According to one view, belief in a “big God” has been instrumental in bringing about social and political complexity in human cultures.
But a new analysis of religious systems in Austronesia—the network of small and island states stretching from Madagascar to Easter Island—challenges that theory. In these states, a more general belief in supernatural punishment did tend to precede political complexity, the research finds, but belief in supreme deities emerged after complex cultures have already formed.
The Polynesian people are considered to be by linguistic, archaeological and human genetic ancestry a subset of the sea-migrating Austronesian people and tracing Polynesian languages places their prehistoric origins in the Malay Archipelago, and ultimately, in Taiwan.
Between about 3000 and 1000 BC speakers of Austronesian languagesbegan spreading from Taiwan into Island Southeast Asia.
Austronesia: Reclaiming The Civilization of the Voyaging Canoe
The Austronesian-speaking peoples are various populations in Southeast Asia and Oceania that speak languages of the Austronesian family. They include Taiwanese aborigines; the majority ethnic groups of East Timor, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Brunei, Madagascar, Micronesia, and Polynesia, as well as the Polynesian peoples of New Zealand and Hawaii, and the non-Papuan people of Melanesia. They are also found in Singapore, the Pattani region of Thailand, and the Cham areas of Vietnam (remnants of the Champa kingdom which covered central and southern Vietnam), Cambodia, and Hainan, China. The territories populated by Austronesian-speaking peoples are known collectively as Austronesia.
Indigenous people, aboriginal people, or native people, are groups protected in international or national legislation as having a set of specific rights based on their linguistic and historical ties to a particular territory, their cultural and historical distinctiveness from other populations.
The legislation is based on the conclusion that certain indigenous people are vulnerable to exploitation, marginalization, oppression, forced assimilation, and genocide by nation states formed from colonizing populations or by politically dominant, different ethnic groups.
TL:DR reaction by Dr. Peralta, but really worth the read.
And honestly I agree with him. Read more when you click the link
Ever since Sapir (1968) proposed that the chronology of the distribution of languages can be traced from the area of greatest linguistic variety to that of the least, linguists have accepted this position in using this analysis to determine the origin and direction of movements of people, despite dissenting analysis that a language may appear to be more distantly related than it actually is due to the variability of language contact (Peiros, 1998). Bellwood (1995) contends that the ancestors of the Austronesian speakers spread from Yunnan in the south Chinese mainland and that as early as 6,000 BC a fishing gardening culture existed on the south coast of China, exploiting the waters off the straits of Taiwan, where eventually between 4,000 and 3,000 BC they finally crossed the straits and settled on the island. Linguistic evidence suggest that these people spoke an Austronesian language that is purportedly related to the Tai-Kadai family of languages that is spoken Southeast Asia, specifically in Laos, northeastern Myanmar and Thailand - regions flanking the Mekong River.
At about 2,500 BC one group of these Austronesian speakers sailed south to the northern island of Luzon in the Philippines and settled there, bringing with them the same set of artifacts and subsistence technology from Taiwan. Through to 1,500 BC the group spread through the Philippine archipelago southwards, on to Sulawesi, the Moluccas, northern Borneo and eastern Java. From the Halmahera of the Moluccas one branch proceeded east by 1,600 BC to colonize eastern Melanesia by 1,200 BC. By 0 AD the expansion continued on to Polynesia and to the Easter Islands by 500 AD. Finally the movement culminated by reaching New Zealand about 1,300 AD. Another wave of these Austronesian speakers moved through Borneo, Java, and Sumatra to the coasts of the Malay Peninsula and southern Vietnam by about 500 BC and from there they traversed the Bay of Bengal, through to Sri Lanka and even southern India with its final expansion to Madagascar by 500 AD.
In effect what Bellwood contends is that all the ascendants of Southeast Asians and the peoples of the Pacific and the Indian Ocean passed through the Philippines in waves of migration from 2,500 BC to 500 AD from Taiwan. Peter Bellwood’s Out-of-Taiwan (OOT) hypothesis is based largely on linguistics, hewing very close to Robert Blust’s model of the history of the Austronesian language family and adding to it archeological data. This model suggests that Between 4500 BCE and 4000 BCE, developments in agricultural technology in the Yunnan Plateau in China created pressures which drove certain peoples to migrate to Taiwan. These people either already had or began to develop a unique language of their own, now referred to as Proto-Austronesian. By around 3000 BCE, these groups started differentiating into three or four distinct subcultures, and by 2500 to 1500 BC, one of these groups began migrating southwards towards the Philippines and Indonesia, reaching as far as Borneo and the Moluccas by 1500 BCE, forming new cultural groupings and developing unique languages.
