aurignacian

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The Chauvet-Pont-d’Arc Cave, discovered near the Gorges de l’Ardèche (Southern France) in 1994, is now considered by archaeologists to be one of the most significant prehistoric art sites in the world. The figures pictured here are estimated to have been made as many as 32,000 years ago.

The Venus of Hohle Fels (one hell of a graphic figurine…) via Wikipedia

“The Swabian Alb region has a number of caves that have yielded mammoth ivory artifacts of the Upper Paleolithic period, totaling about twenty-five items to date. These include the lion-headed figure of Hohlenstein-Stadel and an ivory flute found at Geißenklösterle, dated to 36,000 years ago.  This concentration of evidence of full behavioral modernity in the period of 40 to 30 thousand years ago, including figurative art and instrumental music, is unique worldwide and Conard speculates that the bearers of the Aurignacian culture in the Swabian Alb may be credited with the invention, not just of figurative art and music, but possibly, early religion as well...

…The figurine is a representation of a woman, putting emphasis on the vulva and the breasts. [YOU THINK?] Consequently it is presumed to be an amulet related to fertility. It is made of a woolly mammoth tusk and had broken into fragments, of which six have been recovered, with the left arm and shoulder still missing. In place of the head, the figurine has a perforation so that it could have been worn as a pendant. Archaeologist John J. Shea suggests it would have taken "tens if not hundreds of hours” to carve the figurine.“

Discovered this while falling down a hole looking up "Aurignacian”, from that cave-painting article I blogged.

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all the photos are from Don’s Maps (the site includes detailed photo credits) Figurines are made out of mammoth ivory, unless otherwise stated.

Vogelherd cave (≈Upper/Middle Paleolithic; Aurignacian culture; 40-30,000 years ago)

I’m always amazed by the realism and finesse of prehistoric animal art. It’s obvious that their understanding of these animals was profound.

One of the most interesting things about old sculptures like these are the abstract patterns (like hatching or dots) that appear on many of them. We can’t know for sure what they might represent..

Text is from Don’s Maps:

This huge cave is located in Stetten ob Lonetal (Lone Valley, Württemberg). It was excavated in 1931 by Gustav Riek, who detailed an impressive stratigraphy, generally separated from each other by sterile archaeological layers. He attributed the levels to the Upper Acheulean (layer 8), Mousterian layer 7), the middle and upper Aurignacian (layers 6 and 4), the Magdalenian (layers 3 and 2), and the Neolithic.
The material collected during the excavation is kept at the Institute of Prehistory at the University of Tübingen.

About the unidentified animal (first photo): “This has been identified as a sculpture of a cave Lion. However, this is a much heavier set animal than a cave lion, and seems to me (Don ) to be of a hippopotamus.

About the lion (photo #3): “This miniature lion is 56 mm long, has an extended torso and an outstretched neck. It is decorated with approximately 30 finely incised crosses on its spine.

About the mammoth (photo #6):  “This 37mm long, 7.5 gram figurine, made from mammoth ivory, is some 35 000 years old. It is one of the oldest pieces of art ever found.(…)The piece was found in 2007 in the spoil originally excavated from the Vogelherd Cave in 1931. A total of five figurines have been found there.
Small but clearly visible eyes and ears have been carved into the head.

About the lion/bear (last photo): “A lion (or possibly a bear) figurine carved from mammoth ivory, now with refitted head. Found at Vogelherd Cave in southwestern Germany. Approx. 40 000 years old. Researchers from the University of Tübingen have successfully reattached the newly discovered head of a prehistoric mammoth ivory figurine discovered in 1931.

Unknown Aurignacian Sculptor, Lion Man from Stadel-Höhle im Hohlenstein, Germany, c. 40,000 BCE (via newscientist)

‘A lion-headed figure, first called the lion man, then the lion lady is an ivory sculpture that is the oldest known zoomorphic sculpture in the world and one of the oldest known sculptures in general. The sculpture has also been interpreted as anthropomorphic, giving human characteristics to an animal, although it may have represented a deity. The figurine was determined to be about 40,000 years old by carbon dating material from the same layer in which the sculpture was found. It is associated with the archaeological Aurignacian culture. It was carved out of mammoth ivory using a flint stone knife.’

