For my book Nabokov’s Favourite Word Is Mauve, I created a computer program to sort through thousands of books by the most revered and popular authors to find out their “cinnamon words” – relatively rare words that a particular writer uses often. Obviously every author used function words such as “the” and “from” at a high rate, and basic adjectives like “big” or “fast”, but cinnamon words are the words that each author uses disproportionately compared with other writers.
Nabokov used the word “mauve” 44 times as often as one would expect, which makes perfect sense in hindsight. He had synesthesia or, as he called it, “coloured hearing”. When he thought of a specific letter and sound he would see colours at the same time. Unsurprisingly, he uses colours at four times the rate found in standard English writing.
Sometimes, if you look at an author’s cinnamon words, you can already hear their voice. Consider these three: civility, fancying, imprudence. If you guessed Austen, you are correct. These are the three words that, compared with the rest of written English, are mathematically the most used by Austen.
Given Nabokov’s emphasis on colour, it’s safe to assume he was aware of the words he favoured in his writing. However, it’s possible many authors are unaware of the words they are using at an abnormal rate. Sometimes the words are inescapably linked to the topics they write about, as in Christie’s case (inquest, alibi and frightful). At others, you get a sense of the author’s tone through their most uniquely used words. While Charles Dickens preferred hearted, pinch, rejoined, JRR Tolkien favoured elves, goblins and wizards, and Wharton has the polite nearness, daresay, compunction, John Updike’s three are rimmed, prick and fucked. It only takes three words (and just one four-letter word) to zero in on each writer’s style and set it apart.
Using the 2013 Dictionary of Cliches by Christine Ammer, I scanned through the same collection of books to find cliches that writers use most often. There was a clear frontrunner for the title of “most cliched writer”: James Patterson. The bestselling US author averages 160 cliches per 100,000 words, about twice as many as JK Rowling and Gillian Flynn.
Patterson writes the phrase “believe it or not” in more than half his books, but he’s not the only author to use at least some cliches. Austen loved to write “with all my heart”, Dan Brown uses “full circle”, Stephenie Meyer books are filled with “sighs of relief”, and Rowling has her “dead of night”. Even literary authors are fond of a cliche, with Zadie Smith falling back on “evil eye”, Donna Tartt on “too good to be true” and Salman Rushdie using “the last straw” in more than half his novels. Not all cliches are bad, but it’s clear some authors rely on them more than others. EL James is in the upper tier of cliche users, with one of her favourites being “words fail me”. [full article]
(AP) – The Trump administration is considering a proposal to mobilize as many as 100,000 National Guard troops to round up unauthorized immigrants, including millions living nowhere near the Mexico border, according to a draft memo obtained by The Associated Press.
The 11-page document calls for the unprecedented militarization of immigration enforcement as far north as Portland, Oregon, and as far east as New Orleans, Louisiana.
Four states that border on Mexico are included in the proposal — California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas — but it also encompasses seven states contiguous to those four — Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Louisiana.
Governors in the 11 states would have a choice whether to have their guard troops participate, according to the memo, written by U.S. Homeland Security Secretary John Kelly, a retired four-star Marine general.
While National Guard personnel have been used to assist with immigration-related missions on the U.S.-Mexico border before, they have never been used as broadly or as far north.
The memo is addressed to the then-acting heads of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and U.S. Customs and Border Protection. It would serve as guidance to implement the wide-ranging executive order on immigration and border security that President Donald Trump signed Jan. 25. Such memos are routinely issued to supplement executive orders.
Also dated Jan. 25, the draft memo says participating troops would be authorized “to perform the functions of an immigration officer in relation to the investigation, apprehension and detention of aliens in the United States.” It describes how the troops would be activated under a revived state-federal partnership program, and states that personnel would be authorized to conduct searches and identify and arrest any unauthorized immigrants.
Requests to the White House and the Department of Homeland Security for comment and a status report on the proposal were not answered.
The draft document has circulated among DHS staff over the last two weeks. As recently as Friday, staffers in several different offices reported discussions were underway.
If implemented, the impact could be significant. Nearly one-half of the 11.1 million people residing in the U.S. without authorization live in the 11 states, according to Pew Research Center estimates based on 2014 Census data.
