied sea turtles and was presenting my research here, etc.

He thinks turtles in general are the coolest (“I mean, nothing else ‘cept maybe the armadillo has a shell! Think about that! That’s why they’ve been around so long!”), and one of the first things he said was, “I wish they’d start doing better and we’d bring ‘em back from the brink of extinction because man, they are such good eating

I didn’t bat an eye. I’ve heard this before; I also know that some very successful conservation efforts are borne out of a regular person’s desire to eat a species sustainably; that locals get involved with conservation efforts for this very reason. We chatted about this and I got to tell him about turtle excluder devices (TEDs) used in the shrimp trawling industry. We agreed how we would both much rather pay taxes that go to funding TEDs on every trawl boat in the Gulf than to our corrupt governor or legislator’s next mansion. That it’s hard for a seasonal fisherman to fund a $700 TED on a boat, or that scientists and government officials don’t get that he and his daddy and his granddaddy have been doing this their whole lives, and have a bad taste in their mouth from people telling them what to do and telling them that they know better.

Chuck may be “just” a cab driver, he may be a retiree, but he reads Science magazine. He may want TEDs so that he can sustainably eat shrimp, whereas I want them to save sea turtles and couldn’t care less about eating shrimp anymore. He’s plugged in, and he isn’t stupid; his background is just slightly different than mine, and we want the same things.

We naturally got onto the topic of climate change. Chuck acknowledges that something is going on, that the Earth’s climate is heating and changing. He’s not sure whether it’s entirely anthropogenic, and a 15 minute cab ride to the airport was neither the time nor the place for me to throw facts at him.

Instead, I focused on the fact that Chuck, regardless of the cause of climate change, wants to see humans try to make it better. He said, “We have got to do something or this (gesturing to the surrounding sprawl of civilization on either side of the highway) will all fall apart.”
So that’s what I said to him. I said, “Chuck you know, that’s it exactly. The science is pretty sound, our models are getting better and better every day, but at the end of the day, shouldn’t it just be enough that you want to make the earth a better place for everyone? That the sooner that we get past this rhetorical pitfall of ‘who dun it’, we can start to make actual, appreciable changes?”

Chuck must have been about 82 years old. I’m nearly 25. He’s been around, seen a lot. And he remarked to me at the end of the cab ride how much he enjoyed talking to me, how it made his day, and how this was a new, great way of thinking about climate change and activism. That we have nothing to lose by switching to sustainable resources, eating less meat, telling our politicians to get their acts together and make good on their climate summit promises.

I reflect on this on Earth Day, and because March for Science isn’t far from my mind today. I’m reflecting on how the newly published video narrated by Neil deGrasse Tyson revs me up in certain ways, but how problematic I find some of its rhetoric, and some of the rhetoric on the March for Science official facebook page.

For whom is this video made? I’ll tell you, from the time I spent with him, Chuck wouldn’t have been compelled by this video. He’d have been indifferent at best, and angry at the worst. This video isn’t made for him. But isn’t it important that he, and people like him, be reached, encouraged to make a difference, feel like they’re not considered ‘less than’ just because they’re not scientists?

What did work was having a conversation with him. Being kind, talking about things person to person– no lecturing, no fact regurgitation. I think that my conversation with Chuck will have more of a lasting impact on him than seeing that video ever would. And talking with Chuck has had an impact on me too. It reminds me that I’m a citizen of the Earth just like him. And that outsider perspective is absolutely key to my work and how I relate to the science I do. What does it all even matter if it’s not positively impacting people like Chuck? What does it even matter if I can’t sympathize with the shrimp boat drivers that have to rely on a transient resource to put dinner on the table for themselves and their families?

It occurs to me that this conversation could have gone much more differently for Chuck if it had been a different person in his cab. If it had been a different sea turtle conference attendee, or a different scientist. That someone could have jumped down his throat for his ‘good eating’ comment, or his thoughts on climate change. And he wouldn’t have walked away from that conversation telling the person how he was going to go out and buy a book on sea turtles now.

We march for science, but let us also march for the people who stand to benefit from it, whose lives are made better from its advances. Let us march for them even when we don’t see quite eye to eye on certain issues, for certainly the issue of saving our planet is more important. I think far more often than not, we can all agree that something needs to be done. I think we’ll find that people are more willing than we realize to join in and help. And we need them if we’re going to win this fight.