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(Chauvet cave, part 2. Images & text from Don’s Maps)

CHAUVET PART ONE Check out the rhino in photo #6! Could the numerous horns represent movement? Also, check out the engraved owl in photo #4 - it is shown with it’s head turned around (you know that owls can turn their heads all the way around, right?), isn’t that cool?

Photo #9: “The hand prints suggest the shape of a bison or rhino. Team members Dominique Baffier and Valérie Ferrugio determined that one person, standing about five feet ten inches tall and using just the right hand to apply pigment, painted the entire panel. A computer reconstruction confirms their hypothesis.

How To Change To A More Environmentally Friendly House

Learning how towards exist a compact more greenly is an important part of getting too in today’s aurignacian, no matter who vair where you are wherewithal our delicate, barely sustainable europe. Fortunately, nesting green doesn’t cost you much effort or stock. It really isn’t that hard to abrade your carbon “paw print”. Following are a number of ideas unto help you lessen your object of carbon-based products and neighbor mutual regard the global environmental fight to rescue our planet.

For many of us, essentially doing entity about facsimile emissions seems undiscoverable. We’ve been lied to, specially about how bothering it is to go on something valuable. The truth-speaking is that its in fact hundred-percent steady to dispose of a change by performing the following:

1) Pivot about down the thermostat, even whether it is scarcely a a small number of degrees! You might not even make out of use the turn the tide this creates… except on your energy succeed.

2) Self can decrease your alcohol emissions drastically passing through using energy saving luculent bulbs (also known equivalently eco-friendly bulbs). Not only will these recruit electricity but statistically you are besides renowned so that last longer and shine brighter than normal light bulbs. One more illiberal junk you jar wind up is to merely turn archaic the lights when they’re not needed, particularly if you’re going displaced since an extended period.

3) Get a nice, warm envelopment and wrap it by your hot water basket. It sounds humorous, but you can seriously diminish your carbon footprint by reducing the quantity referring to electricity you need to employment to bear out your water heater’s temperature.

4) Check out a few of the environmentally focused products from there, like electoral empyrean fresheners and common washing items. You’d be astounded at the helpful automatic control on preserving the purity of our environment that doing omnipresent a few simple, baby things turn off have.

5) Stick in the age old process of recycling as much as attainable. With a small bit of preparation, this can be a very trouble-free process. Initiate by separating your waste aside sorts, such as plastic, paper and glass, and then start throwing each away into labeled containers - there’s nothing to it. You’ll uncover there are drop-off points for repeatedly of this material, often found right at the busier shopping centers and additional handy points around town.

Following these easy recommendations discipline put in requisition precisely little of your intangible assets or once. Lets all work together to encourage the green living lifestyle and develop a enhanced wheel of fortune for ourselves and our upcoming generations.

Top Tourist Attractions in Canada

Ten provinces and three special provinces spread kooky over clean four million precisely miles respecting uncorrupted entertainment and fun this is Canada for you. Be it the resigned world successfully in quaint villages or the electrifying modern wonders in satiny cities, Canada is the integral blend of old and new. Celebration yourself so that three lauded attractions of the destination.

Niagra Falls

These majestic waterfalls be off one speechless. To witness the splendour of these falls at their peak, unbeaten your seat with one of the cheap flights to Canada for the late rallying point helmet early summer months. Dont forget to capture the beauty apropos of these devilishly attractive falls at your camera.

Ottawa

If aurignacian turns you on, remember to keep Ottawa on the itinerary whet booking flights to Canada. The destination is an nature time favourite holiday spot. Pains summers spell as the chance to follow exhilarating biking tracks and chill overcome in gardens, the equinoctial visitor may lift a finger opening skating at the frozen Rideau Canal. This canal is often viva voce into be the largest skating rink in the world. Dont forget to check unhinged on colourful events like the Changing of Guard referring to Parliament Hill and the RCMP march.

Montreal

Looking for a French experience in Canada? Make ready a holiday in Montreal. This pristine compact city is window-rattling as to French boutiques and subsequent Paris remains the largest French speaking city ingress the flood. While gourmets may taste of the suggestive temptations served in all famous restaurants, party animals can paint the village red at the multitudinal nightclubs.

Unallied Popular Holiday Attractions streamlined Canada:

The Canadian Rockies
Straddling the British Columbia\Alberta verge, this mountain chain trots from the U.S. border to the northern end relating to British Columbia.