Use of National Guard troops would greatly increase the number of immigrants targeted in one of Trump’s executive orders last month, which expanded the definition of who could be considered a criminal and therefore a potential target for deportation. That order also allows immigration agents to prioritize removing anyone who has “committed acts that constitute a chargeable criminal offense.”
Under current rules, even if the proposal is implemented, there would not be immediate mass deportations. Those with existing deportation orders could be sent back to their countries of origin without additional court proceedings. But deportation orders generally would be needed for most other unauthorized immigrants.
The troops would not be nationalized, remaining under state control.
Spokespeople for the governors of Arizona, Utah, Nevada, California, Colorado, Oklahoma, Oregon and New Mexico said they were unaware of the proposal, and either declined to comment or said it was premature to discuss whether they would participate. The other three states did not immediately respond to the AP.
The proposal would extend the federal-local partnership program that President Barack Obama’s administration began scaling back in 2012 to address complaints that it promoted racial profiling.
The 287(g) program, which Trump included in his immigration executive order, gives local police, sheriff’s deputies and state troopers the authority to assist in the detection of immigrants who are in the U.S. illegally as a regular part of their law enforcement duties on the streets and in jails.
The draft memo also mentions other items included in Trump’s executive order, including the hiring of an additional 5,000 border agents, which needs financing from Congress, and his campaign promise to build a wall between the U.S. and Mexico.
The signed order contained no mention of the possible use of state National Guard troops.
According to the draft memo, the militarization effort would be proactive, specifically empowering Guard troops to solely carry out immigration enforcement, not as an add-on the way local law enforcement is used in the program.
Allowing Guard troops to operate inside non-border states also would go far beyond past deployments.
In addition to responding to natural or man-made disasters or for military protection of the population or critical infrastructure, state Guard forces have been used to assist with immigration-related tasks on the U.S.-Mexico border, including the construction of fences.
In the mid-2000s, President George W. Bush twice deployed Guard troops on the border to focus on non-law enforcement duties to help augment the Border Patrol as it bolstered its ranks. And in 2010, then-Arizona Gov. Jan Brewer announced a border security plan that included Guard reconnaissance, aerial patrolling and military exercises.
In July 2014, then-Texas Gov. Rick Perry ordered 1,000 National Guard troops to the border when the surge of migrant children fleeing violence in Central America overwhelmed U.S. officials responsible for their care. The Guard troops’ stated role on the border at the time was to provide extra sets of eyes but not make arrests.
Bush initiated the federal 287(g) program — named for a section of a 1996 immigration law — to allow specially trained local law enforcement officials to participate in immigration enforcement on the streets and check whether people held in local jails were in the country illegally. ICE trained and certified roughly 1,600 officers to carry out those checks from 2006 to 2015.
The memo describes the program as a “highly successful force multiplier” that identified more than 402,000 “removable aliens.”
But federal watchdogs were critical of how DHS ran the program, saying it was poorly supervised and provided insufficient training to officers, including on civil rights law. Obama phased out all the arrest power agreements in 2013 to instead focus on deporting recent border crossers and immigrants in the country illegally who posed a safety or national security threat.
Trump’s immigration strategy emerges as detentions at the nation’s southern border are down significantly from levels seen in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Last year, the arrest tally was the fifth-lowest since 1972. Deportations of people living in the U.S. illegally also increased under the Obama administration, though Republicans criticized Obama for setting prosecution guidelines that spared some groups from the threat of deportation, including those brought to the U.S. illegally as children.
Last week, ICE officers arrested more than 680 people around the country in what Kelly said were routine, targeted operations; advocates called the actions stepped-up enforcement under Trump.
We interrupt your regularly scheduled broadcast to bring you
an urgent message.
Numerous disc-shaped objects have been spotted in the sky.
Experts believe that they are of extra-terrestrial origin.
All attempts to contact them have failed, and they are now
killing civilians wihout stopping.
The Government has declared a state of emergency, and
martial law is now being enforced across the entire country.
All citizens must remain in their homes. Do not attempt to leave
your homes. Do not attempt to reach friends and family. Do not attempt to hold
meetings, as the extra-terrestrials are attracted to large groups.
All citizens must hand over any communications device to the
authorities. Devices with communication functions can be tracked by the
All citizens must comply and obey any order without
All citizens must report lawbreakers to the authorities.
