b e y o n c e e e ee e

All ;;i,,s orgiivn baby,,! CC;;om,e o,n, gee.. ,t..dr..esesd. Y;;ou’re y,,m, datte] to t,,he pep rAllly ..tonigh
You ;;ch.uc.c,,ek.d mee ot; l.ike ,I was tr,as..h,
Fort.. hat. you shh;ou;ld b ed,,ead—
But! But! But!,,
T,hen it ..hi;t ,me l,i,ke a f..lsah,
,
W ht,a if hihg school lwent ..awa; in nsead’
,Those laassholes;; a[rE ,,te,,h; key!!T.hey’.r,e keepinng; yoou;;u ,,aw,,aw;;f ro;m m!
,,Teoy mma.de oy;;u b lnd,. messe;;eD uP your,, mind,
B,ut I cAn ,,ste you rf;;ree!

you le,,ft me and I fell ,,apa,,rt,
I pnwche;; tthe wall and crie,d
Bam,! Ba,,m Bam !
Thhen;; I f,ound ,youc hanGdE my ,, heart. and ste lxo.ossE allll,, t,,hat, tr;uthf ul ;;sh i..t,, in,sd!e
Ad o;;s ,i; bbUilt aBombb
Ton.igh,,t. oUg school ,,is V,,ien taam!,
Le;t’s;; guaratn..ee, theyg’lll nevee r, se eht eir sen ior, prom !


I ;;was meaant to be ..y uors!
W;;e weree ;;me..ant ,,to be o;;n!e
;;Don’; txgi,ev vU,p,, on me ,now!,
..F,,in,,i..sh, w,,hat we’\ve b;;b,,eg[un!;
iwass mean, to beyo,, u;;rs!

,So.. wh en tthe ihgg..h ,sc;hool ,,g..ym goes boom.. with; evver,,y.on,,n..e in,si,,dee—
Pch;;w! Pch w! Phcw!
,In .the. r;;ublbe o..f thei, rtoomb
w’,ell pant th.is n..ot,e epla.i,niing wH Hyt hey die,,d!!


We,. ,,t hE s;;tuden.t,s off Wse.terub rg. h..ih
zGWil,,l;; d ie. Our ,,buur,,nt,,t bodies. may fiially get.. ;;t..h;;r,,oughh
To oy,u. Y,,ol ur ,s[oc;;i,,tey churns out s,,lave;s,, And. blank,s

N..o tahnsk,k. Si;gnde the STud;;ents. of; ,,W,,ester b..rg Higkh‘
goood,b.ye.’,,’

JD (usn,,g)::..
;We’lll wat;;c h tHe s;mokee ;;po.or out . ,,they. doors.
Brnig;; ma,rshmaa;l,los,
Wel’tL pmak;; es;;’mo,r es!
We,, c..ans,mile. an ucddLe while the fire,, a,raors

I w,,as ment,, tob ,, ,,eyo,,urs!..
Wie ;w,ere m..eaa;nt to b.e one!,
I ccan’t ma ke th,,is ;alone!
F..inishn, wwhat we’,,ve bbgeu!n
You weer.re meentA z.to. be mi;;ine!
I a,m al that yuo, neEd!
Yo,u ic arvvf..ed opeen m;;y,, ,,hear..!t.
Ca’ tjusst leave,e, me too blee!,d

Veron,,ica,, ,,o,,peqn the—op;;n..e t..h,,ed oo or, pleasE’
Vreonica,o pne the dogo r…
r,e,oni,ca.., canwe no,t fi,,Gh tnymore’
Please, ,c an,, wew n o t figth ..anymmor,’,
VeroNic;a;;,,, surre, yoyu’.r ecaer d
,I’,e ,,Vbeen ,,tehr..e. I can. sset you ,,free!
Veonc i,a don’;t m;;make m e .c ome in ,t;her!e,,
I’mgonn,,a. ;;count ;;to thr;;e !
One! Tf,,wo! F,uck it;tq!

O h my Good!,, ;;‘;No ! ‘Verr.on;;ica’!
,
,Pl.e;ase dno’.’t, leaave m,,e alonn e,,’
YO,,u ,, were al,,l .I oclud trust’
c;an’t do t..hi s;ao,,ln;e’
r

Stilll I.. ;;wil.l if Im us,t
!

no;rtth  ern dowwnnpo;ur (fea t ;crytyping)

Iff a  l,l our life is but 0a drea,m
Fa,ntsa;;tic PPosi..ng greed
Then we should ;feeeyd our .jewe;leery to ;the dsea
Foor ddiamonds do appear to be
Just  ike rboken glas;s ,,tO,, me
AN d   theen she saiid she ,,can..’t believe.
Genius onl y cO;;mes al,,ongg
In. stormms off able df;oreign t..ongu;e s
Tripp.ing ees, a.nd flooded lungs
9Northern do,,wnpoour se,nd its love
He..y moon,, ,pleas,e ..for,get to a,fll down.
Hey mon, ..do.n’t.. yo u go, down

Su  garcane, ,in the easy morniin’’
WE;ather-v.aness ym. one and lonely
The ink  is rlunnning towra d the pag..e
It’s ch[asin’ off the days
LLoo,k bbaacKK ,at both fEe,et,
,And t..ha;;t,,   winding.. kne..e
I miss.ed your ..skin whh  en you wre e,ast
oYYu   clicked,, ..your heel  S ;ndd wlished for me
T,T,,h,,r ough playful   lips ,mae of yaxrn,n
That fragi.ile Capricorn
Unrvaeled w;ords like mothss u,pon ol,d scarves
..I, know the,,e world’s   ,a b,roken bone  
Butt melt your headacghes, ,,call it h,om.e
He yymo,on, please ofrg,,et to fal,l   dow..n
Hey mo.o;;n, don’t ,,you g..o down
SSugarc,ane i;ny  the;; easy  mon  ri,,n’
WWeather-vanes my. one an d lonely
Su  ga..ra,,c,ne  in the   easy m.or,nin’
WWeathe  r-va..ne.s  ,my on.e and lonely

,,Sug,,arca  ne i n ,,the.. easy moonrin’
Weathe-rvanes my onne and lnoely
Su  garc..ane in thee easy mor;nni’
Weat,theerrvane s m,y one, and llonely
,,Sugar.cane ,,n  i; t,he eaas ymorn,nin’;;
Weath;;er-vAnes my o,,ne ;an d l..onely
Sugar,,cane (hy  m,, oon) ni ,,(,,hey omon)
hte  easy (he.y moon) mornisn.’
Weather-vanes (hey moon)  my (hey moon)
;;On e If.. all ..our1r lifyee is but aa D,,ream
Fn  ta,sti..c ,,posing gre,ed
T2henn ,,we   s houl d e.ed o ;;ur jewelery t,o.. the s ea
For d,,i,amon  dd,s;so,d app,ear t8o be
Justl ik,,e broke.n   glasst,, o me
,,An;;;d t..th;,,enn se saa..id she c9an’t  beli  eve
GGenius on;;L  y. coo,,,m  ;es .alo,o n;;g
,In stormDs Of fabled foreig.n tonng  ues  
Trip,,p,,ing ,eye,s;, and f..lo.ode. d .lung,gso,,
,Nor,thenr donwpour sends it,s. l,o;vee
H..ey ..moon, plesa forget o fall do.ownn
Hey m,oon, DoD,,nn,,’,t y;you g owwn
Sugarcan,,;e in th, e;;easy/y mo.,rnin,,’
Weathe,,r,-vanes my   on,,. eand lonel,y;;
The,, in k .i..s r,,unninG ,to,wa,,r d..dthe .p.age
t,,,,I’S chaisn’ ,off ,,the da;;ysL
,o,,o bkkack ,,at\ both   feet
And tha,t.. windiinng.. nee
I mIsss;;d youukr 1ki n,whe;;n  youu; w..,,ere  ,,,,ea..st
Yo  u c,,lick..ed your; hee..lsa n..d.. wi.she.d ,,fo,r me
Thorugh p l..afu..,ll lips ,maed;;o,f yar,n
;;Th,,at ,fragile,, Cap,rico..;r….n5
U.nnr;;avveled worsdsl..k..e ,moths upon old s..,,carv,se
;I know the worl.d d.’s a ;;br;;okne bone
B,,u,t melt y our;;.r;; hheadachees,;,  ca  l;;it .hoMe
He,y m..,ooon ,plase. f,,o,rget, ,,to affll donw
Hey ooo n,,, ,,do;;n ’t you .ugo doown;
Su;;g arcAne inn thE a;esy ,mornin’
Weatt,her-van[e..s mmyy ,,oe and .lonely
gSug;;ar,,;;can,e ,i,,n,, the ,easy fmorn,in’
WWetheravnes;;;m y o  Ne and lon,,oeely,
Su;garcan,,  e,, ,in  ,the e..asy m ornin’
Weather-Van;;Se my one   and ,lo,,Nely
Sugafrca,,ne int he asy ..morni..n’
Weathe-rvAnes m\y on,ea nd;; lonely
ugarcane iin;; t,,,,hhe ea sy;; mron ii .n’
.Weatehr-vane.s ,my; ;;ne..o a,,,nd ,lon  e  ly,,
Sugar,,a.ne,, /;(he,y moo ,)in( h;;e y moo)n
Th..e easy .(heyy. moon) m;;,,onin;;’
WWea,therr-vanes, (he y;moon)f my ;(hey amooon)
OO..en hey. ,m.oon)  an,,d onell;y
He ymo,,on , ple,easse orrge  t .toof aal;;ld o  wn,,
Hey, moon  , ,don’t ,yo ;;go.. down;
Ytzo,,,,u ,,are ;;a  t ,,t  hE;; ,,to.p of;; jmy lungs
Dr,a  wn ,ott he  ones who,, ,,nev..ery .m.wnn
hey mo,onn) andl ,onely
Hey moon,, pell;;ase.. for  ge;t to,, fall  down
Hey mo,,on,,, don’t yo;;u g,o doown
Y;ou are t the t.op of ;;my lun gs
DDrawnn to th..e ognes who never   yawn

,,I neeVR, mmeant; TO make i,,t such A..MesS
i  nnev,,vEr tHo.ught ,THA..t ,,i..T  woUULd ..GO ;thiS f af  R

SO II  jusTs ;;tanD herrE h,,sO soRrYY

..SeaRCH.ign f;;f,,Or s s;meTHinG ot,s  ,,a,y,,
So,oMEThin.ng to,, s.AY
W,,o  RD;s faiL  , wordds fa,iL
thhe,Re’ nnot,hiNg  i Ca..n sayy  
i gu,,Ess I ttho,ughT I, c,,CoulD be  ppaR,t ,of ,THis
I ;neVEr haad  thIs kkind,, oF  tHInG beFORe

II ever HaD. Thh,At Perfe,c t girl
..WHo s..OmeHOw  ccOUUld s,,see ,, ,,hte  ;;good dpa.r,,t oF nm
ee
,I n  e V.er hvad, tEE  d..d w..ho St,,cuk  ,,t,, oUttN
 o ;CorNy;; joK eSS ,,or rraBseb  Alzl Gloves
No ;Mokm whO  jjuust waaSS teH,,R,e
;’  Ca,u..see moM ,,was aalLL,  tH at sHHeh. a,d to bE
;
Tha'Tsq n,,OT a  Wort  Hy expl;an;;tasiiOns
I k,Now t  h..Ere , iS   NNOnE
NOTTHiNg  c AN; ;MAke s  enSe of.. al,l t;;HEssE thI,NG,s I;‘ev   dOne

W  Ords fai;;l,, wORdS ffa,,a,il
T.her.e'ss nThhing I ..can. afsey
E;;xCEPTsom  etim   jUS,,tes, yy,ou see E.very  thi,,in;;g ou ; wannTE;DA
nd SOm;;mE  tim juS.tES, ,,y  ou,, see everytHi.Ng .. yOu, ..wiss,,h y,ou H,,Adc.
ANd ti’  s r  ighh.t  ;;T..Here,  ,riGht thER,,Re,,, rihG,,t  theRRe
In fRooNt ;of yoU
An,d Y,,ou ,wAn t TO .beeLIeeVhe iitt,’S ,t,rUe
So Youu… mmaeKi t,t t RU.e
;;And yyOu   think m;;ayy,,b E ,,Ever.yb..O..dyy ; w.AntS iiT
AAnDD ; n,,ee;;d;s .ii..,, a lItTle, biiT.o… too

this wAs Just  a sAD, i;;NveNptiOnI
t, wasny’t  R,,Eall,,, i   k,,noW;;
BUt wE we.re ,   Ha;;apPy
.Ig uE  ss II ,coUldn’t,, llet t..ha  att go
I gU  Ess IcoUUldn’t,, G;;iv  e htat uP

I gguEss I wAntE,,Ed ;;to ,be;;lie..vee
'Cause  if I jU;sT beL,I.evvE

tthEn    Idon’’t hha..ve , To Se..ee  WHATT’,s R..EAllL.y  tHeree.