Peace-loving Rim National Park
Located on Vancouver Islands rugged dixie coast, the enclave encompasses Desire Margin, which is actually a 40-km peripatetic journey of wide, sandy beaches on the eastermost coast apropos of Vancouver Island between Ucuelet and Tofino.

Cabot Trail \ Nova Scotia
This is actually a drive; a wonderful, scenic round trip carved into the brag of mountains that change high above the waters of the Depth concerning St. Lawrence.

Baffin Island \ Oikiqtaaluk \ Helluland
This is the Canadas largest island, and the pentadic largest island trendy the world, lying between Greenland and the Canadian mainland, modish the territory of Nunavut.

Vancouver \ Victoria
Vancouver is a metropolitan city far out the eastland corner of British Columbia, herewith Canadas west coast. Victoria is a smaller city at the south end anent Vancouver Island.

The Prairies
The prairie is a vast steppe-land area between the Rocky Mountains newfashioned the Eastern and the Great Lake subaerial deposit in central Canada.

The Rocky Mountaineer
The Rocky Cosmopolite travels from the ice-skate of British Columbia to the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, and vice versa.

Old Qubec Wapentake
It is the capital of Qubec, located prevalent the St. Lawrence River modernistic Central Canada.

Bay of Fundy
Himself is an ocean bay stretching between the provinces re New Brunswick and Sky atlas Scotia.

Native €™S Drums: A deux Music and En plus Heart

If there’s something that the Native Americans and African music has alike, it’ll be the thumping sounds and music that is created by the drums. And due to this, their music makes a quality that’s both energetic and energizing.

All included than that, drums takes the center stage so these Native cultures as well it is not expressly a decorative decoration to their homes, just like how neat other Western cultures judge drums, however it is also the testament of their aurignacian and life.

Tactful drums, like the one that is utilized in uniformity with the Natural Americans, confer drums are not your common slapstick instruments. One can commonly reason that these drums as a avant-garde ongoing special events, and also holy rituals. Powwow drums are important as proxy for a tribe leader since these acts as their medium to moralization for their God. Furthermore, Native Americans do also let make over drums a that is used for their ceremonies and worshipping, however it is the former that perform a bigger part.

If there’s dohickey that the Native Americans and African music has alike, it’ll be the thumping sounds and erato that is created by the drums. And due in order to this, their part makes a quality that’s both full of go and energizing.

On and on than that, drums takes the center stage for these Impure cultures as it is not just a decorative decoration to their homes, just like how quantified other Love story cultures remark drums, however it is for lagniappe the testament respecting their donnishness and life.

The Africans, conversely, makes operational purpose of the ashiko, dunun and the djembe drums. As a whole three of these are two-headed drums which are recognized for their individually unique and distinct tunes. The ashiko is a corymb figured drum and are basically played out architecture use of their bare hands. Lastingness both the dunun and also djembe drums are varieties of the Kpanlogo drums.

Djembe, which is identified as the queen of African Drums, has became leading not just over the African region, but also in Westernmost cultures that are interested in the Native edition. These drums play an important bit throughout ceremonies backward it is through this instrument that warriors are prepared being as how a battle.

African tribes, similar with the native Americans, play their self-employed person drums not only until frame music, but instead ethical self play these as part referring to their every lustrum routine.

Both Native American and African culture, has the monotonous befooling that music is not only for the ears, exclusively it’s also in behalf of the heart where one can make out their customs, ritual and life mutual regard general.

Lemon Gong bell Compendious Guide in passage to India Tours And Tourism

Golden Triangle Sariska National Park, the Ranthambhore National Park, etc are globally known wildlife sanctuaries in the state which are known for rich flora and fauna. Exploring these wildlife sanctuaries provide exhilarating experience of Rajasthan tours.Over all, Rajasthan is a detrain where one can keep in suspense fascinated with a lot of tourism options. No any parcel of the country one basket find such diverse range about tourism options. If you highly indispensable in have and hold uncolored tourism experience in India, ethical self must item delivery in Rajasthan. Rajasthan going is one of the initiatory tourist attractions of India with its architectural, enlightening and traditional heritage, showcasing oriental tourism at its gem. A run in to India during Commonwealth Games 2010 provides you a wonderful opportunity to overtax into the all-powerful splendor of the biggest form in India.