Any citizen that does not comply with the authorities WILL
BE SHOT ON SIGHT.
If you cannot see any of the extra-terrestrial disks in the
sky, it has now been confirmed that they are capable of cloaking.
In order to survive you must obey orders without question.
Do not refuse any order or you will be executed. All orders are given only for
The extra-terrestrials are targeting specific urban centers.
If you cannot see them, remain calm.
THIS MESSAGE WILL
REPEAT UNTIL ALL CITIZENS HAVE SUBMITTED TO MARTIAL LAW
I have worked out the details of a game (mechanics, gameplay, features, platform, etc) on paper and built a (very) rough prototype in Unreal. Before I go after financing I need to estimate the cost to develop. The major variable I can’t figure out is time. How long will I need each team member? Is there a best way to estimate this?
If you don’t know how long something will take to build, your best bet is to interview people who do. Talk to candidates who have the skills to do what you need, and ask them for their estimates and the costs associated with hiring them on a contractor basis. Get more than one opinion if you can, and check them against each other to get a good idea of why. After that’s all done, make sure you add sufficient time for padding, in case of unforeseen circumstances cropping up. Remember, these are just estimates after all, and expertise in a field will vary from person to person.
Generally, you will need a core senior development team on staff for the full duration of development, because you need them to be able to fix, update, and maintain the data, assets, and systems as time passes, new features start to work, and circumstances change. Game development doesn’t work well in a vacuum; it’s a collaborative effort. The programmer needs to be able to talk to designer so that the code systems being written will provide the designer the tools necessary to create the content. The animator needs to talk to the programmer to make sure that the assets being created are usable in game, and the designer needs to be on the same page in order to stub out the files necessary for the artist to replace later. Assets that are built to one set of specifications might need to be updated in case those specifications change. Data might be organized or laid out differently, or tools might change. Early assumptions about the engine or a given solution might prove to be unfeasible, so a new solution must be found, and the assets and data updated to reflect the new solution. Even if you buy assets from the online marketplace, there’s no guarantee that they’ll be in the proper format to be used with your game’s systems. You’ll still need an expert in your own data who can go over each thing and make sure it works within the context of your own project. Depending on what it is you buy, that somebody’s skillset will vary.
Remember, a game isn’t just a bunch of disparate parts thrown together, but a machine built out of systems and assets that have been authored to function together, by people who built them together. Sure, you can throw a bunch of assets into a buggy engine and hope that it holds together for a tech demo, but that probably isn’t going to win anybody with money over. There are tons of projects out there with big hopes and dreams, but little to no skills necessary to deliver a finished product. You need to make sure that your core team has the ability to actually deliver that finished product, and that involves finding the right people first.
3. If you had a million dollars, but you could only spend it on things starting with the first letter of your name [or your blog's name if you don't use your irl name on the internet, or your OCs' names, whichever you want to answer!] what would you buy?
HAHAHAHA I can abuse this if I’m allowed to categorize.
Accommodations (for shelter), aliment (for food), attire (for clothes), accessibility (VERY broad category that would encompass anything I needed to make it easier to function), art, author support (for books), angel fund (for charity), animal upkeep, acquisitions (for everything else), and all of this for acquaintances and associates also.
Or just “anything.”
If not allowed to categorize, I’m just going to buy a shitfuckload of alligators and go out in style.
Reading a gripping novel causes biological changes in the brain which last for days as the mind is transported into the body of the protagonist.
Being pulled into the world of a gripping novel can trigger actual, measurable changes in the brain that linger for at least five days after reading, scientists have said.
The new research, carried out at Emory University in the US, found that reading a good book may cause heightened connectivity in the brain and neurological changes that persist in a similar way to muscle memory.
The changes were registered in the left temporal cortex, an area of the brain associated with receptivity for language, as well as the the primary sensory motor region of the brain.
Neurons of this region have been associated with tricking the mind into thinking it is doing something it is not, a phenomenon known as grounded cognition - for example, just thinking about running, can activate the neurons associated with the physical act of running.
“The neural changes that we found associated with physical sensation and movement systems suggest that reading a novel can transport you into the body of the protagonist,” said neuroscientist Professor Gregory Berns, lead author of the study.
“We already knew that good stories can put you in someone else’s shoes in a figurative sense. Now we’re seeing that something may also be happening biologically.”