I drew this a long time ago as a collaboration with my biologist friends to raise awareness about various endangered species and their habitats. Unfortunately we all got too busy and the project never took off. I found the file again and decided to post it anyway.

This one is about the Whooping Crane and how conservation efforts brought this endangered species back from near extinction. My friend, Joleen Tseng, worked with these beautiful birds and here’s her write-up about the importance of conservation for these birds and all species of life:

When we hear [the crane’s] call we hear no mere bird. We hear the trumpet in the orchestra of evolution. He is the symbol of our untamable past, of that incredible sweep of millennia which underlies and conditions the daily affairs of birds and men.
–Aldo Leopold

Whooping cranes, North America’s tallest and rarest bird, have quite the story. Due to habitat loss and over hunting, these birds have fallen to just 21 individuals in the 1940s but through the enormous efforts of conservationists, local, national, and international governments, the Whooping cranes have recovered to around 600 individuals today. The story of the Whooping crane can be seen as a symbol of hope for endangered animals. Through intensive methods involving captive breeding, constant monitoring across nations, research, education, enforced protection, and specialized reintroduction programs, the Whooping cranes have been able to make an astounding recovery.
Whooping cranes have been blessed to be a “charismatic species” or in other words, a species with popular appeal. Their beautiful profiles trumpeting calls have inspired conservationists around the world to fight for their cause. However, many endangered animals are unable to gather as much popularity. Whether they may be considered ugly, small, or even “unimportant,” every animal has a place in the web of life and it’s our job as fellow animals to respect and uphold the system of nature that we are part of.

Ways to help:
Of course there are the standard ways to help Whooping cranes and other endangered species. Donate/ participate in citizen science/ support conservation organization or programs, etc.
If you’re lacking the funds, the best way to help conservation efforts and endangered animals is to educate yourself. Visit a wildlife refuge with your family. The money goes directly to helping efforts to restore endangered species habitat, monitoring, research, and education. Volunteer at nature centers, zoos, refuges. And most importantly, educate yourself. Take biology, take environmental science, look into zoology/ environmental science/ natural resource majors in college. All these can lead to a career in conservation. And last but not least, practice conservation: be mindful of waste, re-using, recycling, etc.

anonymous asked:

My greatest moment in d&d so far: Our whole party battling a hydra that we weren't allowed to kill (a few campaigns ago they were brought back from near extinction) So all of us held our turn to push the hydra and make sure it couldn't hurt us anymore. So 5 people and 1 baby dragon all push the hydra at the same time and everyone passes the random made up save for the time, two people getting nat 20's. Long story short somewhere there is a hydra stuck in a waterfall who can't get out.

Oh my G@d. Brilliant.

healthful-achievement  asked:

I'm really curious how being vegan would cause more animals to be killed?

OK, so I’m on mobile so this may be really choppy and hard to read but I will do my best.

Vegans don’t advocate for better treatment of animals, they advocate for the meat industry, zoos, and circus’s (I have them too but don’t agree with how people are going about getting rid of them) to be destroyed and just stop being a thing all together.

On top of this being impossible to achieve (especially with he meat industry, many people like me have dietary restrictions that make eating ‘vegan’ impossible and actually very bad for my health) if it did work, where would the animals go?

Answer: no one has ever answered this for me. The only thing I or anyone else can come up with is just putting them all down except for a select few as pets to make everyone feel better.

Basically, with how I understand hings to be now (based on what I have read and the work j have done volunteering and working in these industries) the best thing to do is advocate for better treatment!

These things are not going away, it’s not possible with our society now. I wish it was too, but it’s not.

Not to mention zoos and wildlife centers play a key role in helping endangered species come back from the brink of extinction. Also, the animals there play important embassitory (I’m bad at spelling I’m so sorry) rolls that trigger compassion, empathy, and kindness responses that MAKE US WANT TO HELP!

Again I’m on mobile (and a new phone that is a brand a have never had before on top of that) so I’m struggling a bit win typing and explaining things.

Please feel free to ask anymore questions that you may have! Or link me any new info or things you think I may have not read before. I am always trying to stay educated on issues I care about, and I don’t know everything. Just know if you do send me anything I cannot open and read them until I get home on to my computer.

Thank you!!! Please stay safe and know you are loved!!!!

While not normally arboreal as adults this large male Blue Iguana climbed this tree after significant rainfall which left the ground slightly flooded.