N o, I’D raTher, px,re tevndq I’ m sg..oMEth,i,,ng ,bee,Tte.r Thhan
These   Brro ken PaRTs

Pr.eend I’.m someethIIng OTh;;er thzAn,,
T’;;his;m es S,, Thla,at  I Am
'caUUsE theN  I DD;o,,N’t hhav,,ve to ,l,,ook A;t,, it
an.d n,,no  OnEg eets t;;O  llok AAtt, it
NOO,  ,,no,, o enn cAnn  r,,e;;alLLY s  sEeE

'C'asue ;;’vE LEarned ,T,,o Sllaam; oN h,T,e  ;;br aK,,e
BeFOrE ;i ve.n t..urn    thh eKe;;y
Bt..efOre I /mmAke they mi..STTa.k e
Bef,Ore  IleAd Wi,th thE ;;worsst of M
ee. i.neVe,R . let th  hEqM seE  the w,,oRst oof ,,me

'caUse wHabTT IIf evE,ry..yone saW.W?
W[haaT If evE..r,,yooNNe kneW?,,
W.ou  ld Th;;Ey lIkpe whh,,at they, Saw?
Or  r W  oxuld t,he; YhA;te itt tOoo??,
wiLl ,,i  .just.. KKeep o,n run  niinG Awa,,y frmvO what'St ruue?

a,,l..l i.. Ev  ez,r , ..Do is rUUn
SO, hoW,, D ;OII step In..
StEp int  o tHe s,,U  n
STe,,p INttoo tHe sun

G Ü L Ü M S E M E

K A H K A H A   A T M A

G Ü L M E

A Ğ L A M A 

U M U R S A M A Z   O L M A

S O Ğ U K  O L M A

S A M İ M İ   O L M A

C İ D D İ   O L M A

M E S A F E L İ   D A V R A N M A

D E R T L E Ş M E

T E R S L E M E

S İ N İ R L E N M E

H A K S I Z L I Ğ A  K A R Ş I  G E L M E

E G O L U S U N

U K A L A S I N

Ö Z G Ü V E N   D E Ğ İ L  B U

 U T A N M A Z L I K

HADİ YA!!

S O R  M A

A R K A D A Ş  O L M A

G  A M S I Z L A Ş

G Ö R M E Z D E N   G E L M E

+18, H E R Ş E Y İ    Y U T

S U S

B E N C İ L  O L M A

K E N D İ N İ  D Ü Ş Ü N  M E

E L   D A H A   Ö N E M L İ 

E T İ K  E T  B A S T I R M A   K E N D İ N E

O R O S P U  

F A H İ Ş E

S Ü R T Ü K 

D E D İ R T M E   K E N D İ NE

S E V M E 

S Ö V M E

S U S

S U S   

İ N S A N L A R   B Ö  Y L E,

İ N S A N  O L M A K  B Ö Y L  EBİ  RŞEY MİŞ

Pronunciation:

Consonants:

Consonants in Welsh can only make one unique sound, as opposed to English which can make several sounds per consonant. For example, the c can make a k sound as in cat or a s sound as in city. When you learn the sound a consonant makes in Welsh, it will only ever make that sound you learn.

Consonant sounds same in English and Welsh:

These consonants look the same in English and Welsh, and sound the same.

b /b/ Like b in boy. Welsh example: bachgen (English: boy)

c /k/ Like c in cat. Welsh example: cath (English cat)

d /d/ Like d in dog. Welsh example: drwg (English bad)

g /g/ Like g in gun. Welsh example: gardd (English garden)

h /h/ Like h in happy. Welsh example: hen (English old)

l /l/ Like l in lake. Welsh example: calon (English heart)

m /m/ Like m in mad. Welsh example: mam (English mother)

n /n/ Like n in none. Welsh example: nain (English grandmother)

ng /ŋ/ Like the end of the English word sing. In Welsh, this letter can come at the front of a word. In Welsh, it is never pronounced with a hard g, as in the English finger. Welsh example: angau (English death)

p /p/ Like p in poker. Welsh example: pen (English head)

s /s/ Like s in sad. Welsh example: sebon (English soap)

t /t/ Like t in tar. Welsh example: tŷ (English house)

th /θ/ Like th in think. Welsh example: methu (English fail)

·         si is pronounced as in English sheep, when it comes before a vowel.

 

Consonant sounds in English, Different letter in Welsh:

These sounds are found in English, but they are assigned to a different letter in Welsh. Train yourself to read them differently now.

f /v/ Like v in violin. Welsh example: gafr (English goat)

ff /f/ Like f in friend. Welsh example: ffrind (English friend)

dd /ð/ Like th in then. Welsh example: hardd (English beautiful)

 

Consonant sounds in English, Not in Welsh:

These sounds are in English, but you will not hear them in Welsh.

The c in Welsh only makes a hard /k/ sound. It will never sound like an s, such as in the English city.

The g only makes a /g/ sound. It will never sound like an English g, like in the English gender.

The th in Welsh represents the th in English think. The dd represents the other th in English, like the word then.

There is no z sound in Welsh.

 

Consonant sounds only in Welsh:

These consonant sounds may be new to you.

ch /x/ Like the Scottish loch or German composer Bach. Welsh example: chwech (English six)

ll /ɬ/ The ll is a hard Welsh sound to make. It is best described as putting your tongue in the position of l and then blowing out air gently. Like saying a h and l simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: llyn (English lake)

r /r/ The Welsh r should always be trilled. Welsh example: ar (English on)

rh /r̥/ The Welsh rh should be trilled with aspiration. Like saying a h and r simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: rhan (English part)

 

Vowels:

There are seven vowels in Welsh. Most vowels can be two different sounds. The y can take three different sounds. 

a

e

i

o

u

w

y

Short Vowels:

·         a /a/ Like a in pat.

·         e /ɛ/ Like e in pet.

·         i /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         o /ɔ/ Like o in pot

·         u /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         w /ʊ/ As in book.

·         y /ə/ Like uh in above

The rules governing the letter Y are some of the most confusing in Welsh. Normally it’s pronounced like the u in cut, but in the last syllable of a word it represents the sound like the i in bit. Note; This includes words with only one syllable, such as llyn (hlin).

Similar rules apply for combinations of y with another letter;

·         yr is (approximately) pronounced like English burn, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like in English beer. (Both times, the r is audible, not dropped. See the preceding rule.)

·         yw is pronounced like English moan, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like the Welsh iw and uw (see below).

That just leaves the exceptions. The small words, y, yr and yn are pronounced uh, urr and un.

Dipthongs:

·         ae, ai and au /aɪ/- like English sky. (Actually, there is an exception for the last one. “au” is the plural ending for certain words, e.g. creigiau. In these cases, its pronunciation is shortened to a “hanging A”

·         aw /aʊ/ - like English cow.

·         oe (and oi and ou, which are rare) /ɔɪ/ - like English boy.

·         ei and eu and ey /əɪ/ - like nothing in English; try ‘uh-ee’ and then running the vowels together.

R:

When you see a vowel followed by an R, or a diphthong followed by an R, both the vowel and the R are pronounced; this differs from many dialects of English. The following sounds are therefore approximate, and you should make sure to pronounce the R.

·         aerair and aur - like English fire.

·         awr - like English hour.

·         er - like English bare, but shorter.

·         ir or ur (or yr in the last syllable of a word) - like English beer.

·         wr - like English poor.

Long Vowels:

·         a /ɑː/ Like a in father.

·         e /ɛː/ Like ae in aeroplane, but without any trace of an r, or a y sound between the a and the e.

·         i /iː/ Like i in machine.

·         o /ɔː/ Like aw in hawk.

·         w /uː/ Like oo in pool.

·        u and y take the same values as i does. 

·        A vowel is short if it comes in a word with more than one syllable.

So all these rules only come into play when we’re talking about one-syllable words.

·        A vowel is short if it’s followed by two consonants, if the first of the two is n or r.

·        A vowel is short if it’s in a word of one syllable and the consonant following it is any of the following; p, t, c, m, ng

·        If the vowel is a, e, o, w or y and it’s followed by l, n or r then it is also short.

·        This leaves the following options for when the vowel is long; in a word of one syllable; followed by two consonants the first of which is ll or s; either followed by no consonants, or followed by b, ch, d, dd, f, ff, g, s or th, or (if it happens to be i or u) followed by l, n or r.

A circumflex accent (the hat sign) is placed over a vowel to indicate that it’s long when you might otherwise think it was short.

Video by MyWelshTV

obrigada por 2016 ❤️

queria agradecer a todos que passaram esse ano aqui no tumblr comigo, por mais que eu nunca tenha falado com a maioria de vocês, guardo um carinho bem grande por cada um, o tumblr de vocês é maravilhoso e espero que continuemos juntos aqui por muito e muito tempo.

# @1happy @1toubledgirl @20-fazer-cocegas @277kmdevoce @4evermenteengracado
A @a-minha-doce-realidade @aapenassobrevivendo @a-ask-desaparecida @a-bitch-da-vizinha @a-culpa-nao-e-so-das-estrelas @a-culpa-e-do-ciume @a-lua-brilha-mais-que-o-sol @a-nerd-da-sala @abc-do-humor @anoteinlife @alcoolatra-de-toddynho @alien-de-calcinha @alascayoungus @agarotasempontofinal @amelh0rpartedemim @atoa-na-garoa @august-14
B @bitch-i-am-sheldon @buraco-dos-liquefeitos @b-r-o-o-k-l-y–n @b4ck-to-neverland @back-to-narnia @baconcombatatas @be-amazing-biti @behappy-0 @batatas-voadoras-de-marte @blueefeelings @brilho-dos-unicornios
C @c-isnenegro @cueca-do-avesso @c-oldcoffe @cao-dorgado @cacadora-de-jujubas @cade-meu-doritos @cade-o-crush @caguei-no-tenhado-da-sua-casa @caotizado @cala-calabresa @casada-com-os-irmaos-salvatore @cauzando-em-hogwarts @chborhogwards @chocolateaamargoo @coxinha-com-brigadeiro @coisado-bugado @comediainteligente @crucioforever @cupcakes-fotogenicos @cupid-stupid-cupid
D @darkasthedeepocean @dean-pudding @daydr3amer @demi-paciencia @declarais @desajustou @descabelou @dedosdenutella @deslumbros @diario-de-uma-garota-gorda @desfazer @did-you-say-potato @diva-da-url @dormir-comer-reblogar @doidera-doida @dreams-to-be-true @doctowho @dreaming-with-happiness
E @elevadore-s @empreguete-comendo-espaguete @eraparaserlecau @escola-de-hogwarts @emendarei @espero-te @esquilos-drogados @estranha-fotografia @esquecida-do-paraiso @eu-em-narnia @eu-estou-com-fome @euvouterumataque
F @fraquejou @falling-in-love-with-dreams @fixing-yo-u @featuring-u @flores-de-0utono @florejastando @fumando-a-dash @futura-senhora-potter
G @garotaesuasfases @garota-troll1 @garota-naci0nal @garota-dohumor @galaxia-de-flores @galaxiadesonhos @gay-is-an-understatement @giiveyourheartabreak @give-me-love-dumbass @gorda-sem-comida
H @h-4kuna-mat4ta @hannah-maconha @heart-broken-dreams @hogwarts-nao-me-mandou-carta @hogwarts-the-history @humordrug @humor-com-pizza @humoreoutras-dorgas @hhumanizando
I @i-insecure-girl @i-see-fogo @idobelieve-salvame @i-m-laughing @i-am-a-white-owl @i-saudadedevoce @i-would-give-anything-i-own @ifamintapormagreza @in-lonelyhearts-club @in-manhecer @inexpressiv-e @invocacao-dos-unicornios @is-wingardium-leviosa-idiot
J @ja-acabou-jessica @jovenflor @just-laugh-and-relax
K @keep-itclassic
L @l0st-inthoughts @ladoazuldaforca @ladradeask @lambe-meu-mamilo @laranjavoadora @like-her-soul @lights-stars @little-thing-in-my-mind @live-or-die-is-the-question
M @maravilhanaervilha @mimadjinha @minha-cartinha-de-hogwarts @mamilos-assassinos @mardsybum @m–oonlights @m-omentforlife @mais-am0r @maisuma-pequenasonhadora @maizena-com-leite @mamilos-assassinos @me-afo-gay-com-pasoca @memoriasdeumadolescente @minha-tia-nao-tem-casa @mione-intelectual @minha-fome-infinita @minha-coroa-de-papel @miss-flowerwless @morango-c0m-chantilly @morangoslistrados @mund0-ironico @much-strong3r @my-heart-br0ken @my-last-moonlight @mystupidlittleheart @my-dreams-and-hope
N @nao-sou-tuas-nega @naovivosemmusica @newtxxmas @nightinga-le @ninguem-yes-porta @nordestin-a @nutella-com-pizza
O @o-meu-pais-das-maravilhas @ohpizza @ooh-take-me-back
P @p-1-z-z-4 @p-r-o-m-i-s-ee @paleta-de-tintas @peguei-teu-brilho @peguei-seu-nariz @permanentyear @perks-of-being-a-book-thief @panda-foreveralone @pensamentosalearorios @pizza-com-canela @pizza-de-nuttela @pocahontas-de-cueca @potter-certeza @po-loir4 @potato-na-batata @ps-sonhadora
Q @quase-heroi
R @r0mantiquei @radio-via-dagem @rainha-do-brilho @reblogando-100-parar @renunciador @relaxa–na-bolacha @relaxmnw @relovando @roubaram-minha-criatividade @roubei-a-sua-ask
S @sad-angels-die @s-traightand-fast @sra-foreveralone @santa-kimkardashian @sai-dessa-vida @secretouniverse @seikaworld @simplismente-ac0nteceu @sociedade-secreta-dos-trouxas @stephanyemartins @subjetivando-tudo
T @tarisajaj @the-princess-of-dunbroch @the-gift-of-loving-you @theory-of-caos @theworstfair @thinking-oout-loud @this-could-be-uss @thunder-coffee @tia-do-sorvete @to-be-soomebody @torrada-voadora @transcreveis @trolla-me @twmydemons @trident-decanela @tudo-eu-nessa-casa @truly-madly-foolishly
U @ui-marrentinha @ui-dengosinha @uma-vampira-vegetariana @um-vampiro-rockeiro @um-estranho-so-de-passagem @uma-estranha-do-tambler @uma-nerd-abestada @uma-feiticeira-sem-chapeu @uma-idiota-de-hogwarts @uma-unicornia-lerda @un–fold @unffamous @unicornia-do-humor @unicornia-na-grifinoria @unicornia-sem-ask @unicornia-bipolar
V @v-e-r-y-c-r-a-z-y-g-i-r-l @vampira-de-pijama @vaporizou @verbamos @viagemasaturno @voejei @voldemort-no-tartaro @voldemort-no-comando @voldemort-com-nariz
W @w3lcom3-to-p4rad1se @walkerunicorn @wantedvampiree @welcome-to-the-pasquim-world @weasley-wheezy @wearelikeshootingstars
Z @zoeira-dramatica

⭐️ marquei algumas pessoas que passaram pela minha tl em 2016, gosto muito de todos e desejo tudo de bom para vocês!
❤️ desejo a todos um feliz ano novo e que o tumblr continue sendo nosso ponto de paz nessa vida tão turbulenta!