If there was anything more unsettling than an Oblivion apartment filled with all three Oblivions, it was an Oblivion apartment with none of them. Of course, that wasn’t entirely uncommon; they all had jobs, after all. But an Oblivion apartment that had been empty for a week–
Well, that was a truly concerning thing.
It was wrong to say it was completely empty, though. When Adelheid came through the door, the only other person in the apartment came down the hallway, coming from the direction of the kitchen, with cane sword drawn.
“Adelheid? Is that you?” They were acquaintances only, but Julian Advent and Adelheid had met several times at Authorities functions, and he felt comfortable enough to put his blade away. “Apologies– I was expecting someone less… friendly.”
Oh, boy. Here we go. I apologize in advance for the long post.
Kyanite, Gaspeite, and Howlite were all stationed on Earth at the beginning of its colonization for separate reasons. Kyanite was stationed to create warp pads with her team of 5 other fellow Kyanites. Gaspeite was to be a messenger, but since it was peace time she was “hired” by upper crust gems to deliver personal messages. Howlite was put in charge of managing the new kindergarten prime.
The first gems in the group to meet were Gaspeite and Howlite. Howlite had Gaspeite deliver a message to Pink Diamond that the Rose Quartz soldiers of hers were emerging smoothly. Neither of them thought much of it afterwards and they wouldn’t meet again for roughly a thousand years.
After the rebellion began around 5,500 years ago things began to change. Most classes of gems that normally would not arm themselves began to just to be able to do their normal jobs. Enemy gems would destroy warp pads near their bases that could be accessed by Homeworld gems to cut off access and to create traps. Kyanites would have to go to these pads to repair them and would have weapons to protect themselves when they were ambushed. It was dangerous work, but they had no choices. Gaspeites would arm themselves with small weapons like daggers in case enemy gems would try to steal their messages. Howlites still made soldiers, but it also became their duties to protect kindergartens in case enemies would try to “liberate them” or just obliterate any gem they found. Therefore, Howlites usually had powerful weapons like axes or swords, but our Howlite had only throwing knives.
Howlite was assigned during the war to begin experiments pertaining to fusion around 5,159 years ago. Eventually, they would experiment by forcefully fusing fallen soldier shards. After that was the cluster. The first experiments though attempted to create gems of the fusion category singulary with the hopes that the results would be super soldiers with the size and power of fusions but with only one gem and mind. Examples of these gems included Alexandrite and Opal. The actual results were singular fusion category gems, but they were of average statures, had different abilities, and looked drastically different. Howlite would meet Alexite in this way after she had aided in his origin. After analyzing Alexite and the other experiments like him, she realized that this method was a failure and stopped trying. They kept Alexite and the others though in the hopes that over time there might be a change.
Around this time was when Gaspeite and Kyanite first met on their own side adventure involving and emergency delivery to a general miles from the nearest working warp pad. Gaspeite had a message and Kyanite had to repair the pad. Gaspeite met Kyanite outside the area where they both briefly explained their missions. Kyanite could have easily teleported herself and left Gaspeite, but she made the choice to help her. Part of her decision was because she felt that she was required to because Gaspeite was of a higher class than her. The rest of her decided to help her because she felt that if either of them went alone they wouldn’t be able to fend for themselves. The mission took 4 full weeks and by the end they had become friends for the rest of their existences.
Around 4,928 years ago Gaspeite met Alexite while crossing paths at the kindergarten. Alexite had lived underground his entire life to avert being seen by anyone who could leak information. For just one day he found his way above ground to see the sky and feel the sun. While he was up there he coincidentally ran into Gaspeite who had a message for Howlite. It was a fleeting interaction, but Gaspeite was completely thrown off from seeing a new type of gem. Gaspeite later told Kyanite about “the purple mystery from the prime kindergarten”.
Around two hundred years later, Pink Diamond was shattered. Soon after, the fusion experiments were abandoned in search for a new weapon. The diamonds requested every 3rd Howlite to go to a secret base on Mars for experimentation. Howlite left her friend Alexite to the care of the other Howlites and bid farewell. She wouldn’t see him again for over 100 years.