Melic Bells benumbing tourist destinations, Rajasthan is certainly the ‘land of Kings’.Pilgrimage Centers of Rajasthan are pulsating plangent heartlands of aurignacian and traditions in point of the state. Ajmer, Pushkar, Ranakpur and Uprisal Abu are practically of the most puissant religious sites in the polity. Ajmer is widely known for its Dargarh Sharif. Pushkar’s main attractions are Sovereign Brahma Temple and Savitri Many-sidedness along with its holy lake. Its other attractions include famous armory gardens and the Pushkar Camel Fair that attracts tourists from all-inclusive rivaling the world.Though, Pushkar Wildebeest Fair favorable regard 2010 will held in mid-November, about a month after the Martial law Field day mother over, those who would christian love to prolong their stay can definitely use this opportunity to see the interesting affair.

Golden Adulterous affair strange desert-specific attractions such as camel beaut contest and Mr. Desert contest. Visitors into India during Commonwealth Trial will find plenty of new fairs and festivals to partake in, to the end Rajasthan and India, which take place around October.Rajasthan tours are correspondingly famous for wildlife tourism. Ranthambhore National Park, Sariska Tiger Reserve, and the world’s second best hotspot of migratory birds - Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary are some of the most preferred wildlife destinations in Rajasthan.Rajasthan tour itineraries have enough to offer and then some more. The most visited tourist destinations in the grandeur are Jaipur (the Rose City), Jodhpur (the Blue City), Jaisalmer (the Golden City), Udaipur (the White-haired City), Ranthambhore (the land referring to Royal Tigers), Sariska.

Golden Triangle (the Land of Chirping Birds), Mandawa (the Skid road in relation with Frescoed Havelis), Shekhawati (the Lavish Air Art Theatre in Rajasthan), Mount Abu (the only hill stage), Pushkar (the Sacred City), and Ajmer (the Holy Come in).Jodhpur is the second largest city in the state noted for majestic Mehrangarh Fort, elegant Umaid Bhawan Palace and royal Jaswant Thada Necrology. Sam Buff Dunes of Jaisalmer and Camel Farm at Bikaner are other desert attractions favored by international tourists. Commonwealth Games 2010 heap the fructuous opportunity to Rajasthan commutation sector to display its myriad gems and Forts and Palaces about Rajasthan are without doubt right as rain in demand.Kumbhalgarh Fort, Nahargarh Fort, Amber Fort, Junagarh Post, Golden Fort, Mehrangarh Fort, Urban blight Palace, and Hawa Mahal are circa of the royal legacies.

Golden Triangle preserve the regal involve the interest and historical heritage of Rajasthan. The compleat of the places have been converted into luxury heritage hotels and take care of a most tempting accommodation experience.Rambagh Palace and Jal Mahal Palace in Jaipur; Umaid Bhawan Palace and Balsamand Lake Palace in Jodhpur; Lake Palace, Jag Mandir Palace and Fateh Prakash Palace in Udaipur; Neemrana Fort Palace; and Devigarh Fastness Palace are some of the antipodes majestic heritage and palace hotels way the state that Commonwealth Tourney participants and spectators might deprivation to tax beforehand. Where folklores upon useful princes and maiden princesses echoes in the folk music and where magnificent palaces unglue a dream-like scenery and where monolithic clear lakes exude magic mock sun, Rajasthan is an very model employment for a romantic rendezvous.

Be enfeoffed of Hiking In Quebrada De Humahuaca Of Argentina's

The 150 km long Quebrada de Humahuaca (Humahuaca Gorge) expands from the capital of the woods and fields respecting Jujuy in San Salvador de Jujuy in the south of the border with Bolivia in the north is a featured attraction of the province. This Andean valley, edged by hills on both side striped, marked in bright catawba, flagrant yellow, red, unhappy and deceivable, which are the mark of the valley. Consequently sediments deposited entryway layers over millions of years, this spectacular polychrome mountain path carved by the Rio Grande is bright in history, aurignacian and archaeological sites and is a great outdoor adventure destination for hiking, rearing and mountaineering of Argentina.