Pronunciation

External image

Consonants:

Consonants in Welsh can only make one unique sound, as opposed to English which can make several sounds per consonant. For example, the c can make a k sound as in cat or a s sound as in city. When you learn the sound a consonant makes in Welsh, it will only ever make that sound you learn.

Consonant sounds same in English and Welsh:

These consonants look the same in English and Welsh, and sound the same.

·         b /b/ Like b in boy. Welsh example: bachgen (English: boy)

·         c /k/ Like c in cat. Welsh example: cath (English cat)

·         d /d/ Like d in dog. Welsh example: drwg (English bad)

·         g /g/ Like g in gun. Welsh example: gardd (English garden)

·         h /h/ Like h in happy. Welsh example: hen (English old)

·         l /l/ Like l in lake. Welsh example: calon (English heart)

·         m /m/ Like m in mad. Welsh example: mam (English mother)

·         n /n/ Like n in none. Welsh example: nain (English grandmother)

·         ng /ŋ/ Like the end of the English word sing. In Welsh, this letter can come at the front of a word. In Welsh, it is never pronounced with a hard g, as in the English finger. Welsh example: angau (English death)

·         p /p/ Like p in poker. Welsh example: pen (English head)

·         s /s/ Like s in sad. Welsh example: sebon (English soap)

·         t /t/ Like t in tar. Welsh example: tŷ (English house)

·         th /θ/ Like th in think. Welsh example: methu (English fail)

·         si is pronounced as in English sheep, when it comes before a vowel.

 

Consonant sounds in English, Different letter in Welsh:

These sounds are found in English, but they are assigned to a different letter in Welsh. Train yourself to read them differently now.

·         f /v/ Like v in violin. Welsh example: gafr (English goat)

·         ff /f/ Like f in friend. Welsh example: ffrind (English friend)

·         dd /ð/ Like th in then. Welsh example: hardd (English beautiful)

 

Consonant sounds in English, Not in Welsh:

These sounds are in English, but you will not hear them in Welsh.

·         The c in Welsh only makes a hard /k/ sound. It will never sound like an s, such as in the English city.

·         The g only makes a /g/ sound. It will never sound like an English g, like in the English gender.

·         The th in Welsh represents the th in English think. The dd represents the other th in English, like the word then.

·         There is no z sound in Welsh.

 

Consonant sounds only in Welsh:

These consonant sounds may be new to you.

·         ch /x/ Like the Scottish loch or German composer Bach. Welsh example: chwech (English six)

·         ll /ɬ/ The ll is a hard Welsh sound to make. It is best described as putting your tongue in the position of l and then blowing out air gently. Like saying a h and l simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: llyn (English lake)

·         r /r/ The Welsh r should always be trilled. Welsh example: ar (English on)

·         rh /r̥/ The Welsh rh should be trilled with aspiration. Like saying a h and r simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: rhan (English part)

 

Vowels:

There are seven vowels in Welsh. Most vowels can be two different sounds. The y can take three different sounds. 

·         a

·         e

·         i

·         o

·         u

·         w

·         y

Short Vowels:

·         a /a/ Like a in pat.

·         e /ɛ/ Like e in pet.

·         i /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         o /ɔ/ Like o in pot

·         u /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         w /ʊ/ As in book.

·         y /ə/ Like uh in above

The rules governing the letter Y are some of the most confusing in Welsh. Normally it’s pronounced like the u in cut, but in the last syllable of a word it represents the sound like the i in bit. Note; This includes words with only one syllable, such as llyn (hlin).

Similar rules apply for combinations of y with another letter;

·         yr is (approximately) pronounced like English burn, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like in English beer. (Both times, the r is audible, not dropped. See the preceding rule.)

·         yw is pronounced like English moan, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like the Welsh iw and uw (see below).

That just leaves the exceptions. The small words, y, yr and yn are pronounced uh, urr and un.

Dipthongs:

·         ae, ai and au /aɪ/- like English sky. (Actually, there is an exception for the last one. “au” is the plural ending for certain words, e.g. creigiau. In these cases, its pronunciation is shortened to a “hanging A”

·         aw /aʊ/ - like English cow.

·         oe (and oi and ou, which are rare) /ɔɪ/ - like English boy.

·         ei and eu and ey /əɪ/ - like nothing in English; try ‘uh-ee’ and then running the vowels together.

R:

When you see a vowel followed by an R, or a diphthong followed by an R, both the vowel and the R are pronounced; this differs from many dialects of English. The following sounds are therefore approximate, and you should make sure to pronounce the R.

·         aerair and aur - like English fire.

·         awr - like English hour.

·         er - like English bare, but shorter.

·         ir or ur (or yr in the last syllable of a word) - like English beer.

·         wr - like English poor.

Long Vowels:

·         a /ɑː/ Like a in father.

·         e /ɛː/ Like ae in aeroplane, but without any trace of an r, or a y sound between the a and the e.

·         i /iː/ Like i in machine.

·         o /ɔː/ Like aw in hawk.

·         w /uː/ Like oo in pool.

·        u and y take the same values as i does. 

·        A vowel is short if it comes in a word with more than one syllable.

So all these rules only come into play when we’re talking about one-syllable words.

·        A vowel is short if it’s followed by two consonants, if the first of the two is n or r.

·        A vowel is short if it’s in a word of one syllable and the consonant following it is any of the following; p, t, c, m, ng

·        If the vowel is a, e, o, w or y and it’s followed by l, n or r then it is also short.

·        This leaves the following options for when the vowel is long; in a word of one syllable; followed by two consonants the first of which is ll or s; either followed by no consonants, or followed by b, ch, d, dd, f, ff, g, s or th, or (if it happens to be i or u) followed by l, n or r.

A circumflex accent (the hat sign) is placed over a vowel to indicate that it’s long when you might otherwise think it was short.

Pronunciation

External image

Consonants:

Consonants in Welsh can only make one unique sound, as opposed to English which can make several sounds per consonant. For example, the c can make a k sound as in cat or a s sound as in city. When you learn the sound a consonant makes in Welsh, it will only ever make that sound you learn.

Consonant sounds same in English and Welsh:

These consonants look the same in English and Welsh, and sound the same.

·         b /b/ Like b in boy. Welsh example: bachgen (English: boy)

·         c /k/ Like c in cat. Welsh example: cath (English cat)

·         d /d/ Like d in dog. Welsh example: drwg (English bad)

·         g /g/ Like g in gun. Welsh example: gardd (English garden)

·         h /h/ Like h in happy. Welsh example: hen (English old)

·         l /l/ Like l in lake. Welsh example: calon (English heart)

·         m /m/ Like m in mad. Welsh example: mam (English mother)

·         n /n/ Like n in none. Welsh example: nain (English grandmother)

·         ng /ŋ/ Like the end of the English word sing. In Welsh, this letter can come at the front of a word. In Welsh, it is never pronounced with a hard g, as in the English finger. Welsh example: angau (English death)

·         p /p/ Like p in poker. Welsh example: pen (English head)

·         s /s/ Like s in sad. Welsh example: sebon (English soap)

·         t /t/ Like t in tar. Welsh example: tŷ (English house)

·         th /θ/ Like th in think. Welsh example: methu (English fail)

·         si is pronounced as in English sheep, when it comes before a vowel.

 

Consonant sounds in English, Different letter in Welsh:

These sounds are found in English, but they are assigned to a different letter in Welsh. Train yourself to read them differently now.

·         f /v/ Like v in violin. Welsh example: gafr (English goat)

·         ff /f/ Like f in friend. Welsh example: ffrind (English friend)

·         dd /ð/ Like th in then. Welsh example: hardd (English beautiful)

 

Consonant sounds in English, Not in Welsh:

These sounds are in English, but you will not hear them in Welsh.

·         The c in Welsh only makes a hard /k/ sound. It will never sound like an s, such as in the English city.

·         The g only makes a /g/ sound. It will never sound like an English g, like in the English gender.

·         The th in Welsh represents the th in English think. The dd represents the other th in English, like the word then.

·         There is no z sound in Welsh.

 

Consonant sounds only in Welsh:

These consonant sounds may be new to you.

·         ch /x/ Like the Scottish loch or German composer Bach. Welsh example: chwech (English six)

·         ll /ɬ/ The ll is a hard Welsh sound to make. It is best described as putting your tongue in the position of l and then blowing out air gently. Like saying a h and l simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: llyn (English lake)

·         r /r/ The Welsh r should always be trilled. Welsh example: ar (English on)

·         rh /r̥/ The Welsh rh should be trilled with aspiration. Like saying a h and r simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: rhan (English part)

 

Vowels:

There are seven vowels in Welsh. Most vowels can be two different sounds. The y can take three different sounds. 

·         a

·         e

·         i

·         o

·         u

·         w

·         y

Short Vowels:

·         a /a/ Like a in pat.

·         e /ɛ/ Like e in pet.

·         i /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         o /ɔ/ Like o in pot

·         u /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         w /ʊ/ As in book.

·         y /ə/ Like uh in above

The rules governing the letter Y are some of the most confusing in Welsh. Normally it’s pronounced like the u in cut, but in the last syllable of a word it represents the sound like the i in bit. Note; This includes words with only one syllable, such as llyn (hlin).

Similar rules apply for combinations of y with another letter;

·         yr is (approximately) pronounced like English burn, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like in English beer. (Both times, the r is audible, not dropped. See the preceding rule.)

·         yw is pronounced like English moan, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like the Welsh iw and uw (see below).

That just leaves the exceptions. The small words, y, yr and yn are pronounced uh, urr and un.

Dipthongs:

·         ae, ai and au /aɪ/- like English sky. (Actually, there is an exception for the last one. “au” is the plural ending for certain words, e.g. creigiau. In these cases, its pronunciation is shortened to a “hanging A”

·         aw /aʊ/ - like English cow.

·         oe (and oi and ou, which are rare) /ɔɪ/ - like English boy.

·         ei and eu and ey /əɪ/ - like nothing in English; try ‘uh-ee’ and then running the vowels together.

R:

When you see a vowel followed by an R, or a diphthong followed by an R, both the vowel and the R are pronounced; this differs from many dialects of English. The following sounds are therefore approximate, and you should make sure to pronounce the R.

·         aerair and aur - like English fire.

·         awr - like English hour.

·         er - like English bare, but shorter.

·         ir or ur (or yr in the last syllable of a word) - like English beer.

·         wr - like English poor.

Long Vowels:

·         a /ɑː/ Like a in father.

·         e /ɛː/ Like ae in aeroplane, but without any trace of an r, or a y sound between the a and the e.

·         i /iː/ Like i in machine.

·         o /ɔː/ Like aw in hawk.

·         w /uː/ Like oo in pool.

·        u and y take the same values as i does. 

·        A vowel is short if it comes in a word with more than one syllable.

So all these rules only come into play when we’re talking about one-syllable words.

·        A vowel is short if it’s followed by two consonants, if the first of the two is n or r.

·        A vowel is short if it’s in a word of one syllable and the consonant following it is any of the following; p, t, c, m, ng

·        If the vowel is a, e, o, w or y and it’s followed by l, n or r then it is also short.

·        This leaves the following options for when the vowel is long; in a word of one syllable; followed by two consonants the first of which is ll or s; either followed by no consonants, or followed by b, ch, d, dd, f, ff, g, s or th, or (if it happens to be i or u) followed by l, n or r.

A circumflex accent (the hat sign) is placed over a vowel to indicate that it’s long when you might otherwise think it was short.

Pronunciation

External image

Consonants:

Consonants in Welsh can only make one unique sound, as opposed to English which can make several sounds per consonant. For example, the c can make a k sound as in cat or a s sound as in city. When you learn the sound a consonant makes in Welsh, it will only ever make that sound you learn.

Consonant sounds same in English and Welsh:

These consonants look the same in English and Welsh, and sound the same.

·         b /b/ Like b in boy. Welsh example: bachgen (English: boy)

·         c /k/ Like c in cat. Welsh example: cath (English cat)

·         d /d/ Like d in dog. Welsh example: drwg (English bad)

·         g /g/ Like g in gun. Welsh example: gardd (English garden)

·         h /h/ Like h in happy. Welsh example: hen (English old)

·         l /l/ Like l in lake. Welsh example: calon (English heart)

·         m /m/ Like m in mad. Welsh example: mam (English mother)

·         n /n/ Like n in none. Welsh example: nain (English grandmother)

·         ng /ŋ/ Like the end of the English word sing. In Welsh, this letter can come at the front of a word. In Welsh, it is never pronounced with a hard g, as in the English finger. Welsh example: angau (English death)

·         p /p/ Like p in poker. Welsh example: pen (English head)

·         s /s/ Like s in sad. Welsh example: sebon (English soap)

·         t /t/ Like t in tar. Welsh example: tŷ (English house)

·         th /θ/ Like th in think. Welsh example: methu (English fail)

·         si is pronounced as in English sheep, when it comes before a vowel.

