The population of Hawaiian honeycreepers has declined by over 95% in the past 15 years, and 20 of the species have likely gone extinct, meaning that fewer than half of these unique species still exist. Much of this is due to habitat loss, predation by imported predators such as rats and cats, and competition by non-native birds. But in recent years, a new threat has arisen in avian malaria, which the honeycreepers have no immunity to. Previously, temperatures in the alpine habitats of many honeycreepers were too low for malaria-carrying mosquitoes to survive. However, thanks to climate change, the local temperatures have been climbing, meaning that the mosquitoes are now entering the birds’ habitats with deadly consequences. Elimination of the disease and/or the mosquitoes will likely be vital for the honeycreepers’ survival.