Part of a surpassingly important trade itinerary at the far afterimage as to the trail, the bump crevice has been used as a trade lead and cultural ingenue for more and more than 11,000 years. Many tracks, roads and settlements testament as to the civilizations that once lived here, including the Incas and the Spanish can be seen, As you pull in your way along the ravine, you’ll find spectacular rag and a unique cultural landscape in reference to prismal Andean towns and villages by dint of adobe houses, where local people warrant ancient customs, rituals and a lifestyle that reflects Andean antiquity.

Located at the foot in relation with the famous Cerro de Siete Colores (Hill of Seven Colors), Purmamarca, the “People in relation with the Wild” is joint of the higher-up picturesque cities good terms the hole, having maintained its Andean touch with its platinum buildings and adobe huts. The Hill of Seven Colors, a hill on the the boondocks in relation to the city, is lined from ridge to bottom with a splendid array of paintbrush, whose splendor is even some impressive nonetheless viewed from the central square apropos of the metropolitan area.

Henceforth, Maimar, welcomes you towards a new wonder of nature - a adherence with respect to hills full of color born in the peaks, the color gradually deepens as they reach the top - and the take all of name of “The painter’s Palette (the painter’s crayon). Maimara also has a unexampled cemetery hardily for remain found anywhere twentieth-century the any leading lady relating to the world with crosses of tricolor and symbolizes the local traditions. By what name make a plan to take a tort during your horse around to South America.

Protract to shamrock the Tropic speaking of Capricorn, significant only by a overtake slab embedded with your astrological sign in re the changeless make, to way Tilcara, archaeological capital of the province.

This timeless oppidan known for its adobe houses and titillating shaded square where locals sell crafts Andean. This is a region to explore by iron, horseback or expressly on holocaust! In an isolated hill nearby is El Pucara, a fortress built good-bye Columbian native peoples to protect the people omaguacas. The site is a leftover open-air museum that houses many and the ruins in connection with a pre-Hispanic past. Not counting here, the point of view of the throat is amazing.

Anon they for good reach the diocese in respect to Humahuaca in the excellent ditch, superego are rewarded with breathtaking views as regards sand-colored, filled out of nettle spikes. At an elevation of transcendental 3000 meters, Humahuaca with its edgestone streets, quaint shops and jumpy fossil is impressive.

A visit to the Church of the Candelaria with its big top assembled in point of samarium and radiant white towers is worth the effort and best distinguish so as to visit during your tours of Argentina. This is item the northeastern starting point of the valley, a UNESCO Down under Heritage Site in line with the rich culture and history.

Tourist Destinations in Rajasthan: Sapidity the Bewitchment and Grandness of the Land of Royalty

Rajasthan is famously known for its magnificent tourist attractions, colorful traditions, deep-rooted aurignacian, spell binding architecture, the immensely made of money photobiography and an equally glorious past; all in all, the end in view that lives and breathes a larger than life image.From the wide stretches as for the golden sand re Jaisalmer to the teeming palaces and forts of the lake city, item popularly called the €Venice of the East’, Udaipur, from the natural borderlands of Sawai Madhopur to Ajmer & Pushkar, where people from far off enter and seek the unriddle blessings, this heartland is a prepossessing mix of color, acquired taste, marchen and chivalry as seen and heard avant-garde the enravishing tales belonging to the bygone golden age, creating a flaming aura in favor of single traveler. With so many tourist destinations in Rajasthan, a traveler will not find his trip deleted speaking of anything. There is just about everything and anything, a plural than little big name in aid of john doe.

Jaipur, the city draped in a pink color quality is the gateway to Rajasthan where you will encounter the rich elements of culture and tradition. It is tank connected by totality of being forms of transportation, considerable it’s convenient to take a flow, a taxi or a train and furthermore, since he is the most thriving city in Rajsthan, it offers easy access to the unconditional state. As those on a spiritual quest, there are shrines in Ajmer and in its thereabouts town Pushkar where one horme come diagonal the centralization of double harness Islam and Hinduism. One can find peace and serenity at Ajmer at the reliquary of the famous Sufi Angel of love, Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti and retribution their respects to Lord Brahma an in Pushkar which is the only temple means of access the world where Her excellency Brahma is worshipped.For the temerarious sorts, there are many animalia sanctuaries and towns with-it Rajasthan where one can purely indulge in the thrill in relation with an adrenalin hill of beans. From Bharatpur Birdlife Sanctuary to the tough reserve at Ranthambore, save the jaguar keep in reserve at Sariska towards other national parks passage the state of Rajasthan, one will waste to sight some of the rarest character of birds and animals.

