aztecs of mexico

The Signs as Aztec Deities.
  • Aries: <i>Xiuhtecuhtli</i> was the god of fire, day and heat. He was the lord of volcanoes, the personification of life after death.
  • Taurus: <i>Tonacacihuatl</i> was a creator and goddess of fertility and associated with procreation.
  • Gemini: <i>Tlaloc</i> was supreme god of the rain and also was associated with the spring.
  • Cancer: <i>Metztli</i> was goddess of the moon, the night, and farmers.
  • Leo: <i>Tonatiuh</i> was the sun god. The Aztec people considered him the leader of heaven.
  • Virgo: <i>Chicomecoatl</i> was the goddess of agriculture. She is usually distinguished by being shown carrying ears of maize.
  • Libra: <i>Quetzalcoatl</i> was related to gods of the wind, of the planet Venus, of merchants and of arts, crafts and knowledge.
  • Scorpio: <i>Mictecacihuatl</i> was the queen of the underworld, ruling of the afterlife and she was known as the "Lady of the Dead".
  • Sagittarius: <i>Tepeyollotl</i> was the god of earthquakes, echoes and jaguars. He is the god of the Eighth Hour of the Night.
  • Capricorn: <i>Itzpapalotl</i> was a fearsome skeletal warrior goddess who ruled over the paradise world of Tamoanchan.
  • Aquarius: <i>Ehecatl</i> was the god of the wind and he attracted the clouds with rain for the fields.
  • Pisces: <i>Chalchiuhtlicue</i> was the goddess of water, rivers, seas, streams and storms. She was represented as a river.
Tower of human skulls in Mexico casts new light on Aztecs

A tower of human skulls unearthed beneath the heart of Mexico City has raised new questions about the culture of sacrifice in the Aztec Empire after crania of women and children surfaced among the hundreds embedded in the forbidding structure.

Archaeologists have found more than 650 skulls caked in lime and thousands of fragments in the cylindrical edifice near the site of the Templo Mayor, one of the main temples in the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan, which later became Mexico City.

The tower is believed to form part of the Huey Tzompantli, a massive array of skulls that struck fear into the Spanish conquistadores when they captured the city under Hernan Cortes, and mentioned the structure in contemporary accounts. Read more.

Nahuatl vocabulary: Animals

In Yōlkamet - The Animals Pt. 1

Originally posted by scales-and-fangs

All absolutive suffixes (tl, tli, li, in, n) disappear when plural
R = reduplication of first syllable

  • ant - āskatl <met
  • axolotl - āxōlōtl <met
  • bat - tzīnākantli <tin
  • bird - tōtōtl <met
  • butterfly - pāpālōtl <met
  • cat, domestic cat - mistōn <tin
  • chicken, hen - kuānakatl <Rt
  • cougar, large cat - mistli <tin
  • cow - wākax <tin *
  • coyote - koyōtl <met
  • crocodile - sipaktli <Rtin
  • deer - masātl <Rt
  • dog - itzkuintli <tin
  • donkey - āxno <met *
  • dove - wilōtl <met
  • duck - kanawtli <tin
  • eagle - kuāwtli <tin
  • finch, house finch - molotl <met
  • firefly - kopitl <met
  • fish - michin <met
  • fly - sāyōlin <met
  • fox, vixen - ostoatl <met
  • frog - kuēyātl <met
  • grasshopper - chapōlin <met
  • hare - sittli <tin
  • horse - kawāyot <tin *
  • hummingbird - witzitzilin <met
  • jaguar - osēlōtl <met
  • lizard - kuetzpalin <met
  • mole, shrew - tosan <met
  • monkey - osomattli <tin
  • mosquito - mōyōtl <Rt
  • mouse - kimichin <met
  • opossum - tlakuachin <tin/met
  • owl, barn owl - tekolōtl <Rt
  • pig - pitzōtl <Rt
  • puppy, doggy - chichi <met
  • quail - sōlin <met
  • quetzal - ketzalli <tin
  • rabbit - tochtli <Rtin
  • raccoon - māpachin <tin/met
  • raven - kakalōtl <met
  • rooster - kaxtilli <tin
  • sheep - ichkatl <met
  • skunk - epatl <met
  • snake - koatl <Rt
  • spider - tokatl <met
  • squirrel - techalōtl <met
  • toad - tamasōlin <met
  • turkey - wēxolōtl <Rt
  • turtle, tortoise - āyōtl <met
  • vulture - tzopilōtl <met
  • worm - okuīlin <met

* Assimilated loanwords from Spanish

🌞Aztec gods and goddesses🌞

(Some Aztec gods and goddesses)

Tezcatlipoca: He was originally the god of the Sun, but after a battle with Quetzalcoatl he became the god of darkness and witchcraft. Coatlicue bit his feet and he replaced it with a mirror that reflected the past, the present, and the future. After being expelled from heaven he became the jaguar on the earth and the Ursa major.

Xochipili and Xochiquetzal: Xochipili was the god of flowers, music, and dance and Xochiquetzal was a shapeless spirit represented with the color red. Xochipili watched over the hummingbird spirits of the dead warriors and Xochiquetzal governed a kingdom for warriors dead in battle and women who had died while giving birth.