In 2007 I had the great privilege of visiting Grand Cayman Island to work with and document the critically endangered Grand Cayman Blue Iguana (Cyclura lewisi) with the team at the Blue Iguana Recovery Program founded by Fred Burton.

Blue Iguanas are endemic only to the small island of Grand Cayman and as such are at risk habitat destruction, road kills, free-roaming dogs, and feral cats. Thankfully the Blue Iguana Recovery Program (B.I.R.P.) has brought this beautiful iguana back from the brink of extinction with breeding and release programs as well as the acquisition of habitat.

It is the largest native land animal on Grand Cayman with a total nose-to-tail length of 5 ft (1.5 m) and weighing as much as 30 lb (14 kg).

Nikon D200 + Sigma 70-200mm
f5.6 1/400sec ISO640

#iguana #blueiguana #caymanisland #grandcayman #caribbean #wildlife #wildlifephotography #WildlifeConservation #shannonwild #reptile #lizard #blue

anonymous asked:

I want to hear about all those worlds in detail.

Demons from the Mesozoic era: Briefly meantioned but a very stupid idea I had ages ago in which dinosaurs had to be brought back from extinction because they are the only creatures that can fight off dragons (cause dinosaurs evolved to be able to kill dragons you see)

Just giant flesh eating Fish with their dorsal fins turned into wings: This

Extradimensional millipede who consumes space- Some shit about a young girl who lives her dream and befriends a “unicorn”, which is a Wayne Barlowe looking Extradimensional creature with control over time and space. There are numerous entities, across the universe want to harness the unicorns immense juicy power

Eyeless/limbless worm creatures who live underground/underwater (and are sapient)- The Joey verse, which there isn’t much to it besides a bunch of monsters/animal people go to school and otherwise love mundane lives (and yes the worm-dragons do go to school and live mundane lives as well)

Born out of humans/humans with no arms or legs and vomiting poison “created” by the gods: The nameless Debbie-verse, in which (mostly loose Greco-Roman) monsters are born from humans (or possibly transformed by the Gods) and are treated as the scapegoat of all the problems in society. Much of society’s outlook on life is based on “destiny” and the “order” of things and as such most monsters live in constant fear of the time when a destined hero comes to kill them off due to being a percieved roadblock in the path of order. (”Dragons” are hardly a part of this story beyond background honestly)

Genetically altered Earth reptiles living on a planet of furries: This awful shit

Southern White Rhinoceros - Africa

Over 98% of Africa’s Southern White Rhino’s can be found in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Kenya. They are the second largest land mammal in the world, after the elephant. They can grow to weight 3.6 tonnes, and have a longer skull and a more pronounced shoulder hump than their northern cousins, the Black Rhino.

A conservation success story, they were brought back from the brink of extinction. In the early 20th century, it was estimated only 20 individuals remained in the wild. Now, the Southern white rhino is the most abundant sub species of rhino in the world, with over 21,000 individuals living in the wild. Despite all these efforts, the rhino is still under a great threat from poachers, who illegally trade their horns.

A Jurassic Park Opens Up
  • Aries: "Woo! I'm checking out the carnivores!"
  • Taurus: "There's no way this park is a good idea." Stays behind to envy others experiences.
  • Gemini: Wants to go, but to be safe hangs around the herbivores.
  • Cancer: Bought tickets opening day, but was already in bed when the plane was supposed to take off so missed the flight. Wasn't even sleeping, just watching the media.
  • Leo: First to be seriously hospitalized. Didn't listen to the signs telling them to "stay away" because they wanted a close up photo with the dinosaurs.
  • Virgo: Chased after the Leo's in an attempt to stop them from being killed by the dinosaurs, saved some lives.
  • Libra: Okay's the scientists ideas to bring back the dinosaurs. "Wow cool idea, sounds good guys go for it."
  • Scorpio: Dared everyone else to hop the fences, enter enclosures, and swim in random bodies of water. Didn't do any of it, though.
  • Sagittarius: Is likely the only one filling out the scavenger hunt pamphlet given out at the park entrance.
  • Capricorn: Hangs around the carnivore areas to see accidents happen.
  • Aquarius: Thought going to the park was a cool idea until the plane heading to the park started taking off.
  • Pisces: Is responsible for bringing back the dinosaurs from extinction. "They are just too cute and cool!" They think everything deserves to live, yet they consistently eat bacon for breakfast.
What happened during Isla Nublar’s intervening years?