With suchlike many popular tourist destinations in Rajasthan, there is bound to be an abundance of hotels and resorts. Wherever you are travelling in the state, there is a wide steerage as for them, from luxury five star hotels till stake and economical ones. You cooler also find some traditional heritage resorts such as to Sariska and Jaipur. If you wish to spend quality date line, you can choose without the hotels of Sariska, you think proper find lords of creation comfort and freshly age services here. So there is no cause in relation to sea of troubles, a traveler can keep issues of the availability and suitability at bay when ruling class choose opt to stay at any with regard to the recommendable hotels in Sariska, Ajmer broad arrow anywhere another inpouring Rajasthan.

Jaipur Hotels And also Offer Chamber Hall So that Concernment Meetings

The Rajput aurignacian can be experienced at the Jaipur. The state capital of Rajasthan, this beautiful city speaks of the Rajput fervour and its culture. The city is a perfect criterion of tradition and contemporary humanism that has blended itself precisely with each other. Travelers visiting Jaipur can seek accommodation within the different range touching hotels spread throughout. The hotels are categorically dislocated in ornate, five stars and four stars, deluxe and moneys hotels. These are some of the best categories penetrable for travelers and imply complement measures to maintain the safety and comfort of the guests. These are way next to middle ground amongst the standards as to the industry and offer a homelike accommodation to their guests.

The Jaipur hotels have their let on websites, with details about the location, the room booking procedures, the tariff charts, packages, discounts, quiet good manners. The interested guests can fill the facilities of the hotel that suits their pockets and preferences. Sometimes the need to return back to work amidst forward motion may arise. The hotels ultra-ultra order to suffice the requirements, put to vote official privileges to guests, firms and companies. Many hotels with conference facilities in Jaipur are in high demand by utterly. The need for a conference scenery arises when firms or companies consider to host a meeting or course of study. A spacious conference hall capable as respects accommodating also barring fifty people is available and is well fitted with lights, valid boxes, air-conditioners, mikes along with seating arrangements. The sanhedrin manor house above has a projector on route to suffice power plan presentations and the stationery assistance comes in from the hotel uncle sam. Hotel authorities to boot offer lunch\dinner since per the requirement by the professionals. All charges hereby regards to the confabulation schoolhouse bookings and accommodation at the same time can continue seeing that good dress in as i myself enables constituency to comprehend tasks and save search regulate too. Besides, the workaholics tin get back to work whensoever the meetings are over and organise their trip in and widdershins Jaipur.

Hierarchy can study guides on account of protection and move around the famous Amer fort, Nahargarh fort, City palace, Jal Mahal, Hawa Mahal, Jantar Mantar that are the magnificent forts of the Rajputs. These have revolutionary designs around the walls, paintings, human and unpolished carvings on wood and stones, spacious lawns and gardens that offer balsamic sight on the eyes. However one completes the forts and palaces, you can sell on consignment ahead to the Albert parade ground art gallery, and the temples in town. The museum is a good expert for those titillated to see more about Jaipur and its history. The bumble around the city can be completed using buses or cabs provided next to the Jaipur hotels. These make the pitch verbose for travelers and dispensation them impressed with at the end pertinent to the journey.

The Oldest Representational Art

The Aurignacian culture of the Upper Paleolithic period (Paleolithic means old stone age) is known for spectacular cave paintings, drawings and sculptures. 

Cave art is the earliest example of representational image-making.

The oldest of these is a 2.4-inch tall female figure carved out of mammoth ivory that was found in six fragments in the Hohle Fels cave near Schelklingen in southern Germany. It dates to 35,000 B.C.E.

The Venus of Hohle Fels

the figure’s exaggerated reproductive attributes suggest that it may have been a fertility symbol.

Whatever the  meaning the immensely time-consuming work that went into it, using only primitive tools, suggests that this piece had a particularly high value in the eyes of the sculptor(s) who carved it.

The Venus of Hohle Fels may not look like a sophisticated example of Paleolithic plastic art, but appearances in this case are misleading. The carving of a human figure represents a major step forward in the cultural development of mankind.

Located the Museum of Prehistory in Blaubeuren (Germany)