atomic element

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The Scientific Story Of How Each Element Was Made

“Neutron star mergers create the greatest heavy element abundances of all, including gold, mercury, and platinum. Meanwhile, cosmic rays blast nuclei apart, creating the Universe’s lithium, beryllium, and boron. Finally, the heaviest, unstable elements are made in terrestrial laboratories. The result is the rich, diverse Universe we inhabit today.”

When the Big Bang first occurred, the Universe was filled with all the various particles and antiparticles making up the Standard Model, and perhaps still others yet to be discovered. But missing from the list were protons, neutrons, or any of the atomic nuclei key to the life-giving elements in our Universe today. Yet the Universe expanded, cooled, antimatter annihilated away, and the first elements began to take shape. After billions of years of cosmic evolution, we arrived at a Universe recognizable today: full of stars, planets, and the full complement of elements populating the periodic table. More than 100 elements are known today, 91 of which are found to occur naturally on Earth. Some were formed in the Big Bang, others were formed in stars, still others were formed in violent cosmic cataclysms or collisions. Yet every one has an origin whose story is now known, giving rise to all we interact with today.

Come get the full story behind how all the elements were made in some fantastic pictures, visuals, and no more than 200 words on this edition of Mostly Mute Monday!

Radio Silence

by reddit user bencbartlett

36,400,000. That is the expected number of intelligent civilizations in our galaxy, according to Drake’s famous equation. For the last 78 years, we had been broadcasting everything about us – our radio, our television, our history, our greatest discoveries – to the rest of the galaxy. We had been shouting our existence at the top of our lungs to the rest of the universe, wondering if we were alone. 36 million civilizations, yet in almost a century of listening, we hadn’t heard a thing. We were alone.

That was, until about 5 minutes ago.

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reasons why I love hunk garrett and not just b/c he’s “the food guy”
  • got over his fear of flying in order to take the responsibility of the yellow paladin 
    • a fear that physically crippled him by-the-by – chronic motion sickness isn’t fun y’all
  • he has a natural pacifist nature but that gets tossed aside if he sees anyone, especially if those he cares about, are in danger
  • the fact that he’s literally on the front line all the time b/c he’s the tank of the team and he’s willing to get the brunt of the hit to keep people safe
  • he’s friends with everyone and everyone is friends with him!!!
    • lance likes him b/c they’re both laid back
    • pidge likes him b/c they both connect over science
    • keith likes him b/c he honestly makes him laugh
  • he’s headstrong and stubborn when he needs to be and isn’t just a push over, he stands up for his ideals when they matter
    • fighting for the Balmerans and their freedom
    • insisting Rolo and Nyma were no good
  • he’s so humble, I feel like Hunk sees himself as a background character (which makes me cry in the middle of the night t b h) but he knows how much voltron means to people, that it’s a symbol of hope, that he’s a symbol of hope now and he uses his services only to help others
  • he is literally such the mom of the paladins?????
    • idk why y’all think allura is mom when she’s more like the ruthless middle school P.E. coach who throws dodgeballs at screaming children but okay
    • hunk literally cooks for everybody and fixes their stuff and sasses them when they mess up and gives them hugs and is the voice of reason/caution of the group
    • but oKAY I GUESS ALLURA’S MOM
  • his sense of humor is literally the best, he either points out the obvious and screams about how they’re in giant cat heads or goes on a tangent of how superior sporks are in the middle of a galra recon mission with the straightest goddamn poker face I have ever seen
  • HIS BAYARD IS A FUCKING CANON
    • AND BOI CAN HE AIM AND SHOOT
  • he’s just so???? smart?????
    • probably the top astromechanical engineer at garrison 
    • he took apart galra tech on his first day while navigating the mine shaft to find his lion and again while analyzing the galra foot soldier with pidge
    • just that whole Fraunhofer line scene
    • he apparently knows the atomic signature of all the atomics elements known to earth 
    • literally made a device??? to track??? the blue lion????
      • when could your fave ever
      • where would the paladins be if they didn’t have hunk honestly?????
      • still in keith’s crotchety ass shack that’s where
    • he probably has photographic memory
  • I mean he is literally almost equally as smart as he is strong check out this shit 
    • [Strength 19/ Intelligence 17]
  • and finally: hunk is literally the sweetest cutie in the whole universe Facts™
    • who else would voluntarily cook for their friends on top of being the team engineer and weapons specialist
    • literally said “what, no, we’re friends” to pidge when they wanted him to kick them across the room
    • constantly validates lance to make him feel better about himself
    • made keith laugh probably the hardest laugh he’s had in awhile
    • helps shiro reign in everyone
    • let the Arusians go on piggy back rides
    • literally liberated all the Balmerans through the power of friendship
  • please love my beautiful POC, canonly chubby son more thanks (ʘ‿ʘ✿)

Also, you live on one planet next to one star among a galaxy filled with upwards of 300,000,000,000 stars, in a universe with 300,000,000,000 galaxies, each galaxy in turn filled with hundreds of millions to hundreds of billions of stars. You share fifty percent of your DNA with a banana. You are more closely related to chimpanzees than mice are to rats. You are directly related to every single living organism on this planet. You are, in fact, related to every non-living entity as well (including the device you’re using to read this) because all of our elements were forged together inside the hearts of dying stars. Everything you see in the universe has evolved from a point of infinite mass and density, to quark-gluon plasma, to hydrogen atoms, to complex elements, to you! But all of that stuff we can interact with only makes up 5% of the matter in the universe. The rest is dark matter and dark energy, which we can’t see, hear, touch, smell, or taste. You wouldn’t be here today if you didn’t have an unbroken lineage of survival tracing back to the beginning of life on this planet. That means not a single one of your direct ancestors, stretching back over three thousand million years, has ever died before successfully reproducing—this occurring on a planet where over 99% of all species that have existed are currently extinct. Survival is the exception, extinction the rule. Yet here you are. You are also constantly replacing the cells in your body, so much so that in 7-10 years not a single cell in your body will be the same as today. You are, down to every last atom, a different person than you were when you were born. Yet your brain still manages to be ‘you’, day after day, year after year. All the solid material around you is not only 99.9999999999999999% empty space on the quantum level, it’s also in a constant state of dynamic agitation. All of your atoms are dancing, jiggling waves and particles, existing not as individual entities, but only as probabilities. Put enough of them together, though, and we get the world as we know it.