The following is an article by friend of the site Neelis and discusses the chain of events occurring on Isla Nublar between Jurassic Park and Jurassic World. As such, there may be minor spoilers, but it provides an excellent timeline and analysis of events. Be sure to give Neelis a follow on Twitter.


What happened to Isla Nublar between the accident in the park (circa 1993), and the construction and opening of Jurassic World (circa 2000 - 2005)?

The Book: Jurassic Park

Michael Crichton’s best-selling novel Jurassic Park presented us with an unprecedented prospect: a theme park housing living dinosaurs, brought back from extinction through the (then) miracle of cloning. As expected, predatory dinosaurs and human interference are never a good idea, and soon trouble would arise, putting the human characters in jeopardy.

By the end of the novel, the survivors (including Grant, Gennaro, Sattler, Tim, Lex and Muldoon) are airlifted off Isla Nublar by the (fictional) Costa Rican Air Force. As soon as the entire island has been evacuated, it is destroyed by bombing it with napalm, making sure none of the dinosaurs survive.

From the epilogue we learn some dinosaurs did make it off the island, having moved across the country and eating agama beans, soy and chicken (rich in lysine), before disappearing into the dense Costa Rican jungles, never to be seen again.

The Film: Jurassic Park

Jurassic Park’s film version saw quite a different ending to the story. While having passed away in the books, Hammond and Malcolm survived the film’s events, while Gennaro and Muldoon perished on the island.

The film was deliberately left open-ended, leaving room for a possible sequel to take place on Isla Nublar. Director Steven Spielberg remarked he had expected Michael Crichton to come up with an idea for the story revolving around Dennis Nedry’s lost Barbasol shaving cream can containing the stolen dinosaur embryos; Spielberg was quite surprised when this plot, elementary in the first film’s depiction of the park’s demise, was ignored, instead focusing on another island entirely: Isla Sorna.

The Book: The Lost World

The Lost World, written after Jurassic Park’s box-office success, presented Michael Crichton with a problem. In the original novel he had made sure Isla Nublar was cleared of dinosaurs. Universal and Steven Spielberg were hoping for a new (bestselling) book to base the second film on – Crichton, never having written a sequel to one of his books before (or since) reluctantly agreed.

The second novel saw the miraculous return of Ian Malcolm; though pronounced dead in the first book, Jeff Goldblum’s performance on film had made Malcolm an unexpectedly popular character, and Crichton resurrected him – turning the book in a hybrid sequel to both its paper predecessor and the celluloid version based off of it.

After bodies of mysterious animals start washing up on Central American shores, Malcolm and his former girlfriend Sarah Harding, an animal behavioral expert, learn InGen leased a second island off the Costa Rican shores, where the company experimented in secret, recreating dinosaurs and perfecting them before shipping the animals to the theme park on Isla Nublar. “Hammond’s dirty little secret,” Site B, had eluded all media and thrill-seekers’ attention.

The island, abandoned after the incident on Isla Nublar, is home to a host of different dinosaurs. Old favorites such as Stegosaurus, Tyrannosaurus and Velociraptor return; and there is a new predator on the block, the fearsome Carnotaurus, an animal with camouflage abilities stalking prey around the ruins of the former worker village, striking fear in not just human explorers, but other dinosaurs alike.

In a race against time, Malcolm and a small crew try to find paleontologist Richard Levine, who is stranded on the island. Lewis Dodgson, the man who bribed Dennis Nedry in the first novel (and film) to steal dinosaur embryos for rivaling company BioSyn, is no longer a supporting character but the full-on antagonist, this time hell-bent on not simply stealing embryos, but snatching eggs from the dinosaurs’ nests.

By the end of the novel, a small group of survivors makes it off the island, taking the secret of this Lost World with them. What happened to the animals and the island itself in the novels’ universe is anyone’s guess; though several of the dinosaurs fell ill with the mysterious DX disease, it’s unclear if Malcolm’s predicted “second extinction” took place, or if the former InGen operation on Isla Sorna was ever uncovered by the authorities.

The Film: The Lost World: Jurassic Park

Deviating greatly from the source material, The Lost World: Jurassic Park eliminated the novel’s main characters (Doc Thorne, Richard Levine, Arby Benton), seeing the return of Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum reprising his role) and the appearance of Sarah Harding and Eddie Carr; Nick van Owen was introduced as a member of the protagonist’s team .