Howlite then endured the mental exhaustion of torturing gems for 128 years of her life. Howlites had the unique ability to influence the minds of gems on a small scale individually. In larger numbers, they could have more dramatic effects. The goal of the experiments was to see how far the influence could go.
To protect the secrecy of the base there was only one warp pad on Mars that could only be accessed from the moon base. Kyanite was chose for her loyalty and prowess to be the sole repairer of the two warp pads. When the Howlites were given breaks from the torture Howlite would talk to Kyanite. When any messages relating to the progress of the project had to be delivered they would be sent through Gaspeite. Kyanite reintroduced Gaspeite to Howlite and the three of them began to become a close unit. Eventually, Gaspeite tells Howlite about their secret and Howlite confesses who “the purple mystery” is. They were shocked that nearly everyone in the group had met before at some point besides Alexite and Kyanite.
As the project went on Howlite felt rage and hatred towards the diamond authority build inside her. When Howlite took part of the first corruption, she was shook. The amount of anguish had left the gem to exert itself as an animalistic form and in the process to lose any rationality that it once had. After reflecting Howlite realized three things. One, that what she had taken part of was an atrocity. Two, that the amount of Howlites it took to corrupt was too many to be practical. Therefore, they would manifest the abilities of the Howlites with an object of some sort and she would not let herself be subjected to that. And finally three, that now that the authority had a functioning weapon they would no longer need Alexite and he would be shattered.
She tells her friends and they make a plan to break Alexite out of the kindergarten. They ran into difficulty as Alexite knew it as his only home, but they convinced him to flee with them. When they did they fled to Earth and stayed neutral to either side of the war. Howlite used her knowledge of the weapon to help devise a plan to save them from corruption when the weapon would hit.
They only had to save three of them because Howlites were impervious to influence from other Howlites. Through trial and error including fusion they discovered that while in the stasis of a bubble they were fine. When the blast was about to hit the three of them put their trust in Howlite and let her poof and bubble them.
She bubbled them, tears streaking down her face. She trembled as she shielded the bubbles with her body. She prayed and begged for them to be okay after the flash. She knew that she couldn’t go on without them. They were her support in the harsh environment that they had been conditioned into. She had spent hundreds of years laughing and crying with them.
As she held them close the sky erupted with a flash of dazzling, sharp, and cold light followed by an explosion louder than a supernova was devastating. After, there was only silence.
There are multiple theories, but the main one is Beebe-Thomson.
5th function: Opposing Personality
This function is where you are stubborn. As the shadow of the 1st function (the Hero), it occurs when the 1st function is obstructed or when the 4th function is attacked. On the other hand, it can help the 1st.
In others, this function is annoying.
An example of this is that, when I am ordered around, I become stubborn and won’t do the thing.
6th function: Critical Parent (aka Senex, Witch)
This function is used mainly to criticise. As the shadow of the 2nd function (the Good Parent), it thinks it’s the authority on the function. It occurs when the 2nd function is negated, or when the 3rd function is attacked. On the other hand, it can provide wisdom.
In others, this function is seen as attacking you.
An example of this is that, when something negative happens, I look for the negative pattern, even when there isn’t one.
7th function: Trickster
This function makes you think something is important when it isn’t. As the shadow of the 3rd function (the Child/Puer/Puella), it is rebellious, like a naughty child that needs telling off (the 6th function’s job). It also confuses you. It occurs when the 3rd function is attacked, or when the 2nd function is negated. On the other hand, it is funny.
In others, this function is seen as immature.
An example (more positive, for once) is that I enjoy slapstick.
8th function: Demon
This function is highly destructive. As the shadow of the 4th function (the Anima/Animus, associated with life), this function is highly negative, and associated with evil and death. It occurs when the vulnerable 4th function is attacked, or when the 1st function doesn’t do its job. On the other hand, it is highly transformative.
A native of Atlantic City, New Jersey, Moore moved to Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1952 to attend the University of Michigan. She earned a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from the University of Michigan in 1958 and her master’s degree in 1961. While working toward her doctoral degree, she also held positions at technology firms in Ann Arbor including KMS Industries and Datamax Corporation. She also held engineering positions at Bendix Aerospace Systems, Barnes Engineering, and Sensor Dynamics, where she was responsible for the theoretical analysis. Moore completed her thesis, A Vibrational Analysis of Secondary Chlorides, under the supervision of Samuel Krimm at the University of Michigan in 1972. This work was applicable to important questions in the vibrational study of macromolecules.