By 1500 BC, some of these groups started migrating west, reaching as far as Madagascar around the first millennium CE. Others migrated east, settling as far as Easter Island by the mid-13th century CE, giving the Austronesian language group the distinction of being the most widely distributed language groups in the world at that time, in terms of the geographical span of the homelands of its languages. According to this theory, the peoples of the Philippines are the descendants of those cultures who remained on the Philippine islands when others moved first southwards, then eastward and westward.
Wilhelm Solheim (2000), on the other hand, asserts the “Island Origin” hypothesis (also known as the Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication west Africa and Madagascar Network (MNTCN), utilizing archaeological data instead of the historical linguistic evidence used by Bellwood, posits a completely different picture and direction. Solheim proposed a more elegant complex network of reciprocal regional cultural interchanges in the Asia-Pacific region during the Neolithic Age from 8,000 to 500 BC, undertaken by both Austronesian and non-Austronesian speakers. With Solheim the spread there were four geographic “lobes”: central, northern, eastern and western. The central lobe ramified into two phases: the “Early Central Lobe” and the “Late Central Lobe”. Solheim poses the origin of the NMTCN in eastern coastal Vietnam in the Early Central lobe at about 9.000 BC.
The network covers all of the Pacific Ocean, the coastal areas of China Sea and Japan, the coastal areas of the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean as far as Madagascar, and Island Southeast Asia and the coast al areas of Mainland Southeast Asia. Beginning about 5000 BC, it expanded from Easter island Southeast Asia, it expanded to the north through the Philippines to Taiwan and the coastal South China, then north along the coast of China to western and south Korea, and finally to Kyushu in Japan.
At about 5,000 BC, he suggested a northward spread of people toward the Late Central Lobe through island Southeast Asia that included the Philippines. South China and Taiwan, were the staging area of the Austronesian language family and the Malayo Polynesian group. Between 4,000 and 3,000 BC the spread of population through northern Luzon toward Micronesian, then formed the Early Eastern Lobe, developing the Malayo Polynesian languages. The NMTCN continued its cultural expansion through Malaysia before 2,000 BC, along the coast of India to West Africa and Madagascar. There was a further movement east to the Easter Island.
Solheim proposed that “Pre-Austronesian” culture began in the Bismarck Islands off Papua New Guinea about 13,000 to 10,000 BP., with networks established with Indo China and South China, where contact was made with Hoabinhian culture.
Oxford University School of Anthropology, Dr. Stephen Oppenheimer has his own point of view: those population dispersals came earlier, from within the region and probably resulted from flooding. In his book Eden in the East: The Drowned Continent of Southeast Asia, when he suggested the migrations came from within ISEA and resulted from flooding in the region.
Dr Oppenheimer said: ‘One of my main predictions in the book was that three major floods following the Ice Age forced the inhabitants to escape in boats and flee to less flood-prone regions. By examining mitochondrial DNA from their descendants in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, we now have strong evidence to support the flooding theory and this is possibly why Southeast Asia has a richer store of flood myths, more than any other region in the world.’
Dr Oppenheimer’s book, based on multidisciplinary evidence, writes about the effects of the drowning of a huge ancient continent called ‘Sundaland’ (that extended the Asian landmass as far as Borneo and Java). This happened during the period 15,000 to 7,000 years ago following the last Ice Age. He outlines how rising sea levels in three massive pulses caused flooding and the submergence of the Sunda Continent, creating the Java and South China Seas and the thousands of islands that make up Indonesia and the Philippines today.
5.6% of total U.S. population, 2012)
Regions with significant populations
Throughout the United States, especially Hawaii, the West Coast, and major urban areas elsewhere.
American English Asian languages
Related ethnic groups
Asian Americans of Hispanic and Latino ethnicity
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. As used by the U.S. Census Bureau Asian refers to a person having ancestral origins in any of the original peoples of East Asia, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.