Rough elements from the novel can be found in the film; Isla Sorna as a location; the rescue mission to find Harding (instead of Levine) who’s alone on the island; the abandoned worker village; the Tyrannosaurs attacking the trailer after the protagonists take care of the injured baby rex; Velociraptors stalking people through tall grass.

Dodgson, however, is gone, replaced by Peter Ludlow, head of InGen and cousin of John Hammond (their family relationship isn’t entirely clear). The hunt for eggs is replaced by a much greater objective: to capture dinosaurs and display them in a zoo outside San Diego.

Much to the dismay of fans, the Carnotaurs never make an appearance (ironically, the toy lines for both Jurassic Park and The Lost World: Jurassic Park included Carnotaurus action figures and even an adorable, though cranky-looking hatchling); instead, the focus lies primarily on the Tyrannosaurus couple and their cute-as-a-button baby. As expected, everything goes south, but hunter Roland Tembo succeeds in downing the male Tyrannosaurus. Here is where the film strays furthest from the book; InGen brings the bull T-rex to the mainland. As expected, this last desperate attempt at making profit goes spectacularly wrong too. Peter Ludlow pays the highest price; he falls prey to the infant Tyrannosaurus, the young animal practicing its killing skills on him.

The film ends with a much clearer idea of the state of Isla Sorna; it is to become a sanctuary for the dinosaurs, to live undisturbed and isolated from the rest of the world.

No return to Isla Nublar (?)

With the exploration and attempt at exploitation of Isla Sorna comes a most peculiar question: what happened to Isla Nublar? Why does the original island go largely unmentioned in both sequels, and why do none of the returning characters seem concerned about its fate, and more importantly, the dinosaurs that roamed it?

First, there’s something of interest John Hammond mentioned while trying to convince Ellie Sattler and Alan Grant to come inspect his park on Isla Nublar:

”I own an island, off the coast of Costa Rica.” John Hammond

”I’ve leased it from the government.” John Hammond

Jurassic Park (1993)

Now, Hammond, the flamboyant and likeable showman, says two things. One; he apparently “owns” the island. But next he downplays it a bit and explains he has leased it from the Costa Rican government.

There’s an interesting distinction. Would InGen have the funds to indefinitely acquire not just a plot of foreign land, but a complete island? Despite seeming very successful at what they do, this is a far stretch.

Then there’s the matter of Costa Rica (or any nation, for that matter) willing to sell land. A lease would mean a steady, hefty income, considering the Isla Nublar resort and Jurassic Park theme park’s expected financial success. I will not pretend to be an expert on these matters, but there seem to be some far-reaching legal implications when it comes to a country parting with home soil by selling to a corporation.

This could all be a slip up in the script, but both options ended up in the film’s spoken dialogue. Let me get back to this in a moment, and first take a look at an infamous deleted scene from The Lost World: Jurassic Park, in which Peter Ludlow informs InGen’s board of directors of an incident that took place on Site B (Isla Sorna), in which a young girl was injured:

”Damaged or destroyed equipment: seventeen point three million. Demolition, deconstruction and disposal of Isla Nublar facilities, organic and inorganic, one hundred and twenty-six million dollars.” Peter Ludlow

The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997) (deleted scene)

Here we have it: the answer to that earlier question. The island’s facilities have been dismantled and the animals eliminated. Nothing is left.

Why is this of importance? As Hammond said, he leased the island from the Costa Rican government. Now, would the park have been a success, Costa Rica no doubt would have made a profit as well, seeing an increase in tourism, money spent in both the country and at Isla Nublar (part of that money flowing back through the mentioned lease contract); but with the failure of the park, the lease ended and Costa Rica took possession of the island again, forcing InGen to clean up and restore the island to its original state.

Obviously, this presents us with a new problem. The scene was cut from the film either for reasons of pacing and a better flow of the narrative (The Lost World: Jurassic Park is already slightly longer than Jurassic Park); it might have been considered unneeded, given Hammond informs Malcolm on the state of Isla Sorna in the scene that is present in the film, which sees Ludlow and Malcolm clash as well; or it could have been taken out because the information presented within that scene leaves no room for a possible return to Isla Nublar in a future installment.

As we know by now, that installment is coming: Jurassic World (June 2015) presents us with an open, fully functioning park located on Isla Nublar, having been in business for a decade, receiving thousands of visitors every single day. It’s a huge success. And it harbors some secrets, hidden in the island’s jungles…

”Something Has Survived”: Continuity

Returning, for the moment, to that scene in John Hammond’s bedroom, where Ian Malcolm finds himself shocked when he learns there is another island that is home to dozens of dinosaur species – all thriving.