After receiving her doctorate, Moore worked at the University of Michigan as a research scientist until 1977, continuing spectroscopic work on proteins. In the five years following her dissertation, she published more than thirty papers with Krimm and collaborators. She was hired by Ford Motor Company in 1977 as an assembly engineer. Moore expanded Ford’s use of Japanese engineering and manufacturing methods in the 1980s. In 1991, Ebony magazine named Moore as one of their 100 “most promising black women in corporate America.”
Moore was a tutor, a member of Links Inc., a member of the Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, and the chairwoman of the Juanita D. Woods Scholarship Fund. She was married to Sidney L. Moore, who taught at the University of Michigan’s Neuropsychiatric Institute, for thirty years. They had two children Dr. Dorian Moore, MD. and Christopher Hobbs Moore, RN. Willie also had three grandchildren Sydney Padgett, William Hobbs Moore, and C. Jackson Moore 
Jackson was born in Washington D.C. Her parents, Beatrice and George Jackson, strongly valued education and encouraged her in school. Her father spurred on her interest in science by helping her with projects for her science classes. At Roosevelt High School, Jackson attended accelerated programs in both math and science and graduated in 1964 as valedictorian. 
Jackson elected to stay at MIT for her doctoral work, in part to encourage more African-American students to attend the institution. She worked on elementary particle theory for her Ph.D., which she completed in 1973, the first African-American woman to earn a doctorate degree from MIT. Her research was directed by James Young. Jackson was also the second African-American woman in the United States to earn a doctorate in physics
As a postdoctoral researcher of subatomic particles during the 1970s, Jackson studied and conducted research at a number of prestigious physics laboratories in both the United States and Europe. Her first position was as a research associate at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois (known as Fermilab) where she studied hadrons. In 1974, she became visiting scientist at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. There she explored theories of strongly interacting elementary particles. In 1976 and 1977, she both lectured in physics at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and became a visiting scientist at the Aspen Center for Physics.
At one time her research focused on Landau–Ginsburg theories of charge density waves in layered compounds, and has studied two-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge theories and neutrino reactions.
Jackson has described her interests:
I am interested in the electronic, optical, magnetic, and transport properties of novel semiconductor systems. Of special interest are the behavior of magnetic polarons in semimagnetic and dilute magnetic semiconductors, and the optical response properties of semiconductor quantum wells and superlattices. My interests also include quantum dots, mesoscopic systems, and the role of antiferromagnetic fluctuations in correlated 2D electron systems.
Jackson joined the Theoretical Physics Research Department at AT&T Bell Laboratories in 1976, examining the fundamental properties of various materials. She began her time at Bell Labs by studying materials to be used in the semiconductor industry. In 1978, Jackson became part of the Scattering and Low Energy Physics Research Department, and in 1988 she moved to the Solid State and Quantum Physics Research Department. At Bell Labs, Jackson researched the optical and electronic properties of two-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional systems. In her research, Jackson has made contributions to the knowledge of charged density waves in layered compounds, polaronic aspects of electrons in the surface of liquid helium films, and optical and electronic properties of semiconductor strained-layer superlattices. On these topics and others, she has prepared or collaborated on over 100 scientific articles.
Jackson served on the faculty at Rutgers University in Piscataway and New Brunswick, New Jersey from 1991 to 1995, in addition to continuing to consult with Bell Labs on semiconductor theory. Her research during this time focused on the electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional systems.
In 1995, President Bill Clinton appointed Jackson to serve as Chairman of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), becoming the first woman and first African-American to hold that position. At the NRC, she had “ultimate authority for all NRC functions pertaining to an emergency involving an NRC licensee.
On July 1st, 1999, Jackson became the 18th president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. She was the first woman and first African-American to hold this position. Since her appointment to president of RPI, Jackson has helped raise over $1 billion in donations for philanthropic causes. Jackson is leading a strategic initiative called The Rensselaer Plan and much progress has been made towards achieving the Plan’s goals. She has overseen a large capital improvement campaign, including the construction of an Experimental Media and Performing Arts Center and the East Campus Athletic Village. She enjoys the ongoing support of the RPI Board of Trustees. On April 26, 2006, the faculty of RPI (including a number of retirees) voted 155 to 149 against a vote of no-confidence in Jackson. In the Fall of 2007, the Rensselaer Board of Trustees suspended the faculty senate, thus prompting a strong reaction from the Rensselaer community that resulted in various protests including a "teach-in”.