Quetzalcoatl: he transformed into a serpent, destroyed the world, and reconstructed it after the extinction of the humankind. Then he went to the underworld, collected the bones of the humans, ground and mixed them with his and Tezcatlopoca’s blood and gave the life back to humankind.

Huitzilopochtli: He is the god of the Sun and the war. He was very feared and he was given human sacrifices (War prisoners and warriors)

Tlaloc: He is the god of rain. He was good, as he led it rain so that the crops would grow but he could also be bad, causing floods.

Coatlicue: She is the goddess of the earth and the life giver. For the Aztecs, she was the mother of all gods and she could cause an earthquake, opening the earth’s bowels to devour her very own children.

Coyolxauhqui: She is the goddess of the moon. Every morning she dies in the hands of Huitzilopochtli. She’s in a constant war with him (Day and night).

Mictlantecuhtli: He is the god of death. He is married to Mictecacihuatl, the goddess of death. He lives in Mictlan, the underworld.

Archaeologists discover Aztec ball court in heart of Mexico City

The remains of a major Aztec temple and a ceremonial ball court have been discovered in downtown Mexico City, shedding new light on the sacred spaces of the metropolis that Spanish conquerors overran five centuries ago, archaeologists said on Wednesday.

The discoveries were made on a nondescript side street just behind the city’s colonial-era Roman Catholic cathedral off the main Zocalo plaza on the grounds of a 1950s-era hotel.

The underground excavations reveal a section of what was the foundation of a massive, circular-shaped temple dedicated to the Aztec wind god Ehecatl and a smaller part of a ritual ball court, confirming accounts of the first Spanish chroniclers to visit the Aztec imperial capital, Tenochtitlan. Read more.


Homosexuality in The Maya & Aztec Empire

The majority of information on the pre-Columbian peoples comes from the reports of the Spanish conquest. These accounts must be taken with caution, given that the accusation of sodomy was used to justify the conquest, along with other accusations real or invented, such as human sacrifice, cannibalism, or idolatry. 

The first peoples with whom the Spanish came in contact on the American continent were the Mayans, who were tolerant of homosexuality. 

For the Mayan aristocracy, at least, pubescent homosexuality was preferable to premarital heterosexuality. Parents would provide their sons with male slaves to satisfy their sexual needs, while premarital heterosexual encounters were discouraged. Adult homosexuality was also condoned, and the Maya were known to hold large private sexual parties which included homosexuality.

The Aztecs on the other hand were not surprisingly puritanical and although they celebrated public rituals with remnants of erotic content, they were perhaps more ruthless than the Spanish even, in suppressing private vice. 

Aztecs placed a high premium on “manly”, “assertive” behavior, and a corresponding stigma on “submissive” behavior. When conquered people were not sacrificed on temple altars, the males of conquered nations were often demoted to the status of women. The penalties for male homosexual intercourse were severe. Mexica law punished sodomy with the gallows, impalement for the active homosexual, extraction of the entrails through the anal orifice for the passive homosexual, and death by garrote for the lesbians. In Tenochtitlan, they hanged homosexuals. In nearby Texcoco, the active partner was “bound to a stake, completely covered with ashes and so left to die; the entrails of the passive agent were drawn out through his anus, he was then covered with ashes, and wood being added, the pile was ignited. 

The existence of lesbianism is testified to by the Nahuatl word "patlacheh”, which designates a woman who carries out masculine activities, including the penetration of other women, as revealed in the General history of the matters of New Spain by Bernardino de Sahagún. 

In spite of the puritanism of the Mexica, the sexual customs of the people conquered by the Aztec Empire varied to a great extent. For example, Bernal Díaz del Castillo speaks of homosexuality among the ruling classes, prostitution of young people, and cross-dressing in the area of Veracruz. The yauyos had prostitution houses full of men with painted faces and women’s clothing.

There was a general tolerance of homosexuality and transgenderism among Ancient Mesoamerica, but this harmony was disrupted by Christian conquerors, who forced their ways upon the indigenous peoples, turning homosexuality from a celebrated status to one of shame and death.

La última escena de “La Creación del Quinto Sol”. Aquí, en el panel superior, Quetzalcoatl sopla sobre Tonatiuh, el sol, para ponerlo en su viaje diario a través de los cielos. Por debajo, el primer atardecer del sol, en la cual Tonatiuh esta tragado por Tlaltecuhtli, la Teotl de la Tierra, y al final, la primera salida de la luna, en la cual Tecciztecatl, el Teotl de la luna, se eleva en el cielo y se viste de trapos por las Tzitzitmime.

The last scene from “The Creation of the Fifth Sun.” Here, in the top panel, Quetzalcoatl blows on Tonatiuh, the sun, to set him on his daily journey through the heavens. Below, the first sunset, in which Tonatiuh is swallowed by Tlaltecuhtli, the Teotl of the Earth, and the first moonrise, in which Tecciztecatl, the Teotl of the moon, rises into the sky, and is dressed in rags by the Tzitzitmime.