The term includes people who indicate their race(s) as “Asian” or reported entries such as “Indian”, “Sri Lankan”, “Chinese”, “Malaysian”, “Filipino”, “Korean”, “Japanese”, “Vietnamese”, “Pakistani”, “Cambodian”, “Hmong”, and “Other Asian” or provided other detailed Asian responses.
Austronesian Migration (Crossroad and Civilization)
Austronesia, in historical terms, refers to the homeland of the peoples who speak Austronesian languages, including Malay, Filipino, Indonesian, Maori, Malagasy, native Hawaiian, the Fijian language and around a thousand other languages. The Austronesian homeland is thought by linguists to have been prehistoric Taiwan.
The name Austronesia comes from the Latin austrālis “southern” plus the Greek νήσος (nêsos) “island”.
Another artist with a similar style is John Dyer Baizley of Baroness. I love the references to folktales, the simple color schemes or stark black-and-white, and the level of detail. It’s so much fun to look at work like this.
Baroness ‘Blue Album’ cover (I admit, I bought the album because the cover was the shit. And the salmon reminded me of Fionn mac Cumhaill and that story about the Salmon of Knowledge.)
It makes me want to draw. And it makes me want to go out hiking and do some cool taotaomo'na shit, or draw chicks with blackened, cross-hatched and decorated teeth, like this:
Tooth etching. I’ve heard of another instance of holes being drilled through the teeth, for instance the incisors would have what are thought to be decorativeholes drilled through them.
Tooth-staining–a practice found in many Austronesian cultures throughout Insular and Mainland Southeast Asia, as well as in the Marianas. Chewing betel nut (pugua in the Marianas) is common as well, though some examples of the dental staining are thought to be different from regular ole’ reddish-brown pugua smile.
The Americas, or America, also known as the Western Hemisphere and the New World, comprise the totality of territories in North America and South America.
Along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of the Earth’s total surface area and 28.4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that run the length of the west coast. The flatter eastern side of the Americas is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, Mississippi, and La Plata. Since the Americas extend 14,000 km (8,700 mi) from north to south, the climate and ecology vary widely, from the arctic tundra of Northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska, to the tropical rain forests in Central America and South America.
Humans first settled the Americas from Asia between 42,000 and 17,000 years ago. A second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed later from Asia. The subsequent migration of the Inuit into the neoarctic around 3500 BCE completed what is generally regarded as the settlement by the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
Parvorder Odontoceti (excluding dolphins and porpoises)
Paus atau lodan (khusus yang bergigi dan bukan berukuran kecil) adalah sekelompok mamalia yang hidup di lautan. Sebutan “paus” diberikan pada anggota bangsa Cetacea yang berukuran besar. Paus bukan tergolong dalam keluarga ikan. Paus mempunyai ciri-ciri sebagai berikut:
bernapas menggunakan paru-paru
mempunyai rambut (sedikit, kebanyakan ada di paus dewasa)
mempunyai kelenjar susu
mempunyai jantung dengan empat ruang
Paus purba berevolusi pada pertengahan tempo Eocene, kira-kira 50 juta tahun yang lalu. Salah satu paus terawal yang telah punah adalah Basilosaurus yang mempunyai kepala kecil bermoncong menonjol dan bergigi. Basilosaurus mempunyai panjang 25 meter.
Fosil menunjukkan bahwa paus berasal dari hewan daratan berkuku, kemungkinan dari hewan seperti Mesonychid yang berangsur-angsur kembali menghuni lautan sekitar 50 juta tahun yang lalu. Satu lagi kemungkinan hewan lain yang berubah menjadi paus, adalah Ambulocetus, mamalia seukuran anjing laut namun memiliki panjang 3 meter seberat 325 kilogram.
Pada masa kini dikenal dua kelompok paus, yaitu paus bergigi (Odontoceti) dan paus tidak bergigi (Mysticeti). Paus Odontoceti yang bergigi merupakan pemangsa yang memakan ikan, sotong, dan mamalia laut, mempunyai satu lubang pernapasan. Paus bergigi berkerabat dekat dengan lumba-lumba dan pesut.