 

Consonant sounds in English, Different letter in Welsh:

These sounds are found in English, but they are assigned to a different letter in Welsh. Train yourself to read them differently now.

·         f /v/ Like v in violin. Welsh example: gafr (English goat)

·         ff /f/ Like f in friend. Welsh example: ffrind (English friend)

·         dd /ð/ Like th in then. Welsh example: hardd (English beautiful)

 

Consonant sounds in English, Not in Welsh:

These sounds are in English, but you will not hear them in Welsh.

·         The c in Welsh only makes a hard /k/ sound. It will never sound like an s, such as in the English city.

·         The g only makes a /g/ sound. It will never sound like an English g, like in the English gender.

·         The th in Welsh represents the th in English think. The dd represents the other th in English, like the word then.

·         There is no z sound in Welsh.

 

Consonant sounds only in Welsh:

These consonant sounds may be new to you.

·         ch /x/ Like the Scottish loch or German composer Bach. Welsh example: chwech (English six)

·         ll /ɬ/ The ll is a hard Welsh sound to make. It is best described as putting your tongue in the position of l and then blowing out air gently. Like saying a h and l simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: llyn (English lake)

·         r /r/ The Welsh r should always be trilled. Welsh example: ar (English on)

·         rh /r̥/ The Welsh rh should be trilled with aspiration. Like saying a h and r simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: rhan (English part)

 

Vowels:

There are seven vowels in Welsh. Most vowels can be two different sounds. The y can take three different sounds. 

·         a

·         e

·         i

·         o

·         u

·         w

·         y

Short Vowels:

·         a /a/ Like a in pat.

·         e /ɛ/ Like e in pet.

·         i /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         o /ɔ/ Like o in pot

·         u /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         w /ʊ/ As in book.

·         y /ə/ Like uh in above

The rules governing the letter Y are some of the most confusing in Welsh. Normally it’s pronounced like the u in cut, but in the last syllable of a word it represents the sound like the i in bit. Note; This includes words with only one syllable, such as llyn (hlin).

Similar rules apply for combinations of y with another letter;

·         yr is (approximately) pronounced like English burn, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like in English beer. (Both times, the r is audible, not dropped. See the preceding rule.)

·         yw is pronounced like English moan, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like the Welsh iw and uw (see below).

That just leaves the exceptions. The small words, y, yr and yn are pronounced uh, urr and un.

Dipthongs:

·         ae, ai and au /aɪ/- like English sky. (Actually, there is an exception for the last one. “au” is the plural ending for certain words, e.g. creigiau. In these cases, its pronunciation is shortened to a “hanging A”

·         aw /aʊ/ - like English cow.

·         oe (and oi and ou, which are rare) /ɔɪ/ - like English boy.

·         ei and eu and ey /əɪ/ - like nothing in English; try ‘uh-ee’ and then running the vowels together.

R:

When you see a vowel followed by an R, or a diphthong followed by an R, both the vowel and the R are pronounced; this differs from many dialects of English. The following sounds are therefore approximate, and you should make sure to pronounce the R.

·         aerair and aur - like English fire.

·         awr - like English hour.

·         er - like English bare, but shorter.

·         ir or ur (or yr in the last syllable of a word) - like English beer.

·         wr - like English poor.

Long Vowels:

·         a /ɑː/ Like a in father.

·         e /ɛː/ Like ae in aeroplane, but without any trace of an r, or a y sound between the a and the e.

·         i /iː/ Like i in machine.

·         o /ɔː/ Like aw in hawk.

·         w /uː/ Like oo in pool.

·        u and y take the same values as i does. 

·        A vowel is short if it comes in a word with more than one syllable.

So all these rules only come into play when we’re talking about one-syllable words.

·        A vowel is short if it’s followed by two consonants, if the first of the two is n or r.

·        A vowel is short if it’s in a word of one syllable and the consonant following it is any of the following; p, t, c, m, ng

·        If the vowel is a, e, o, w or y and it’s followed by l, n or r then it is also short.

·        This leaves the following options for when the vowel is long; in a word of one syllable; followed by two consonants the first of which is ll or s; either followed by no consonants, or followed by b, ch, d, dd, f, ff, g, s or th, or (if it happens to be i or u) followed by l, n or r.

A circumflex accent (the hat sign) is placed over a vowel to indicate that it’s long when you might otherwise think it was short.

Pronunciation

External image

Consonants:

Consonants in Welsh can only make one unique sound, as opposed to English which can make several sounds per consonant. For example, the c can make a k sound as in cat or a s sound as in city. When you learn the sound a consonant makes in Welsh, it will only ever make that sound you learn.

Consonant sounds same in English and Welsh:

These consonants look the same in English and Welsh, and sound the same.

·         b /b/ Like b in boy. Welsh example: bachgen (English: boy)

·         c /k/ Like c in cat. Welsh example: cath (English cat)

·         d /d/ Like d in dog. Welsh example: drwg (English bad)

·         g /g/ Like g in gun. Welsh example: gardd (English garden)

·         h /h/ Like h in happy. Welsh example: hen (English old)

·         l /l/ Like l in lake. Welsh example: calon (English heart)

·         m /m/ Like m in mad. Welsh example: mam (English mother)

·         n /n/ Like n in none. Welsh example: nain (English grandmother)

·         ng /ŋ/ Like the end of the English word sing. In Welsh, this letter can come at the front of a word. In Welsh, it is never pronounced with a hard g, as in the English finger. Welsh example: angau (English death)

·         p /p/ Like p in poker. Welsh example: pen (English head)

·         s /s/ Like s in sad. Welsh example: sebon (English soap)

·         t /t/ Like t in tar. Welsh example: tŷ (English house)

·         th /θ/ Like th in think. Welsh example: methu (English fail)

·         si is pronounced as in English sheep, when it comes before a vowel.

 

Consonant sounds in English, Different letter in Welsh:

These sounds are found in English, but they are assigned to a different letter in Welsh. Train yourself to read them differently now.

·         f /v/ Like v in violin. Welsh example: gafr (English goat)

·         ff /f/ Like f in friend. Welsh example: ffrind (English friend)

·         dd /ð/ Like th in then. Welsh example: hardd (English beautiful)

 

Consonant sounds in English, Not in Welsh:

These sounds are in English, but you will not hear them in Welsh.

·         The c in Welsh only makes a hard /k/ sound. It will never sound like an s, such as in the English city.

·         The g only makes a /g/ sound. It will never sound like an English g, like in the English gender.

·         The th in Welsh represents the th in English think. The dd represents the other th in English, like the word then.

·         There is no z sound in Welsh.

 

Consonant sounds only in Welsh:

These consonant sounds may be new to you.

·         ch /x/ Like the Scottish loch or German composer Bach. Welsh example: chwech (English six)

·         ll /ɬ/ The ll is a hard Welsh sound to make. It is best described as putting your tongue in the position of l and then blowing out air gently. Like saying a h and l simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: llyn (English lake)

·         r /r/ The Welsh r should always be trilled. Welsh example: ar (English on)

·         rh /r̥/ The Welsh rh should be trilled with aspiration. Like saying a h and r simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: rhan (English part)

 

Vowels:

There are seven vowels in Welsh. Most vowels can be two different sounds. The y can take three different sounds. 

·         a

·         e

·         i

·         o

·         u

·         w

·         y

Short Vowels:

·         a /a/ Like a in pat.

·         e /ɛ/ Like e in pet.

·         i /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         o /ɔ/ Like o in pot

·         u /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         w /ʊ/ As in book.

·         y /ə/ Like uh in above

The rules governing the letter Y are some of the most confusing in Welsh. Normally it’s pronounced like the u in cut, but in the last syllable of a word it represents the sound like the i in bit. Note; This includes words with only one syllable, such as llyn (hlin).

Similar rules apply for combinations of y with another letter;

·         yr is (approximately) pronounced like English burn, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like in English beer. (Both times, the r is audible, not dropped. See the preceding rule.)

·         yw is pronounced like English moan, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like the Welsh iw and uw (see below).

That just leaves the exceptions. The small words, y, yr and yn are pronounced uh, urr and un.

Dipthongs:

·         ae, ai and au /aɪ/- like English sky. (Actually, there is an exception for the last one. “au” is the plural ending for certain words, e.g. creigiau. In these cases, its pronunciation is shortened to a “hanging A”

·         aw /aʊ/ - like English cow.

·         oe (and oi and ou, which are rare) /ɔɪ/ - like English boy.

·         ei and eu and ey /əɪ/ - like nothing in English; try ‘uh-ee’ and then running the vowels together.

R:

When you see a vowel followed by an R, or a diphthong followed by an R, both the vowel and the R are pronounced; this differs from many dialects of English. The following sounds are therefore approximate, and you should make sure to pronounce the R.

·         aerair and aur - like English fire.

·         awr - like English hour.

·         er - like English bare, but shorter.

·         ir or ur (or yr in the last syllable of a word) - like English beer.

·         wr - like English poor.

Long Vowels:

·         a /ɑː/ Like a in father.

·         e /ɛː/ Like ae in aeroplane, but without any trace of an r, or a y sound between the a and the e.

·         i /iː/ Like i in machine.

·         o /ɔː/ Like aw in hawk.

·         w /uː/ Like oo in pool.

·        u and y take the same values as i does. 

·        A vowel is short if it comes in a word with more than one syllable.

So all these rules only come into play when we’re talking about one-syllable words.

·        A vowel is short if it’s followed by two consonants, if the first of the two is n or r.

·        A vowel is short if it’s in a word of one syllable and the consonant following it is any of the following; p, t, c, m, ng

·        If the vowel is a, e, o, w or y and it’s followed by l, n or r then it is also short.

·        This leaves the following options for when the vowel is long; in a word of one syllable; followed by two consonants the first of which is ll or s; either followed by no consonants, or followed by b, ch, d, dd, f, ff, g, s or th, or (if it happens to be i or u) followed by l, n or r.

A circumflex accent (the hat sign) is placed over a vowel to indicate that it’s long when you might otherwise think it was short.

Pronunciation

External image

Consonants:

Consonants in Welsh can only make one unique sound, as opposed to English which can make several sounds per consonant. For example, the c can make a k sound as in cat or a s sound as in city. When you learn the sound a consonant makes in Welsh, it will only ever make that sound you learn.

Consonant sounds same in English and Welsh:

These consonants look the same in English and Welsh, and sound the same.

·         b /b/ Like b in boy. Welsh example: bachgen (English: boy)

·         c /k/ Like c in cat. Welsh example: cath (English cat)

·         d /d/ Like d in dog. Welsh example: drwg (English bad)

·         g /g/ Like g in gun. Welsh example: gardd (English garden)

·         h /h/ Like h in happy. Welsh example: hen (English old)

·         l /l/ Like l in lake. Welsh example: calon (English heart)

·         m /m/ Like m in mad. Welsh example: mam (English mother)

·         n /n/ Like n in none. Welsh example: nain (English grandmother)

·         ng /ŋ/ Like the end of the English word sing. In Welsh, this letter can come at the front of a word. In Welsh, it is never pronounced with a hard g, as in the English finger. Welsh example: angau (English death)

·         p /p/ Like p in poker. Welsh example: pen (English head)

·         s /s/ Like s in sad. Welsh example: sebon (English soap)

·         t /t/ Like t in tar. Welsh example: tŷ (English house)

·         th /θ/ Like th in think. Welsh example: methu (English fail)

·         si is pronounced as in English sheep, when it comes before a vowel.

 

Consonant sounds in English, Different letter in Welsh:

These sounds are found in English, but they are assigned to a different letter in Welsh. Train yourself to read them differently now.

·         f /v/ Like v in violin. Welsh example: gafr (English goat)

·         ff /f/ Like f in friend. Welsh example: ffrind (English friend)

·         dd /ð/ Like th in then. Welsh example: hardd (English beautiful)

 

Consonant sounds in English, Not in Welsh:

These sounds are in English, but you will not hear them in Welsh.

·         The c in Welsh only makes a hard /k/ sound. It will never sound like an s, such as in the English city.

·         The g only makes a /g/ sound. It will never sound like an English g, like in the English gender.

·         The th in Welsh represents the th in English think. The dd represents the other th in English, like the word then.

·         There is no z sound in Welsh.

 

Consonant sounds only in Welsh:

These consonant sounds may be new to you.

·         ch /x/ Like the Scottish loch or German composer Bach. Welsh example: chwech (English six)

·         ll /ɬ/ The ll is a hard Welsh sound to make. It is best described as putting your tongue in the position of l and then blowing out air gently. Like saying a h and l simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: llyn (English lake)

·         r /r/ The Welsh r should always be trilled. Welsh example: ar (English on)

·         rh /r̥/ The Welsh rh should be trilled with aspiration. Like saying a h and r simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: rhan (English part)

 

Vowels:

There are seven vowels in Welsh. Most vowels can be two different sounds. The y can take three different sounds. 

·         a

·         e

·         i

·         o

·         u

·         w

·         y

Short Vowels:

·         a /a/ Like a in pat.