”Thank God for Site B.” John Hammond

”Site B?” Ian Malcolm

“Isla Nublar was just the showroom, something for the tourists. Site B was the factory floor; that was on Isla Sorna, eighty miles from Nublar. We bred the animals there, and nurtured them for a few months and then moved them into the park.” John Hammond

“Really? I did not know that.” Ian Malcolm

“Now, after the accident in the park, Hurricane Clarissa wiped out our facility on Site B: call it an act of God. We had to evacuate of course, and the animals were released to mature on their own. ‘Life will find a way,’ as you once so eloquently put it. And by now we have a complete ecological system on the island, with dozens of species living in their own social groups without fences, without boundaries, without constraining technology and for four years I’ve tried to keep it safe from human interference.” John Hammond

”Well, that’s right, that’s right, hopefully you’ve kept this island quarantined and contained but I’m in shock about all this. I mean, that they’re still alive. You bred them lysine-deficient. Shouldn’t they have kicked after seven days without supplemental enzymes?” Ian Malcolm

The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997)

Nowhere in this dialogue does Malcolm express any concern over Isla Nublar. Neither does Hammond bother to mention it. The focus in both The Lost World: Jurassic Park and Jurassic Park III lies solely on Isla Sorna.

It begs the question, too, why InGen wouldn’t send a team to Nublar. Why wouldn’t they? Nublar had reasonable infrastructure, there were detailed maps of the park’s layout, an idea of what species of dinosaurs would roam there. Most importantly, the biggest threat, the three adult Velociraptors, had all been killed during the 1993 incident. Would it not have been far easier to capture dinosaurs on an island with reasonable infrastructure and knowledge of the assumed amount of animals roaming there?

Malcolm does mention the lysine-deficiency fail-safe Dr. Wu built into the dinosaurs’ DNA. Does the tagline of the film, Something Has Survived, hint at the animals surviving due to them eating lysine rich vegetation? (The notion in itself is flawed - all vertebrate life forms need to consume lysine-rich foods, non can create their own.) This could be an interpretation, considering the boardroom scene and its exposition, clearing all doubts, was cut from the film.

But when we do keep that cut scene in mind (and realize how it is the catalyst for the film’s events in the first place), the tagline can’t refer to anything else but the clean-up operation that took place on Isla Nublar. As Hammond says, he tried to keep Isla Sorna safe from prying eyes and exploitation by his own company.

And there’s something else that strongly hints at a now barren Isla Nublar; while on his way to meet John Hammond, Malcolm is confronted with an obnoxious passenger on the subway. We learn that Malcolm has spoken out about the incident on Isla Nublar and InGen’s capabilities of resurrecting extinct animals. Yet people do not believe him. If Malcolm made such a fuss and went public with his knowledge, wouldn’t it have been fairly easy for an investigative journalist or News Corporation to hire an aircraft, fly over the island and see if all Malcolm’s allegations are true?

In the novel The Lost World, there actually is mention of this (although the journalists are flown over the wrong island and never were the wiser for it); it would be reasonable to assume the same thing would have happened in the film’s universe.

Is this conclusive then? Was Isla Nublar indeed cleared of all technology, infrastructure, construction and dinosaur-life?

The answer, surprisingly, comes from the third film.

Lessons from Dr. Grant’s audience

Trying to convince his audience more money is needed for research, Dr. Grant is confronted with a lecture hall full of people wanting to know about the, as he calls them, “theme park monsters” created by InGen. Facing a sea of raised hands, Grant asks if there are people who do not have a question about Jurassic Park. Hands drop, and Grant realizes all too well there are people in the audience who want to know more about the infamous San Diego incident. He denies involvement. This leaves only a few eager arms up in the air:

“as soon as Costa Rica and the UN know how to handle that second island, scientists will just go in and look for themselves.” Student I

”Are you saying you wouldn’t want to get on Isla Sorna and study them if you had the chance?” Student II

”No force on Earth or Heaven could get me on that island.” Alan Grant

Jurassic Park III (2001)

Again, the focus is solely placed on Isla Sorna by all involved. Everyone within Jurassic Park’s universe seems to be aware Isla Nublar is no longer home to dinosaurs. Isla Sorna is the place to be if you want to see eye to eye with living, breathing dinosaurs!