Since arriving at RPI, Jackson has been one of the highest-paid university presidents in the nation. Her combined salary and benefits have expanded from $423,150 in 1999-2000 to over $1.3 million in 2006-07 and to $2.34 million in 2010. In 2011 Jackson’s salary was $1.75 million. In 2006-07, it is estimated she received another $1.3 million from board seats at several major corporations. The announcement of layoffs at RPI in Decembe 2008 led some in the RPI community to question whether the institute should continue to compensate Jackson at this level, maintain a $450,000 Adirondack residence for her, and continue to support a personal staff of housekeepers, bodyguards and other aides. In July 2009, the news reported on the construction of a 10,000-square-foot (930 m2) mountain-top home in Bolton, New York, overlooking Lake George. A water-quality activist raised concerns about possible environmental hazards from the construction of a driveway, but according to Department of Environmental Conservation officials, the work was in compliance.
In its 2009 review of the decade 1999-2009, McClatchy Newspapers reported Jackson as the highest-paid currently sitting college president in the U.S., with a 2008 salary of approximately $1.6 million. On December 4–5, 2009 Jackson celebrated her 10th year at RPI with an extravagant “Celebration Weekend”, which featured tribute concerts by Aretha Franklin and Joshua Bell among other events. Following the weekend, the Board of Trustees announced they would support construction of a new guest house on Jackson’s property, for the purpose of “[enabling] the president to receive and entertain, appropriately, Rensselaer constituents, donors, and other high-level visitors”. It was later reported that Jackson’s current house on Tibbits Avenue has 4,884 square feet (453.7 m2) of space, seven bedrooms and five bathrooms, and an estimated value of $1,122,500. The trustees said that “the funds for this new project would not have been available for any other purpose”. William Walker, the school’s vice president of strategic communications and external relations noted, “The board sees this very much as a long-term investment … for President Jackson and her successors.” On February 2, 2010, the Troy Zoning Board of Appeals denied RPI’s request for a zoning variance allowing them to construct the new house at a height of 44 feet (13 m), which would exceed the 25-foot (7.6 m) height restriction on buildings in residential areas. The Zoning Board stated that it is “too big”, and two firefighters believed the property would be difficult to access with emergency vehicles. A new plan was announced on February 25, describing how the president’s house will be replaced with a new two-story house. The new house will have “9,600 square feet of livable space, divided approximately equally between living space for the president’s family and rooms for the president to conduct meetings and events”. In June 2010, it was discovered that the newest plans for the house showed a new size of 19,500 square feet (1,810 m2), causing the city of Troy to issue a stop-work order until additional building fees were paid. Jackson’s development and implementation of the Rensselaer Plan enabled her to secure a $360 million unrestricted gift commitment to the university.
In June 2010, it was announced that the Rensselaer Board of Trustees unanimously voted to extend Jackson a ten-year contract renewal, which she accepted. Shirley Ann Jackson’s compensation ranked 1st among USA private university presidents in 2014.
Her achievements in science and education have been recognized with multiple awards, including the CIBA-GEIGY Exceptional Black Scientist Award. In the early 1990s, Governor James Florio awarded her the Thomas Alva Edison Science Award for her contributions to physics and for the promotion of science. In 2001, she received the Richtmyer Memorial Award given annually by the American Association of Physics Teachers. She has also received many honorary doctorate degrees.
She was inducted into National Women’s Hall of Fame in 1998 for “her significant contributions as a distinguished scientist and advocate for education, science, and public policy”.
Jackson has also been active in professional associations and in serving society through public scientific commissions. In 1985, Governor Thomas Kean appointed her to the New Jersey Commission on Science and Technology. She is an active voice in numerous committees of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and the National Science Foundation. Her continuing aim has been to preserve and strengthen the U.S. national capacity for innovation by increasing support for basic research in science and engineering. This is done in part by attracting talent from abroad and by expanding the domestic talent pool by attracting women and members of under-represented groups into careers in science. In 2004, she became president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and chaired the AAAS board in 2005.