·         e /ɛ/ Like e in pet.

·         i /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         o /ɔ/ Like o in pot

·         u /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         w /ʊ/ As in book.

·         y /ə/ Like uh in above

The rules governing the letter Y are some of the most confusing in Welsh. Normally it’s pronounced like the u in cut, but in the last syllable of a word it represents the sound like the i in bit. Note; This includes words with only one syllable, such as llyn (hlin).

Similar rules apply for combinations of y with another letter;

·         yr is (approximately) pronounced like English burn, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like in English beer. (Both times, the r is audible, not dropped. See the preceding rule.)

·         yw is pronounced like English moan, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like the Welsh iw and uw (see below).

That just leaves the exceptions. The small words, y, yr and yn are pronounced uh, urr and un.

Dipthongs:

·         ae, ai and au /aɪ/- like English sky. (Actually, there is an exception for the last one. “au” is the plural ending for certain words, e.g. creigiau. In these cases, its pronunciation is shortened to a “hanging A”

·         aw /aʊ/ - like English cow.

·         oe (and oi and ou, which are rare) /ɔɪ/ - like English boy.

·         ei and eu and ey /əɪ/ - like nothing in English; try ‘uh-ee’ and then running the vowels together.

R:

When you see a vowel followed by an R, or a diphthong followed by an R, both the vowel and the R are pronounced; this differs from many dialects of English. The following sounds are therefore approximate, and you should make sure to pronounce the R.

·         aerair and aur - like English fire.

·         awr - like English hour.

·         er - like English bare, but shorter.

·         ir or ur (or yr in the last syllable of a word) - like English beer.

·         wr - like English poor.

Long Vowels:

·         a /ɑː/ Like a in father.

·         e /ɛː/ Like ae in aeroplane, but without any trace of an r, or a y sound between the a and the e.

·         i /iː/ Like i in machine.

·         o /ɔː/ Like aw in hawk.

·         w /uː/ Like oo in pool.

·        u and y take the same values as i does. 

·        A vowel is short if it comes in a word with more than one syllable.

So all these rules only come into play when we’re talking about one-syllable words.

·        A vowel is short if it’s followed by two consonants, if the first of the two is n or r.

·        A vowel is short if it’s in a word of one syllable and the consonant following it is any of the following; p, t, c, m, ng

·        If the vowel is a, e, o, w or y and it’s followed by l, n or r then it is also short.

·        This leaves the following options for when the vowel is long; in a word of one syllable; followed by two consonants the first of which is ll or s; either followed by no consonants, or followed by b, ch, d, dd, f, ff, g, s or th, or (if it happens to be i or u) followed by l, n or r.

A circumflex accent (the hat sign) is placed over a vowel to indicate that it’s long when you might otherwise think it was short.

Pronunciation

External image

Consonants:

Consonants in Welsh can only make one unique sound, as opposed to English which can make several sounds per consonant. For example, the c can make a k sound as in cat or a s sound as in city. When you learn the sound a consonant makes in Welsh, it will only ever make that sound you learn.

Consonant sounds same in English and Welsh:

These consonants look the same in English and Welsh, and sound the same.

·         b /b/ Like b in boy. Welsh example: bachgen (English: boy)

·         c /k/ Like c in cat. Welsh example: cath (English cat)

·         d /d/ Like d in dog. Welsh example: drwg (English bad)

·         g /g/ Like g in gun. Welsh example: gardd (English garden)

·         h /h/ Like h in happy. Welsh example: hen (English old)

·         l /l/ Like l in lake. Welsh example: calon (English heart)

·         m /m/ Like m in mad. Welsh example: mam (English mother)

·         n /n/ Like n in none. Welsh example: nain (English grandmother)

·         ng /ŋ/ Like the end of the English word sing. In Welsh, this letter can come at the front of a word. In Welsh, it is never pronounced with a hard g, as in the English finger. Welsh example: angau (English death)

·         p /p/ Like p in poker. Welsh example: pen (English head)

·         s /s/ Like s in sad. Welsh example: sebon (English soap)

·         t /t/ Like t in tar. Welsh example: tŷ (English house)

·         th /θ/ Like th in think. Welsh example: methu (English fail)

·         si is pronounced as in English sheep, when it comes before a vowel.

 

Consonant sounds in English, Different letter in Welsh:

These sounds are found in English, but they are assigned to a different letter in Welsh. Train yourself to read them differently now.

·         f /v/ Like v in violin. Welsh example: gafr (English goat)

·         ff /f/ Like f in friend. Welsh example: ffrind (English friend)

·         dd /ð/ Like th in then. Welsh example: hardd (English beautiful)

 

Consonant sounds in English, Not in Welsh:

These sounds are in English, but you will not hear them in Welsh.

·         The c in Welsh only makes a hard /k/ sound. It will never sound like an s, such as in the English city.

·         The g only makes a /g/ sound. It will never sound like an English g, like in the English gender.

·         The th in Welsh represents the th in English think. The dd represents the other th in English, like the word then.

·         There is no z sound in Welsh.

 

Consonant sounds only in Welsh:

These consonant sounds may be new to you.

·         ch /x/ Like the Scottish loch or German composer Bach. Welsh example: chwech (English six)

·         ll /ɬ/ The ll is a hard Welsh sound to make. It is best described as putting your tongue in the position of l and then blowing out air gently. Like saying a h and l simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: llyn (English lake)

·         r /r/ The Welsh r should always be trilled. Welsh example: ar (English on)

·         rh /r̥/ The Welsh rh should be trilled with aspiration. Like saying a h and r simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: rhan (English part)

 

Vowels:

There are seven vowels in Welsh. Most vowels can be two different sounds. The y can take three different sounds. 

·         a

·         e

·         i

·         o

·         u

·         w

·         y

Short Vowels:

·         a /a/ Like a in pat.

·         e /ɛ/ Like e in pet.

·         i /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         o /ɔ/ Like o in pot

·         u /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         w /ʊ/ As in book.

·         y /ə/ Like uh in above

The rules governing the letter Y are some of the most confusing in Welsh. Normally it’s pronounced like the u in cut, but in the last syllable of a word it represents the sound like the i in bit. Note; This includes words with only one syllable, such as llyn (hlin).

Similar rules apply for combinations of y with another letter;

·         yr is (approximately) pronounced like English burn, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like in English beer. (Both times, the r is audible, not dropped. See the preceding rule.)

·         yw is pronounced like English moan, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like the Welsh iw and uw (see below).

That just leaves the exceptions. The small words, y, yr and yn are pronounced uh, urr and un.

Dipthongs:

·         ae, ai and au /aɪ/- like English sky. (Actually, there is an exception for the last one. “au” is the plural ending for certain words, e.g. creigiau. In these cases, its pronunciation is shortened to a “hanging A”

·         aw /aʊ/ - like English cow.

·         oe (and oi and ou, which are rare) /ɔɪ/ - like English boy.

·         ei and eu and ey /əɪ/ - like nothing in English; try ‘uh-ee’ and then running the vowels together.

R:

When you see a vowel followed by an R, or a diphthong followed by an R, both the vowel and the R are pronounced; this differs from many dialects of English. The following sounds are therefore approximate, and you should make sure to pronounce the R.

·         aerair and aur - like English fire.

·         awr - like English hour.

·         er - like English bare, but shorter.

·         ir or ur (or yr in the last syllable of a word) - like English beer.

·         wr - like English poor.

Long Vowels:

·         a /ɑː/ Like a in father.

·         e /ɛː/ Like ae in aeroplane, but without any trace of an r, or a y sound between the a and the e.

·         i /iː/ Like i in machine.

·         o /ɔː/ Like aw in hawk.

·         w /uː/ Like oo in pool.

·        u and y take the same values as i does. 

·        A vowel is short if it comes in a word with more than one syllable.

So all these rules only come into play when we’re talking about one-syllable words.

·        A vowel is short if it’s followed by two consonants, if the first of the two is n or r.

·        A vowel is short if it’s in a word of one syllable and the consonant following it is any of the following; p, t, c, m, ng

·        If the vowel is a, e, o, w or y and it’s followed by l, n or r then it is also short.

·        This leaves the following options for when the vowel is long; in a word of one syllable; followed by two consonants the first of which is ll or s; either followed by no consonants, or followed by b, ch, d, dd, f, ff, g, s or th, or (if it happens to be i or u) followed by l, n or r.

A circumflex accent (the hat sign) is placed over a vowel to indicate that it’s long when you might otherwise think it was short.

Pronunciation

External image

Consonants:

Consonants in Welsh can only make one unique sound, as opposed to English which can make several sounds per consonant. For example, the c can make a k sound as in cat or a s sound as in city. When you learn the sound a consonant makes in Welsh, it will only ever make that sound you learn.

Consonant sounds same in English and Welsh:

These consonants look the same in English and Welsh, and sound the same.

·         b /b/ Like b in boy. Welsh example: bachgen (English: boy)

·         c /k/ Like c in cat. Welsh example: cath (English cat)

·         d /d/ Like d in dog. Welsh example: drwg (English bad)

·         g /g/ Like g in gun. Welsh example: gardd (English garden)

·         h /h/ Like h in happy. Welsh example: hen (English old)

·         l /l/ Like l in lake. Welsh example: calon (English heart)

·         m /m/ Like m in mad. Welsh example: mam (English mother)

·         n /n/ Like n in none. Welsh example: nain (English grandmother)

·         ng /ŋ/ Like the end of the English word sing. In Welsh, this letter can come at the front of a word. In Welsh, it is never pronounced with a hard g, as in the English finger. Welsh example: angau (English death)

·         p /p/ Like p in poker. Welsh example: pen (English head)

·         s /s/ Like s in sad. Welsh example: sebon (English soap)

·         t /t/ Like t in tar. Welsh example: tŷ (English house)

·         th /θ/ Like th in think. Welsh example: methu (English fail)

·         si is pronounced as in English sheep, when it comes before a vowel.

 

Consonant sounds in English, Different letter in Welsh:

These sounds are found in English, but they are assigned to a different letter in Welsh. Train yourself to read them differently now.

·         f /v/ Like v in violin. Welsh example: gafr (English goat)

·         ff /f/ Like f in friend. Welsh example: ffrind (English friend)

·         dd /ð/ Like th in then. Welsh example: hardd (English beautiful)

 

Consonant sounds in English, Not in Welsh:

These sounds are in English, but you will not hear them in Welsh.

·         The c in Welsh only makes a hard /k/ sound. It will never sound like an s, such as in the English city.

·         The g only makes a /g/ sound. It will never sound like an English g, like in the English gender.

·         The th in Welsh represents the th in English think. The dd represents the other th in English, like the word then.

·         There is no z sound in Welsh.

 

Consonant sounds only in Welsh:

These consonant sounds may be new to you.

·         ch /x/ Like the Scottish loch or German composer Bach. Welsh example: chwech (English six)

·         ll /ɬ/ The ll is a hard Welsh sound to make. It is best described as putting your tongue in the position of l and then blowing out air gently. Like saying a h and l simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: llyn (English lake)

·         r /r/ The Welsh r should always be trilled. Welsh example: ar (English on)

·         rh /r̥/ The Welsh rh should be trilled with aspiration. Like saying a h and r simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: rhan (English part)

 

Vowels:

There are seven vowels in Welsh. Most vowels can be two different sounds. The y can take three different sounds. 

·         a

·         e

·         i

·         o

·         u

·         w

·         y

Short Vowels:

·         a /a/ Like a in pat.

·         e /ɛ/ Like e in pet.

·         i /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         o /ɔ/ Like o in pot

·         u /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         w /ʊ/ As in book.

·         y /ə/ Like uh in above

The rules governing the letter Y are some of the most confusing in Welsh. Normally it’s pronounced like the u in cut, but in the last syllable of a word it represents the sound like the i in bit. Note; This includes words with only one syllable, such as llyn (hlin).

Similar rules apply for combinations of y with another letter;

·         yr is (approximately) pronounced like English burn, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like in English beer. (Both times, the r is audible, not dropped. See the preceding rule.)

·         yw is pronounced like English moan, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like the Welsh iw and uw (see below).

That just leaves the exceptions. The small words, y, yr and yn are pronounced uh, urr and un.

Dipthongs:

·         ae, ai and au /aɪ/- like English sky. (Actually, there is an exception for the last one. “au” is the plural ending for certain words, e.g. creigiau. In these cases, its pronunciation is shortened to a “hanging A”

·         aw /aʊ/ - like English cow.

·         oe (and oi and ou, which are rare) /ɔɪ/ - like English boy.

·         ei and eu and ey /əɪ/ - like nothing in English; try ‘uh-ee’ and then running the vowels together.

R:

When you see a vowel followed by an R, or a diphthong followed by an R, both the vowel and the R are pronounced; this differs from many dialects of English. The following sounds are therefore approximate, and you should make sure to pronounce the R.

·         aerair and aur - like English fire.

·         awr - like English hour.

·         er - like English bare, but shorter.

·         ir or ur (or yr in the last syllable of a word) - like English beer.

·         wr - like English poor.

Long Vowels:

·         a /ɑː/ Like a in father.

·         e /ɛː/ Like ae in aeroplane, but without any trace of an r, or a y sound between the a and the e.

·         i /iː/ Like i in machine.

·         o /ɔː/ Like aw in hawk.

·         w /uː/ Like oo in pool.

·        u and y take the same values as i does. 

·        A vowel is short if it comes in a word with more than one syllable.

So all these rules only come into play when we’re talking about one-syllable words.

·        A vowel is short if it’s followed by two consonants, if the first of the two is n or r.

