a few medical exam acronyms and meanings

GEN (general exam = how you look):
NAD (not in acute distress = you don’t look like you’re in need of immediate medical attention)

HEENT (head, eyes, ears, nose, throat):
NCAT (normocephalic atraumatic = non-injured normal-shaped head)
PERRLA (pupils equally round and reactive to light and accommodates = pupils are the same size, round, gets smaller with light and when looking towards the nose)
EOMI (extraocular movements intact = eyes can look in every direction)
MMM (moist mucous membranes = your eyes and mouth aren’t dry)

CV (cardiovascular = heart exam):
RRR (regular rate and rhythm = your heart is beating normally)
No MRG (no murmurs, rubs or gallops = no heart sounds other than BaDmp BaDmp)
No JVD (no jugular venous distention = the veins in the neck aren’t visibly pulsing)

PULM (pulmonary = lung exam):
NRE (normal respiratory effort = breathing easily)
CTAB (clear to auscultation bilaterally = both lungs sound clear)
No WRR (no wheezes, rales, or rhonchi = no weird breath sounds like whistling, crackles, or ripping velcro)

GI (gastrointestinal = belly exam):
No HSM (no hepatosplenomegaly = your liver and spleen don’t feel or sound large when I press on your belly or scratch at your tummy skin)
+BSx4/4 (positive bowel sounds in four out of four quadrants = I could hear tummy gurgling in four different spots around your belly button)

EXT (extremities = your arms and legs):
5/5 BL UE/LE (five out of five strength in bilateral upper extremities and lower extremities = great strength in both arms and legs)
4/5 (weak strength)
3/5 (can barely move limbs against gravity)
2/5 (too weak to lift against gravity but can maybe move from side to side)
1/5 (can’t move)
2+DPs (adequate distal pulses = I can easily feel the pulses in your wrist, the top of your feet, and behind your ankle bones)

NEURO (neurological exam = sensation, coordination, and reflexes):
CNII-XII intact (cranial nerves two through twelve are intact = your vision, eye movement, hearing, facial muscle strength, tongue and uvula movement, head and neck and shoulder movement and strength seem good)
3+DTRs (adequate deep tendon reflex response = I can feel your muscles tense appropriately when I hit the outside or inside of your elbow, your forearm, your knee, or the back of your heel)

PSYCH (psychiatric exam = level of alertness, orientation, concentration, memory, and mood)
AAOx4/4 (alert and oriented to person, place, time/date, and situation = you’re awake, you know who you are, where you are, the date, and why you are where you are right now)
NMA (normal mood and affect = you aren’t inexplicably angry or sad and your facial expression appropriately reflects your mood)