Retconning established events: the rise of Masrani Global and a preliminary conclusion

Though having been kept a surprise for a long time, the cat came out of the bag with the release of Jurassic World’s newest global trailer and word from director Colin Trevorrow; the original Tyrannosaurus rex from Jurassic Park will make a glorious return – now shrouded in more mystery than the already much debated Indominus rex, fans still haven’t had a good look at Isla Nublar’s ruler.

The website for Masrani Global, having bought-up InGen and setting up shop on Isla Nublar to start their own park, has nothing but praise for all those involved, and gives us a, very global, muddled timeline of events:

The acquisition of InGen by Masrani in 1998 hasn’t changed the scientific focus placed on the company, and CEO Simon Masrani has looked to experienced geneticist Dr. Henry Wu to guide the company ever since - with results often exceeding expectations for investors. Thanks to Masrani, InGen has been reinvented and is bringing tomorrow’s science, today. Masrani Global’s website

In 1997 Simon Masrani began talks to acquire International Genetic Technologies after the passing of Dr. John Hammond in order to reshape and restore the company to a level of satisfaction once sought by the former founder. By 1998 InGen was under the Masrani umbrella and the years from 2002 to 2004 would help lead the Masrani company on their biggest adventure yet: the construction of Jurassic World on Isla Nublar. Masrani Global’s website

After the unfortunate incident at Jurassic Park, Dr. Henry Wu returned to Isla Nublar in November of 1994 to assist the clean up teams in cataloging specimen numbers, and to identify exactly how the animals were breeding. Despite the island’s presence of seemingly same sex animals, it was the inclusion of amphibian DNA which he himself had underestimated. Masrani Global’s website

By May of 1997 Dr. Wu and his research team at a financially struggling InGen had successfully combined several species of plant life together giving birth to the Karacosis wutansis (or Wu Flower) which gained world-wide media attention, including the attention of Simon Masrani - who incidentally acquired InGen the following year. The son of a close friend of the now late John Hammond, Simon Masrani promoted Dr. Wu within the ranks of the InGen company in December of 2000 and brought the scientist onto the Jurassic World project. Dr. Henry Wu was instantly looked at as a valued member of the Masrani company, proving his unique skill not only as a successful scientist, but a great visionary. Masrani Global’s website

Established in 2002 for the purpose of construction on Jurassic World, Timack Construction have since gone on to specializing in renowned commercial building constructions. Masrani Global’s website

Simon Masrani used subsidaries Axis Boulder Engineering and Timack Construction to work on the preparation and planning prior to construction on the island. Construction workers were protected from native wildlife by InGen security over the course of the three years from 2002 until completion in 2004. With over $1.2 billion alone spent in concrete and building materials, this project was never underestimated. Masrani Global’s website

Step into the prehistoric era and come face to face with some of the greatest animals to ever walk the Earth, the Dinosaurs! Soak in the atmosphere and visit an ecosystem like nothing experienced before. With technologically advanced ride systems, five star restaurants, and a high class golf course, it is full of excitement, spectacle, and will leave an everlasting impression on everyone who visits.

The Masrani company is proud to present the greatest theme park ever built: Jurassic World.

“The most gratifying feeling of the Masrani Company is the global appreciation of our visions and ideas. We have brought together the world’s top minds all under one roof and since 1973 we have conquered things previously thought impossible. We’ve established ourselves in many areas from telecommunications, to genetic research, and defense organizations, landing as the number one in terms of innovation and success. Jurassic World is the sum of everything that came before it.” Masrani Global’s website

Impressive as it may be, Masrani does not clarify how thorough Isla Nublar’s clean-up operation was, or what local wildlife construction crews needed to be protected from. From everything that came before, we would have assumed it was executed with the utmost care and consideration, especially given the price InGen paid for the entire operation.

”one hundred and twenty-six million dollars.” Peter Ludlow

The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997) (deleted scene)

That’s a lot of dough, which should have ensured a conscientious, precise operation that was set up specifically not to leave a trace of InGen’s presence on Isla Nublar.

This leaves us (well, me in particular) with a most burning question: does Jurassic World retcon establish canon regarding the fate of Isla Nublar as presented to us in the original three films (in particular the two sequels), or will it offer an explanation as to how the original Tyrannosaurus still roams the island, and why the ruins of the old Visitors’ Center remain, now covered in vegetation and out of view of tourists visiting the island?