·        A vowel is short if it’s in a word of one syllable and the consonant following it is any of the following; p, t, c, m, ng

·        If the vowel is a, e, o, w or y and it’s followed by l, n or r then it is also short.

·        This leaves the following options for when the vowel is long; in a word of one syllable; followed by two consonants the first of which is ll or s; either followed by no consonants, or followed by b, ch, d, dd, f, ff, g, s or th, or (if it happens to be i or u) followed by l, n or r.

A circumflex accent (the hat sign) is placed over a vowel to indicate that it’s long when you might otherwise think it was short.

Pronunciation

External image

Consonants:

Consonants in Welsh can only make one unique sound, as opposed to English which can make several sounds per consonant. For example, the c can make a k sound as in cat or a s sound as in city. When you learn the sound a consonant makes in Welsh, it will only ever make that sound you learn.

Consonant sounds same in English and Welsh:

These consonants look the same in English and Welsh, and sound the same.

·         b /b/ Like b in boy. Welsh example: bachgen (English: boy)

·         c /k/ Like c in cat. Welsh example: cath (English cat)

·         d /d/ Like d in dog. Welsh example: drwg (English bad)

·         g /g/ Like g in gun. Welsh example: gardd (English garden)

·         h /h/ Like h in happy. Welsh example: hen (English old)

·         l /l/ Like l in lake. Welsh example: calon (English heart)

·         m /m/ Like m in mad. Welsh example: mam (English mother)

·         n /n/ Like n in none. Welsh example: nain (English grandmother)

·         ng /ŋ/ Like the end of the English word sing. In Welsh, this letter can come at the front of a word. In Welsh, it is never pronounced with a hard g, as in the English finger. Welsh example: angau (English death)

·         p /p/ Like p in poker. Welsh example: pen (English head)

·         s /s/ Like s in sad. Welsh example: sebon (English soap)

·         t /t/ Like t in tar. Welsh example: tŷ (English house)

·         th /θ/ Like th in think. Welsh example: methu (English fail)

·         si is pronounced as in English sheep, when it comes before a vowel.

 

Consonant sounds in English, Different letter in Welsh:

These sounds are found in English, but they are assigned to a different letter in Welsh. Train yourself to read them differently now.

·         f /v/ Like v in violin. Welsh example: gafr (English goat)

·         ff /f/ Like f in friend. Welsh example: ffrind (English friend)

·         dd /ð/ Like th in then. Welsh example: hardd (English beautiful)

 

Consonant sounds in English, Not in Welsh:

These sounds are in English, but you will not hear them in Welsh.

·         The c in Welsh only makes a hard /k/ sound. It will never sound like an s, such as in the English city.

·         The g only makes a /g/ sound. It will never sound like an English g, like in the English gender.

·         The th in Welsh represents the th in English think. The dd represents the other th in English, like the word then.

·         There is no z sound in Welsh.

 

Consonant sounds only in Welsh:

These consonant sounds may be new to you.

·         ch /x/ Like the Scottish loch or German composer Bach. Welsh example: chwech (English six)

·         ll /ɬ/ The ll is a hard Welsh sound to make. It is best described as putting your tongue in the position of l and then blowing out air gently. Like saying a h and l simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: llyn (English lake)

·         r /r/ The Welsh r should always be trilled. Welsh example: ar (English on)

·         rh /r̥/ The Welsh rh should be trilled with aspiration. Like saying a h and r simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: rhan (English part)

 

Vowels:

There are seven vowels in Welsh. Most vowels can be two different sounds. The y can take three different sounds. 

·         a

·         e

·         i

·         o

·         u

·         w

·         y

Short Vowels:

·         a /a/ Like a in pat.

·         e /ɛ/ Like e in pet.

·         i /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         o /ɔ/ Like o in pot

·         u /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         w /ʊ/ As in book.

·         y /ə/ Like uh in above

The rules governing the letter Y are some of the most confusing in Welsh. Normally it’s pronounced like the u in cut, but in the last syllable of a word it represents the sound like the i in bit. Note; This includes words with only one syllable, such as llyn (hlin).

Similar rules apply for combinations of y with another letter;

·         yr is (approximately) pronounced like English burn, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like in English beer. (Both times, the r is audible, not dropped. See the preceding rule.)

·         yw is pronounced like English moan, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like the Welsh iw and uw (see below).

That just leaves the exceptions. The small words, y, yr and yn are pronounced uh, urr and un.

Dipthongs:

·         ae, ai and au /aɪ/- like English sky. (Actually, there is an exception for the last one. “au” is the plural ending for certain words, e.g. creigiau. In these cases, its pronunciation is shortened to a “hanging A”

·         aw /aʊ/ - like English cow.

·         oe (and oi and ou, which are rare) /ɔɪ/ - like English boy.

·         ei and eu and ey /əɪ/ - like nothing in English; try ‘uh-ee’ and then running the vowels together.

R:

When you see a vowel followed by an R, or a diphthong followed by an R, both the vowel and the R are pronounced; this differs from many dialects of English. The following sounds are therefore approximate, and you should make sure to pronounce the R.

·         aerair and aur - like English fire.

·         awr - like English hour.

·         er - like English bare, but shorter.

·         ir or ur (or yr in the last syllable of a word) - like English beer.

·         wr - like English poor.

Long Vowels:

·         a /ɑː/ Like a in father.

·         e /ɛː/ Like ae in aeroplane, but without any trace of an r, or a y sound between the a and the e.

·         i /iː/ Like i in machine.

·         o /ɔː/ Like aw in hawk.

·         w /uː/ Like oo in pool.

·        u and y take the same values as i does. 

·        A vowel is short if it comes in a word with more than one syllable.

So all these rules only come into play when we’re talking about one-syllable words.

·        A vowel is short if it’s followed by two consonants, if the first of the two is n or r.

·        A vowel is short if it’s in a word of one syllable and the consonant following it is any of the following; p, t, c, m, ng

·        If the vowel is a, e, o, w or y and it’s followed by l, n or r then it is also short.

·        This leaves the following options for when the vowel is long; in a word of one syllable; followed by two consonants the first of which is ll or s; either followed by no consonants, or followed by b, ch, d, dd, f, ff, g, s or th, or (if it happens to be i or u) followed by l, n or r.

A circumflex accent (the hat sign) is placed over a vowel to indicate that it’s long when you might otherwise think it was short.

Pronunciation

External image

Consonants:

Consonants in Welsh can only make one unique sound, as opposed to English which can make several sounds per consonant. For example, the c can make a k sound as in cat or a s sound as in city. When you learn the sound a consonant makes in Welsh, it will only ever make that sound you learn.

Consonant sounds same in English and Welsh:

These consonants look the same in English and Welsh, and sound the same.

·         b /b/ Like b in boy. Welsh example: bachgen (English: boy)

·         c /k/ Like c in cat. Welsh example: cath (English cat)

·         d /d/ Like d in dog. Welsh example: drwg (English bad)

·         g /g/ Like g in gun. Welsh example: gardd (English garden)

·         h /h/ Like h in happy. Welsh example: hen (English old)

·         l /l/ Like l in lake. Welsh example: calon (English heart)

·         m /m/ Like m in mad. Welsh example: mam (English mother)

·         n /n/ Like n in none. Welsh example: nain (English grandmother)

·         ng /ŋ/ Like the end of the English word sing. In Welsh, this letter can come at the front of a word. In Welsh, it is never pronounced with a hard g, as in the English finger. Welsh example: angau (English death)

·         p /p/ Like p in poker. Welsh example: pen (English head)

·         s /s/ Like s in sad. Welsh example: sebon (English soap)

·         t /t/ Like t in tar. Welsh example: tŷ (English house)

·         th /θ/ Like th in think. Welsh example: methu (English fail)

·         si is pronounced as in English sheep, when it comes before a vowel.

 

Consonant sounds in English, Different letter in Welsh:

These sounds are found in English, but they are assigned to a different letter in Welsh. Train yourself to read them differently now.

·         f /v/ Like v in violin. Welsh example: gafr (English goat)

·         ff /f/ Like f in friend. Welsh example: ffrind (English friend)

·         dd /ð/ Like th in then. Welsh example: hardd (English beautiful)

 

Consonant sounds in English, Not in Welsh:

These sounds are in English, but you will not hear them in Welsh.

·         The c in Welsh only makes a hard /k/ sound. It will never sound like an s, such as in the English city.

·         The g only makes a /g/ sound. It will never sound like an English g, like in the English gender.

·         The th in Welsh represents the th in English think. The dd represents the other th in English, like the word then.

·         There is no z sound in Welsh.

 

Consonant sounds only in Welsh:

These consonant sounds may be new to you.

·         ch /x/ Like the Scottish loch or German composer Bach. Welsh example: chwech (English six)

·         ll /ɬ/ The ll is a hard Welsh sound to make. It is best described as putting your tongue in the position of l and then blowing out air gently. Like saying a h and l simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: llyn (English lake)

·         r /r/ The Welsh r should always be trilled. Welsh example: ar (English on)

·         rh /r̥/ The Welsh rh should be trilled with aspiration. Like saying a h and r simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: rhan (English part)

 

Vowels:

There are seven vowels in Welsh. Most vowels can be two different sounds. The y can take three different sounds. 

·         a

·         e

·         i

·         o

·         u

·         w

·         y

Short Vowels:

·         a /a/ Like a in pat.

·         e /ɛ/ Like e in pet.

·         i /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         o /ɔ/ Like o in pot

·         u /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         w /ʊ/ As in book.

·         y /ə/ Like uh in above

The rules governing the letter Y are some of the most confusing in Welsh. Normally it’s pronounced like the u in cut, but in the last syllable of a word it represents the sound like the i in bit. Note; This includes words with only one syllable, such as llyn (hlin).

Similar rules apply for combinations of y with another letter;

·         yr is (approximately) pronounced like English burn, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like in English beer. (Both times, the r is audible, not dropped. See the preceding rule.)

·         yw is pronounced like English moan, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like the Welsh iw and uw (see below).

That just leaves the exceptions. The small words, y, yr and yn are pronounced uh, urr and un.

Dipthongs:

·         ae, ai and au /aɪ/- like English sky. (Actually, there is an exception for the last one. “au” is the plural ending for certain words, e.g. creigiau. In these cases, its pronunciation is shortened to a “hanging A”

·         aw /aʊ/ - like English cow.

·         oe (and oi and ou, which are rare) /ɔɪ/ - like English boy.

·         ei and eu and ey /əɪ/ - like nothing in English; try ‘uh-ee’ and then running the vowels together.

R:

When you see a vowel followed by an R, or a diphthong followed by an R, both the vowel and the R are pronounced; this differs from many dialects of English. The following sounds are therefore approximate, and you should make sure to pronounce the R.

·         aerair and aur - like English fire.

·         awr - like English hour.

·         er - like English bare, but shorter.

·         ir or ur (or yr in the last syllable of a word) - like English beer.

·         wr - like English poor.

Long Vowels:

·         a /ɑː/ Like a in father.

·         e /ɛː/ Like ae in aeroplane, but without any trace of an r, or a y sound between the a and the e.

·         i /iː/ Like i in machine.

·         o /ɔː/ Like aw in hawk.

·         w /uː/ Like oo in pool.

·        u and y take the same values as i does. 

·        A vowel is short if it comes in a word with more than one syllable.

So all these rules only come into play when we’re talking about one-syllable words.

·        A vowel is short if it’s followed by two consonants, if the first of the two is n or r.

·        A vowel is short if it’s in a word of one syllable and the consonant following it is any of the following; p, t, c, m, ng

·        If the vowel is a, e, o, w or y and it’s followed by l, n or r then it is also short.

·        This leaves the following options for when the vowel is long; in a word of one syllable; followed by two consonants the first of which is ll or s; either followed by no consonants, or followed by b, ch, d, dd, f, ff, g, s or th, or (if it happens to be i or u) followed by l, n or r.

A circumflex accent (the hat sign) is placed over a vowel to indicate that it’s long when you might otherwise think it was short.

Pronunciation

External image

Consonants:

Consonants in Welsh can only make one unique sound, as opposed to English which can make several sounds per consonant. For example, the c can make a k sound as in cat or a s sound as in city. When you learn the sound a consonant makes in Welsh, it will only ever make that sound you learn.

Consonant sounds same in English and Welsh:

These consonants look the same in English and Welsh, and sound the same.

·         b /b/ Like b in boy. Welsh example: bachgen (English: boy)

·         c /k/ Like c in cat. Welsh example: cath (English cat)

·         d /d/ Like d in dog. Welsh example: drwg (English bad)

·         g /g/ Like g in gun. Welsh example: gardd (English garden)

·         h /h/ Like h in happy. Welsh example: hen (English old)

·         l /l/ Like l in lake. Welsh example: calon (English heart)

·         m /m/ Like m in mad. Welsh example: mam (English mother)

·         n /n/ Like n in none. Welsh example: nain (English grandmother)

·         ng /ŋ/ Like the end of the English word sing. In Welsh, this letter can come at the front of a word. In Welsh, it is never pronounced with a hard g, as in the English finger. Welsh example: angau (English death)

·         p /p/ Like p in poker. Welsh example: pen (English head)

·         s /s/ Like s in sad. Welsh example: sebon (English soap)

·         t /t/ Like t in tar. Welsh example: tŷ (English house)

·         th /θ/ Like th in think. Welsh example: methu (English fail)

·         si is pronounced as in English sheep, when it comes before a vowel.

 

Consonant sounds in English, Different letter in Welsh:

These sounds are found in English, but they are assigned to a different letter in Welsh. Train yourself to read them differently now.