In spring 2007, she was awarded the Vannevar Bush Award for “a lifetime of achievements in scientific research, education and senior statesman-like contributions to public policy”.
~considered one of the most introverted of the extroverts (followed by ENFP)
~has many innovative ideas but loses enthusiasm quickly
~charismatic and charming
~enjoys debating/arguing due to the excitement and fun it brings
~is able to think of a situation in different points of view
~plays devil’s advocate in order to engage a more entertaining and intellectually stimulating conversation
~dismisses arguments that are not backed up by facts or proof
NE (extraverted intuition)
>gets bored quickly
>prefers assignments that are open-ended and encourages “out of the box” thinking/creativity
>sees endless possiblities in the world around them
TI (introverted thinking)
>prefers to think before speaking (cautious to achieve best result)
>may categorise facts/experiences/etc internally for later use
>may have trouble explaining how they got to a certain conclusion
FE (extraverted feeling)
>seeks balance and harmony with the people around them
>may either share or understand other people’s values and emotions
>may pay attention to HOW people say the things they say rather than what they actually say
SI (introverted sensing)
>when stressed/upset/angry may rewind memories or past experiences that may not benefit them (dwell in the past)
>is prone to being close minded or too much of a perfectionist under stress
At the end of “What Is an Author?”, Foucault predicts that in the future “the author function will disappear.” All discourses “would then develop in the anonymity of a murmur. We would no longer hear the questions that have been rehashed for so long: Who really spoke? Is it really he and not someone else? With what authenticity or originality? And what part of his deepest self did he express in his discourse?” (119). But these questions that Foucault consigns to the “anonymity of a murmur” are the very questions that have been, and still are being posed by women, blacks, Chicanos, and others who have been consigned to silence and invisibility within traditional representations of American history and literary history.
“Why is it,” Frances Foster asked at the 1989 ASA session on the authorship of Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl “that white people have such a hard time accepting the fact of a black woman writing a book?” Foster’s question (re)locates the question of authorship not in relation to the historical rise of capitalist individualism, but in relation to the historical silencing of black women. And within this narrative of black American Women’s history, Foucault’s consignment of the question “What difference does it make who is speaking?” to the “anonymity of a murmur” might be read as one more historical instance of white western male hegemony seeking to stop black women’s mouths by (re)colonizing them under the sign of invisibility, anonymity, and silence.
Betsy Erkkila, Theory in the Flesh: Questions of Race, Questions of Resistance
This is something I’ve wondered about before, and now that I’ve managed to find an answer, I thought I’d share.
So, why are leftist politics associated with the colour red?
There are a lot of ideas about this, that it comes from the red caps of freed slaves, that it represents the blood of the oppressed, that it’s an old symbol that means the opposite of a white flag, i.e never surrendering. However, the real origin seems to be its use as a symbol of martial law. It’s no wonder people go for more symbolic meanings, because martial law is hardly the first thing you’d think of, but it makes sense with some background.
According to Wikipedia, martial law is “usually imposed on a temporary basis when the civilian government or civilian authorities fail to function effectively (e.g., maintain order and security, or provide essential services), when there are extensive riots and protests, or when the disobedience of the law becomes widespread.” The red flag was famously used to signal the declaration of martial law in 1791 in Paris, when a crowd had gathered to sign an illegal petition.
During the 18th and 19th centuries, and to a lesser extent today, an important idea in politics was the principle of popular sovereignty. The gist of it is that natural or divine law has made the people of every country the rightful rulers of that country. Part of this principle is the right to rebellion, or rather the right to resist a rebellious government. After all, the people are the rightful rulers, and therefore any worldly power that goes against the people’s will is in rebellion against the people and not the other way around. To stop the government when it becomes rebellious, the people can therefore declare martial law and temporarily put aside the common norms that govern society in order to put a stop to the rebellion and restore lawful order. This is what the red flag means.*
Communism and socialism as we know them today have their origins in the revolutionary movements of the 19th century, and even though modern social democracy has left its revolutionary past behind it, it does still have that history and has kept the symbolism.
*According to Jean-Louis Carra, deputy to the National Convention, he was the first to suggest using the red flags as a revolutionary symbol in the time leading up to the storming of the Tuileries on August 10 1792