What happened to Isla Nublar between the accident in the park (circa 1993), and the construction and opening of Jurassic World (circa 2000 - 2005)? Why was this clean-up operation not successful, or if it was, why are the filmmakers deviating from the original explanations and previously established conclusions?

Of course, as a dedicated fan that wants every detail of the story to be correct, a possible retconning of years-old canon would be a somewhat bitter pill to swallow. But keeping in mind that these films are not just made for hardcore fans, but a much broader demographic, casual film audiences who come to have a good night out and see a film about dinosaurs running amok, and who aren’t necessarily fans of the films or have interest in, or knowledge of, all details, it won’t matter much if the island was properly dismantled or not.

Jurassic World might not offer any satisfactory answers. The film could gloss over the previous events (sidetracking The Lost World: Jurassic Park and Jurassic Park III), ignore them or give the most limited of nods.

Ideally, a satisfactory explanation could be worked into the film. This would require some exposition, which could either work gloriously or fail horribly.

In a few weeks time my questions might be answered – but I’m well aware my search for a solid, well-rounded conclusion could leave me empty handed and disappointed.

Whatever the case, a return to Isla Nublar is a thrilling prospect. The island where it all started for Alan Grant and Ellie Sattler – and us as an audience -, the place John Hammond envisioned would enthrall children and adults alike, where dinosaurs would roam once again; we’re going back, and we’re going to see it as never before.

”You know the first attraction I ever built when I came down south from Scotland? It was a Flea Circus, Petticoat Lane. Really quite wonderful. We had a wee trapeze, and a merry-go… carousel and a seesaw. They all moved, motorized of course, but people would say they could see the fleas. ‘Oh, I see the fleas, mummy! Can’t you see the fleas?’ Clown fleas and high-wire fleas and fleas on parade. But with this place, I wanted to show them something that wasn’t an illusion. Something that was real, something that they could see and touch. An aim not devoid of merit.” John Hammond

Jurassic Park (1993)


‘Rare cultivars of Tuscan and Umbrian fruit put on a vibrant autumnal display at this ancient monastery in the High Tiber Valley. Isabella dalla Ragione has spent over 40 years searching convents, family estates and abandoned farms for forgotten species of tree, bringing many back from the brink of extinction. Rebuilt after an earthquake in the 18th century, the chapel of the monastery still functioned as such until the Second World War. Its sacristy contains traces of a 14th-century fresco. The art-school dummy on the armchair gets brought out to make fourteen at the dining table if there are only thirteen guests.’

 Photography: Tim Beddow for World of Interiors, September 2014 ..

It warms my heart to see how enamored our guests are by our animals! It’s like they’re all kids again.

I remember when I first laid eyes on an animal brought back from extinction. It was a baby Triceratops. At that moment, I felt the years of dreaming and drawing and imagining all crash down on me in a single moment. I was looking at the real thing. I was seeing something that sparked a curiosity within people worldwide, across centuries, to think, to educate, and to learn.

That kind of wonder can’t be outmatched.

- Erick

“The Rarest", a Nene Goose. Nene geese numbered only 30 individuals in the 1950s. Through careful breeding programs, they were brought back from the brink of extinction, and today number around 800 in the wild after they were re-introduced to their native homes in Hawai’i, Maui, and Kaua’i. I fell in love with the Nene after meeting a few and observing their overall gentle nature.
Acrylic on board, 8" x 10"


The Friesian is one of Europe’s oldest breeds and gets its name from the Friesland region in the north of the Netherlands. The breed almost became extinct worldwide during the turn of the 20th century, as many Friesians were crossed to other breeds to create a faster horse for trotting races. In fact, only three purebred stallions were left. While World War II very nearly destroyed other breeds, it actually brought the Friesian back from the brink of extinction. Due to the fuel shortages, Dutch farmers turned to horses for transportation and fieldwork. The Friesian is one of the best carriage horses in the world. Today the breed is an accomplished dressage horse.

The Friesian stands 14.3 to 16 hands high. Only black horses are registered, but the color can range from black/bay, dark brown or true black. The only white allowed is a small star. The arched topline of the Friesian is the hallmark of the breed’s conformation. The Friesian’s head is rather expressive and well-sculpted with tiny elegant ears.

Color: Only black horses are registered, but the color can range from black/bay, dark brown or true black.

Size: 14.3 to 16 hands (5.3 feet)

Today: The Friesian is one of the best carriage horses in the world. Today the breed is an accomplished dressage horse.