·         f /v/ Like v in violin. Welsh example: gafr (English goat)

·         ff /f/ Like f in friend. Welsh example: ffrind (English friend)

·         dd /ð/ Like th in then. Welsh example: hardd (English beautiful)

 

Consonant sounds in English, Not in Welsh:

These sounds are in English, but you will not hear them in Welsh.

·         The c in Welsh only makes a hard /k/ sound. It will never sound like an s, such as in the English city.

·         The g only makes a /g/ sound. It will never sound like an English g, like in the English gender.

·         The th in Welsh represents the th in English think. The dd represents the other th in English, like the word then.

·         There is no z sound in Welsh.

 

Consonant sounds only in Welsh:

These consonant sounds may be new to you.

·         ch /x/ Like the Scottish loch or German composer Bach. Welsh example: chwech (English six)

·         ll /ɬ/ The ll is a hard Welsh sound to make. It is best described as putting your tongue in the position of l and then blowing out air gently. Like saying a h and l simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: llyn (English lake)

·         r /r/ The Welsh r should always be trilled. Welsh example: ar (English on)

·         rh /r̥/ The Welsh rh should be trilled with aspiration. Like saying a h and r simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: rhan (English part)

 

Vowels:

There are seven vowels in Welsh. Most vowels can be two different sounds. The y can take three different sounds. 

·         a

·         e

·         i

·         o

·         u

·         w

·         y

Short Vowels:

·         a /a/ Like a in pat.

·         e /ɛ/ Like e in pet.

·         i /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         o /ɔ/ Like o in pot

·         u /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         w /ʊ/ As in book.

·         y /ə/ Like uh in above

The rules governing the letter Y are some of the most confusing in Welsh. Normally it’s pronounced like the u in cut, but in the last syllable of a word it represents the sound like the i in bit. Note; This includes words with only one syllable, such as llyn (hlin).

Similar rules apply for combinations of y with another letter;

·         yr is (approximately) pronounced like English burn, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like in English beer. (Both times, the r is audible, not dropped. See the preceding rule.)

·         yw is pronounced like English moan, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like the Welsh iw and uw (see below).

That just leaves the exceptions. The small words, y, yr and yn are pronounced uh, urr and un.

Dipthongs:

·         ae, ai and au /aɪ/- like English sky. (Actually, there is an exception for the last one. “au” is the plural ending for certain words, e.g. creigiau. In these cases, its pronunciation is shortened to a “hanging A”

·         aw /aʊ/ - like English cow.

·         oe (and oi and ou, which are rare) /ɔɪ/ - like English boy.

·         ei and eu and ey /əɪ/ - like nothing in English; try ‘uh-ee’ and then running the vowels together.

R:

When you see a vowel followed by an R, or a diphthong followed by an R, both the vowel and the R are pronounced; this differs from many dialects of English. The following sounds are therefore approximate, and you should make sure to pronounce the R.

·         aerair and aur - like English fire.

·         awr - like English hour.

·         er - like English bare, but shorter.

·         ir or ur (or yr in the last syllable of a word) - like English beer.

·         wr - like English poor.

Long Vowels:

·         a /ɑː/ Like a in father.

·         e /ɛː/ Like ae in aeroplane, but without any trace of an r, or a y sound between the a and the e.

·         i /iː/ Like i in machine.

·         o /ɔː/ Like aw in hawk.

·         w /uː/ Like oo in pool.

·        u and y take the same values as i does. 

·        A vowel is short if it comes in a word with more than one syllable.

So all these rules only come into play when we’re talking about one-syllable words.

·        A vowel is short if it’s followed by two consonants, if the first of the two is n or r.

·        A vowel is short if it’s in a word of one syllable and the consonant following it is any of the following; p, t, c, m, ng

·        If the vowel is a, e, o, w or y and it’s followed by l, n or r then it is also short.

·        This leaves the following options for when the vowel is long; in a word of one syllable; followed by two consonants the first of which is ll or s; either followed by no consonants, or followed by b, ch, d, dd, f, ff, g, s or th, or (if it happens to be i or u) followed by l, n or r.

A circumflex accent (the hat sign) is placed over a vowel to indicate that it’s long when you might otherwise think it was short.

Pronunciation

External image

Consonants:

Consonants in Welsh can only make one unique sound, as opposed to English which can make several sounds per consonant. For example, the c can make a k sound as in cat or a s sound as in city. When you learn the sound a consonant makes in Welsh, it will only ever make that sound you learn.

Consonant sounds same in English and Welsh:

These consonants look the same in English and Welsh, and sound the same.

·         b /b/ Like b in boy. Welsh example: bachgen (English: boy)

·         c /k/ Like c in cat. Welsh example: cath (English cat)

·         d /d/ Like d in dog. Welsh example: drwg (English bad)

·         g /g/ Like g in gun. Welsh example: gardd (English garden)

·         h /h/ Like h in happy. Welsh example: hen (English old)

·         l /l/ Like l in lake. Welsh example: calon (English heart)

·         m /m/ Like m in mad. Welsh example: mam (English mother)

·         n /n/ Like n in none. Welsh example: nain (English grandmother)

·         ng /ŋ/ Like the end of the English word sing. In Welsh, this letter can come at the front of a word. In Welsh, it is never pronounced with a hard g, as in the English finger. Welsh example: angau (English death)

·         p /p/ Like p in poker. Welsh example: pen (English head)

·         s /s/ Like s in sad. Welsh example: sebon (English soap)

·         t /t/ Like t in tar. Welsh example: tŷ (English house)

·         th /θ/ Like th in think. Welsh example: methu (English fail)

·         si is pronounced as in English sheep, when it comes before a vowel.

 

Consonant sounds in English, Different letter in Welsh:

These sounds are found in English, but they are assigned to a different letter in Welsh. Train yourself to read them differently now.

·         f /v/ Like v in violin. Welsh example: gafr (English goat)

·         ff /f/ Like f in friend. Welsh example: ffrind (English friend)

·         dd /ð/ Like th in then. Welsh example: hardd (English beautiful)

 

Consonant sounds in English, Not in Welsh:

These sounds are in English, but you will not hear them in Welsh.

·         The c in Welsh only makes a hard /k/ sound. It will never sound like an s, such as in the English city.

·         The g only makes a /g/ sound. It will never sound like an English g, like in the English gender.

·         The th in Welsh represents the th in English think. The dd represents the other th in English, like the word then.

·         There is no z sound in Welsh.

 

Consonant sounds only in Welsh:

These consonant sounds may be new to you.

·         ch /x/ Like the Scottish loch or German composer Bach. Welsh example: chwech (English six)

·         ll /ɬ/ The ll is a hard Welsh sound to make. It is best described as putting your tongue in the position of l and then blowing out air gently. Like saying a h and l simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: llyn (English lake)

·         r /r/ The Welsh r should always be trilled. Welsh example: ar (English on)

·         rh /r̥/ The Welsh rh should be trilled with aspiration. Like saying a h and r simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: rhan (English part)

 

Vowels:

There are seven vowels in Welsh. Most vowels can be two different sounds. The y can take three different sounds. 

·         a

·         e

·         i

·         o

·         u

·         w

·         y

Short Vowels:

·         a /a/ Like a in pat.

·         e /ɛ/ Like e in pet.

·         i /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         o /ɔ/ Like o in pot

·         u /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         w /ʊ/ As in book.

·         y /ə/ Like uh in above

The rules governing the letter Y are some of the most confusing in Welsh. Normally it’s pronounced like the u in cut, but in the last syllable of a word it represents the sound like the i in bit. Note; This includes words with only one syllable, such as llyn (hlin).

Similar rules apply for combinations of y with another letter;

·         yr is (approximately) pronounced like English burn, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like in English beer. (Both times, the r is audible, not dropped. See the preceding rule.)

·         yw is pronounced like English moan, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like the Welsh iw and uw (see below).

That just leaves the exceptions. The small words, y, yr and yn are pronounced uh, urr and un.

Dipthongs:

·         ae, ai and au /aɪ/- like English sky. (Actually, there is an exception for the last one. “au” is the plural ending for certain words, e.g. creigiau. In these cases, its pronunciation is shortened to a “hanging A”

·         aw /aʊ/ - like English cow.

·         oe (and oi and ou, which are rare) /ɔɪ/ - like English boy.

·         ei and eu and ey /əɪ/ - like nothing in English; try ‘uh-ee’ and then running the vowels together.

R:

When you see a vowel followed by an R, or a diphthong followed by an R, both the vowel and the R are pronounced; this differs from many dialects of English. The following sounds are therefore approximate, and you should make sure to pronounce the R.

·         aerair and aur - like English fire.

·         awr - like English hour.

·         er - like English bare, but shorter.

·         ir or ur (or yr in the last syllable of a word) - like English beer.

·         wr - like English poor.

Long Vowels:

·         a /ɑː/ Like a in father.

·         e /ɛː/ Like ae in aeroplane, but without any trace of an r, or a y sound between the a and the e.

·         i /iː/ Like i in machine.

·         o /ɔː/ Like aw in hawk.

·         w /uː/ Like oo in pool.

·        u and y take the same values as i does. 

·        A vowel is short if it comes in a word with more than one syllable.

So all these rules only come into play when we’re talking about one-syllable words.

·        A vowel is short if it’s followed by two consonants, if the first of the two is n or r.

·        A vowel is short if it’s in a word of one syllable and the consonant following it is any of the following; p, t, c, m, ng

·        If the vowel is a, e, o, w or y and it’s followed by l, n or r then it is also short.

·        This leaves the following options for when the vowel is long; in a word of one syllable; followed by two consonants the first of which is ll or s; either followed by no consonants, or followed by b, ch, d, dd, f, ff, g, s or th, or (if it happens to be i or u) followed by l, n or r.

A circumflex accent (the hat sign) is placed over a vowel to indicate that it’s long when you might otherwise think it was short.

Pronunciation

External image

Consonants:

Consonants in Welsh can only make one unique sound, as opposed to English which can make several sounds per consonant. For example, the c can make a k sound as in cat or a s sound as in city. When you learn the sound a consonant makes in Welsh, it will only ever make that sound you learn.

Consonant sounds same in English and Welsh:

These consonants look the same in English and Welsh, and sound the same.

·         b /b/ Like b in boy. Welsh example: bachgen (English: boy)

·         c /k/ Like c in cat. Welsh example: cath (English cat)

·         d /d/ Like d in dog. Welsh example: drwg (English bad)

·         g /g/ Like g in gun. Welsh example: gardd (English garden)

·         h /h/ Like h in happy. Welsh example: hen (English old)

·         l /l/ Like l in lake. Welsh example: calon (English heart)

·         m /m/ Like m in mad. Welsh example: mam (English mother)

·         n /n/ Like n in none. Welsh example: nain (English grandmother)

·         ng /ŋ/ Like the end of the English word sing. In Welsh, this letter can come at the front of a word. In Welsh, it is never pronounced with a hard g, as in the English finger. Welsh example: angau (English death)

·         p /p/ Like p in poker. Welsh example: pen (English head)

·         s /s/ Like s in sad. Welsh example: sebon (English soap)

·         t /t/ Like t in tar. Welsh example: tŷ (English house)

·         th /θ/ Like th in think. Welsh example: methu (English fail)

·         si is pronounced as in English sheep, when it comes before a vowel.

 

Consonant sounds in English, Different letter in Welsh:

These sounds are found in English, but they are assigned to a different letter in Welsh. Train yourself to read them differently now.

·         f /v/ Like v in violin. Welsh example: gafr (English goat)

·         ff /f/ Like f in friend. Welsh example: ffrind (English friend)

·         dd /ð/ Like th in then. Welsh example: hardd (English beautiful)

 

Consonant sounds in English, Not in Welsh:

These sounds are in English, but you will not hear them in Welsh.

·         The c in Welsh only makes a hard /k/ sound. It will never sound like an s, such as in the English city.

·         The g only makes a /g/ sound. It will never sound like an English g, like in the English gender.

·         The th in Welsh represents the th in English think. The dd represents the other th in English, like the word then.

·         There is no z sound in Welsh.

 

Consonant sounds only in Welsh:

These consonant sounds may be new to you.

·         ch /x/ Like the Scottish loch or German composer Bach. Welsh example: chwech (English six)

·         ll /ɬ/ The ll is a hard Welsh sound to make. It is best described as putting your tongue in the position of l and then blowing out air gently. Like saying a h and l simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: llyn (English lake)

·         r /r/ The Welsh r should always be trilled. Welsh example: ar (English on)

·         rh /r̥/ The Welsh rh should be trilled with aspiration. Like saying a h and r simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: rhan (English part)

 

Vowels:

There are seven vowels in Welsh. Most vowels can be two different sounds. The y can take three different sounds. 

·         a

·         e

·         i

·         o

·         u

·         w

·         y

Short Vowels:

·         a /a/ Like a in pat.

·         e /ɛ/ Like e in pet.

·         i /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         o /ɔ/ Like o in pot

·         u /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         w /ʊ/ As in book.

·         y /ə/ Like uh in above

The rules governing the letter Y are some of the most confusing in Welsh. Normally it’s pronounced like the u in cut, but in the last syllable of a word it represents the sound like the i in bit. Note; This includes words with only one syllable, such as llyn (hlin).

Similar rules apply for combinations of y with another letter;

·         yr is (approximately) pronounced like English burn, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like in English beer. (Both times, the r is audible, not dropped. See the preceding rule.)

·         yw is pronounced like English moan, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like the Welsh iw and uw (see below).

That just leaves the exceptions. The small words, y, yr and yn are pronounced uh, urr and un.

Dipthongs:

·         ae, ai and au /aɪ/- like English sky. (Actually, there is an exception for the last one. “au” is the plural ending for certain words, e.g. creigiau. In these cases, its pronunciation is shortened to a “hanging A”

·         aw /aʊ/ - like English cow.

·         oe (and oi and ou, which are rare) /ɔɪ/ - like English boy.

·         ei and eu and ey /əɪ/ - like nothing in English; try ‘uh-ee’ and then running the vowels together.

R:

When you see a vowel followed by an R, or a diphthong followed by an R, both the vowel and the R are pronounced; this differs from many dialects of English. The following sounds are therefore approximate, and you should make sure to pronounce the R.

·         aerair and aur - like English fire.

·         awr - like English hour.

·         er - like English bare, but shorter.

·         ir or ur (or yr in the last syllable of a word) - like English beer.

·         wr - like English poor.

Long Vowels:

·         a /ɑː/ Like a in father.

·         e /ɛː/ Like ae in aeroplane, but without any trace of an r, or a y sound between the a and the e.

·         i /iː/ Like i in machine.

·         o /ɔː/ Like aw in hawk.

·         w /uː/ Like oo in pool.

·        u and y take the same values as i does. 

·        A vowel is short if it comes in a word with more than one syllable.

So all these rules only come into play when we’re talking about one-syllable words.

·        A vowel is short if it’s followed by two consonants, if the first of the two is n or r.

·        A vowel is short if it’s in a word of one syllable and the consonant following it is any of the following; p, t, c, m, ng

·        If the vowel is a, e, o, w or y and it’s followed by l, n or r then it is also short.

·        This leaves the following options for when the vowel is long; in a word of one syllable; followed by two consonants the first of which is ll or s; either followed by no consonants, or followed by b, ch, d, dd, f, ff, g, s or th, or (if it happens to be i or u) followed by l, n or r.

A circumflex accent (the hat sign) is placed over a vowel to indicate that it’s long when you might otherwise think it was short.

Pronunciation

External image

Consonants:

Consonants in Welsh can only make one unique sound, as opposed to English which can make several sounds per consonant. For example, the c can make a k sound as in cat or a s sound as in city. When you learn the sound a consonant makes in Welsh, it will only ever make that sound you learn.

Consonant sounds same in English and Welsh:

These consonants look the same in English and Welsh, and sound the same.

·         b /b/ Like b in boy. Welsh example: bachgen (English: boy)

·         c /k/ Like c in cat. Welsh example: cath (English cat)

·         d /d/ Like d in dog. Welsh example: drwg (English bad)

·         g /g/ Like g in gun. Welsh example: gardd (English garden)

·         h /h/ Like h in happy. Welsh example: hen (English old)

·         l /l/ Like l in lake. Welsh example: calon (English heart)

·         m /m/ Like m in mad. Welsh example: mam (English mother)

·         n /n/ Like n in none. Welsh example: nain (English grandmother)

·         ng /ŋ/ Like the end of the English word sing. In Welsh, this letter can come at the front of a word. In Welsh, it is never pronounced with a hard g, as in the English finger. Welsh example: angau (English death)

·         p /p/ Like p in poker. Welsh example: pen (English head)

·         s /s/ Like s in sad. Welsh example: sebon (English soap)

·         t /t/ Like t in tar. Welsh example: tŷ (English house)

·         th /θ/ Like th in think. Welsh example: methu (English fail)

·         si is pronounced as in English sheep, when it comes before a vowel.

 

Consonant sounds in English, Different letter in Welsh:

These sounds are found in English, but they are assigned to a different letter in Welsh. Train yourself to read them differently now.

·         f /v/ Like v in violin. Welsh example: gafr (English goat)

·         ff /f/ Like f in friend. Welsh example: ffrind (English friend)

·         dd /ð/ Like th in then. Welsh example: hardd (English beautiful)

 

Consonant sounds in English, Not in Welsh:

These sounds are in English, but you will not hear them in Welsh.

·         The c in Welsh only makes a hard /k/ sound. It will never sound like an s, such as in the English city.

·         The g only makes a /g/ sound. It will never sound like an English g, like in the English gender.

·         The th in Welsh represents the th in English think. The dd represents the other th in English, like the word then.

·         There is no z sound in Welsh.

 

Consonant sounds only in Welsh:

These consonant sounds may be new to you.

·         ch /x/ Like the Scottish loch or German composer Bach. Welsh example: chwech (English six)

·         ll /ɬ/ The ll is a hard Welsh sound to make. It is best described as putting your tongue in the position of l and then blowing out air gently. Like saying a h and l simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: llyn (English lake)

·         r /r/ The Welsh r should always be trilled. Welsh example: ar (English on)

·         rh /r̥/ The Welsh rh should be trilled with aspiration. Like saying a h and r simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: rhan (English part)

 

Vowels:

There are seven vowels in Welsh. Most vowels can be two different sounds. The y can take three different sounds. 

·         a

·         e

·         i

·         o

·         u

·         w

·         y

Short Vowels:

·         a /a/ Like a in pat.

·         e /ɛ/ Like e in pet.

·         i /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         o /ɔ/ Like o in pot

·         u /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         w /ʊ/ As in book.

·         y /ə/ Like uh in above

The rules governing the letter Y are some of the most confusing in Welsh. Normally it’s pronounced like the u in cut, but in the last syllable of a word it represents the sound like the i in bit. Note; This includes words with only one syllable, such as llyn (hlin).

Similar rules apply for combinations of y with another letter;

·         yr is (approximately) pronounced like English burn, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like in English beer. (Both times, the r is audible, not dropped. See the preceding rule.)

·         yw is pronounced like English moan, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like the Welsh iw and uw (see below).

That just leaves the exceptions. The small words, y, yr and yn are pronounced uh, urr and un.

Dipthongs:

·         ae, ai and au /aɪ/- like English sky. (Actually, there is an exception for the last one. “au” is the plural ending for certain words, e.g. creigiau. In these cases, its pronunciation is shortened to a “hanging A”

·         aw /aʊ/ - like English cow.

·         oe (and oi and ou, which are rare) /ɔɪ/ - like English boy.

·         ei and eu and ey /əɪ/ - like nothing in English; try ‘uh-ee’ and then running the vowels together.

R:

When you see a vowel followed by an R, or a diphthong followed by an R, both the vowel and the R are pronounced; this differs from many dialects of English. The following sounds are therefore approximate, and you should make sure to pronounce the R.

·         aerair and aur - like English fire.

·         awr - like English hour.

·         er - like English bare, but shorter.

·         ir or ur (or yr in the last syllable of a word) - like English beer.

·         wr - like English poor.

Long Vowels:

·         a /ɑː/ Like a in father.

·         e /ɛː/ Like ae in aeroplane, but without any trace of an r, or a y sound between the a and the e.

·         i /iː/ Like i in machine.

·         o /ɔː/ Like aw in hawk.

·         w /uː/ Like oo in pool.

·        u and y take the same values as i does. 

·        A vowel is short if it comes in a word with more than one syllable.

So all these rules only come into play when we’re talking about one-syllable words.

·        A vowel is short if it’s followed by two consonants, if the first of the two is n or r.

·        A vowel is short if it’s in a word of one syllable and the consonant following it is any of the following; p, t, c, m, ng

·        If the vowel is a, e, o, w or y and it’s followed by l, n or r then it is also short.

·        This leaves the following options for when the vowel is long; in a word of one syllable; followed by two consonants the first of which is ll or s; either followed by no consonants, or followed by b, ch, d, dd, f, ff, g, s or th, or (if it happens to be i or u) followed by l, n or r.

A circumflex accent (the hat sign) is placed over a vowel to indicate that it’s long when you might otherwise think it was short.

Pronunciation

External image

Consonants:

Consonants in Welsh can only make one unique sound, as opposed to English which can make several sounds per consonant. For example, the c can make a k sound as in cat or a s sound as in city. When you learn the sound a consonant makes in Welsh, it will only ever make that sound you learn.

Consonant sounds same in English and Welsh:

These consonants look the same in English and Welsh, and sound the same.

·         b /b/ Like b in boy. Welsh example: bachgen (English: boy)

·         c /k/ Like c in cat. Welsh example: cath (English cat)

·         d /d/ Like d in dog. Welsh example: drwg (English bad)

·         g /g/ Like g in gun. Welsh example: gardd (English garden)

·         h /h/ Like h in happy. Welsh example: hen (English old)

·         l /l/ Like l in lake. Welsh example: calon (English heart)

·         m /m/ Like m in mad. Welsh example: mam (English mother)

·         n /n/ Like n in none. Welsh example: nain (English grandmother)

·         ng /ŋ/ Like the end of the English word sing. In Welsh, this letter can come at the front of a word. In Welsh, it is never pronounced with a hard g, as in the English finger. Welsh example: angau (English death)

·         p /p/ Like p in poker. Welsh example: pen (English head)

·         s /s/ Like s in sad. Welsh example: sebon (English soap)

·         t /t/ Like t in tar. Welsh example: tŷ (English house)

·         th /θ/ Like th in think. Welsh example: methu (English fail)

·         si is pronounced as in English sheep, when it comes before a vowel.

 

Consonant sounds in English, Different letter in Welsh:

These sounds are found in English, but they are assigned to a different letter in Welsh. Train yourself to read them differently now.

·         f /v/ Like v in violin. Welsh example: gafr (English goat)

·         ff /f/ Like f in friend. Welsh example: ffrind (English friend)

·         dd /ð/ Like th in then. Welsh example: hardd (English beautiful)

 

Consonant sounds in English, Not in Welsh:

These sounds are in English, but you will not hear them in Welsh.

·         The c in Welsh only makes a hard /k/ sound. It will never sound like an s, such as in the English city.

·         The g only makes a /g/ sound. It will never sound like an English g, like in the English gender.

·         The th in Welsh represents the th in English think. The dd represents the other th in English, like the word then.

·         There is no z sound in Welsh.

 

Consonant sounds only in Welsh:

These consonant sounds may be new to you.

·         ch /x/ Like the Scottish loch or German composer Bach. Welsh example: chwech (English six)

·         ll /ɬ/ The ll is a hard Welsh sound to make. It is best described as putting your tongue in the position of l and then blowing out air gently. Like saying a h and l simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: llyn (English lake)

·         r /r/ The Welsh r should always be trilled. Welsh example: ar (English on)

·         rh /r̥/ The Welsh rh should be trilled with aspiration. Like saying a h and r simultaneously, but with more puff. Welsh example: rhan (English part)

 

Vowels:

There are seven vowels in Welsh. Most vowels can be two different sounds. The y can take three different sounds. 

·         a

·         e

·         i

·         o

·         u

·         w

·         y

Short Vowels:

·         a /a/ Like a in pat.

·         e /ɛ/ Like e in pet.

·         i /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         o /ɔ/ Like o in pot

·         u /ɪ/ Like i in pit.

·         w /ʊ/ As in book.

·         y /ə/ Like uh in above

The rules governing the letter Y are some of the most confusing in Welsh. Normally it’s pronounced like the u in cut, but in the last syllable of a word it represents the sound like the i in bit. Note; This includes words with only one syllable, such as llyn (hlin).

Similar rules apply for combinations of y with another letter;

·         yr is (approximately) pronounced like English burn, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like in English beer. (Both times, the r is audible, not dropped. See the preceding rule.)

·         yw is pronounced like English moan, except in the last syllable of a word, where it is said like the Welsh iw and uw (see below).

That just leaves the exceptions. The small words, y, yr and yn are pronounced uh, urr and un.

Dipthongs:

·         ae, ai and au /aɪ/- like English sky. (Actually, there is an exception for the last one. “au” is the plural ending for certain words, e.g. creigiau. In these cases, its pronunciation is shortened to a “hanging A”

·         aw /aʊ/ - like English cow.

·         oe (and oi and ou, which are rare) /ɔɪ/ - like English boy.

·         ei and eu and ey /əɪ/ - like nothing in English; try ‘uh-ee’ and then running the vowels together.

R:

When you see a vowel followed by an R, or a diphthong followed by an R, both the vowel and the R are pronounced; this differs from many dialects of English. The following sounds are therefore approximate, and you should make sure to pronounce the R.

·         aerair and aur - like English fire.

·         awr - like English hour.

·         er - like English bare, but shorter.

·         ir or ur (or yr in the last syllable of a word) - like English beer.

·         wr - like English poor.

Long Vowels:

·         a /ɑː/ Like a in father.

·         e /ɛː/ Like ae in aeroplane, but without any trace of an r, or a y sound between the a and the e.

·         i /iː/ Like i in machine.

·         o /ɔː/ Like aw in hawk.

·         w /uː/ Like oo in pool.

·        u and y take the same values as i does. 

·        A vowel is short if it comes in a word with more than one syllable.

So all these rules only come into play when we’re talking about one-syllable words.

·        A vowel is short if it’s followed by two consonants, if the first of the two is n or r.

·        A vowel is short if it’s in a word of one syllable and the consonant following it is any of the following; p, t, c, m, ng

·        If the vowel is a, e, o, w or y and it’s followed by l, n or r then it is also short.

·        This leaves the following options for when the vowel is long; in a word of one syllable; followed by two consonants the first of which is ll or s; either followed by no consonants, or followed by b, ch, d, dd, f, ff, g, s or th, or (if it happens to be i or u) followed by l, n or r.

A circumflex accent (the hat sign) is placed over a vowel to indicate that it’s long when you might otherwise think it was short.