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“IBM MAKES IT POSSIBLE FOR DATA TO BE STORED ON INDIVIDUAL ATOMS”

 Scientists at IBM have figured out a way to encode data on individual atoms, which would be the most compact information storage ever achieved.
 The common thinking amongst hardware designers is that as digital storage continues to get smaller, the basic unit of information storage is also shrinking as well. Eventually the amount of atoms required to store data will become so small that storing a single bit will someday require only a single atom.
 This is what IBM researchers have brought to life. Using holmium atoms embedded on a magnesium oxide base and a scanning tunnelling microscope, they have managed to encode data on an atom and managed to read the same data right after.
 Since the atom has a special characteristic called magnetic bistability, it has two different magnetic spins. Using the microscope, the researchers applied about 150 millivolts at 10 microamps to the atom. This electricity acted as a sort of lightning strike that caused the atom to switch its magnetic spin state (one state represents 1, the other 0 in binary code).
 "To demonstrate independent reading and writing, we built an atomic-scale structure with two Ho bits, to which we write the four possible states and which we read out both magnetoresistively and remotely by electron spin resonance. The high magnetic stability combined with electrical reading and writing shows that single-atom magnetic memory is indeed possible,“ the abstract read.

Read more about this fascinating story at: https://techcrunch.com/2017/03/08/storing-data-in-a-single-atom-proved-possible-by-ibm-researchers/

Science Teacher Combeferre

Because I love teacher AUs and I cannot lie

  • Combeferre loves teaching so much? Kids can be so curious and like he always says, there are no dumb questions. Even kids who don’t like science have to admit that M. Ferre is amazing
  • His classroom is decorated with projects he organised with his students. There’s a mobile of the solar system, a mobile of an atom, of different chemical elements…
  • There’s an entire wall dedicated to “Quotes Albert Einstein Never Said, But That Could Make You Look Smart Anyway”
  • He used the solar system as his grading system, so a 100% mark is the Sun, a 90% is Mars etc etc. He draws and colours them himself. Students who were absent for the test get Pluto, because Combeferre has to admit it’s not a planet but he’ll be damned if Pluto gets forgotten
  • There’s probably a portrait of Neil deGrasse Tyson framed somewhere
  •  PERSONALIZED GOGGLES
  • “Today we’re going to study astronomy. Notice that I said astronomy and not astrology, because the fault may be in our stars, but giant balls of gas won’t give you the answers to next Friday’s test.”
  • He sings the Period Table song at the school’s talent show every year
  • “Everything is chemical, Kevin.”
  • Probably has some cool patches sewed up onto his lab coat, and students always offer him new ones on the last day of the year

Bedroom Church Choir

MSR

Explicit

Pt. 1 (can be read as a standalone)

Melissa sang in the church choir.

She stood front row, sang first soprano, and always got the best solos. She’d had a gift—an uncanny ability to carry a multitude of emotion with a single syllable. A man who had never been fed a drop of religion in his life could know what it was like to know God, just by hearing Melissa sing.

Scully sat in the pews.

She’d be the first to tell you she couldn’t carry a tune. Her musical résumé included a few simple hymns she sang under her breath on the rare occasions she actually made it to Mass, and a monotone rendition of a Three Dog Night classic; she never wanted to be in choir.

But still she envied Melissa.

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Space Theoi

Zeus is gravity– unseeable, unknowable, defying human understanding. He holds the planets in place. He slingshots rockets back home. He cradles Earth in a steady orbit and tells them that they are safe.

Hera rests on the rings around Saturn. She drapes herself across their icy surface, riding their steady rotations, ever-watching, ever-awake. 

Artemis holds the moon in her hands. Some call her goddess of the moon, but she knows that she is but a friend to Selene. She watches in awe as Selene glows, and she tries to bring that peace back to the forest with her.

Apollo lights up his sister’s hands as he rests upon the Sun. He surrounds himself with light, and he tries to find music in between the sunspots and the harsh solar winds. When he can’t find any music, he makes it for himself.

Hestia kindles the flames of the stars. She watches them grow up, and she mourns at their supernovas. She paints Earth’s skies with constellations, and she tries to keep the world aglow despite their dying light.

Poseidon takes pleasure in placing water in places where no one dares to look. He crafts great oceans in distant planets, at the center of unexplored moons. He knows that life is sacred, even if it is unknown.

Ares hurls meteors across distant skies. Asteroids are his cannonballs. Comets are his bullets.

Aphrodite watches in awe as Ares’ ammunition glides through the atmosphere. She sets them aglow and calls them shooting stars. She listens to the faraway wishes, but she can’t grant them all.

Athena plants ideas in the minds of faraway astronomers and cosmologists. She whispers of string theory, of the multiverse, of membranes, of dimensions. She smiles as ideas become theories and theories become facts.

Dionysus sends out constant reminders that the universe can never make sense. He muddles Athena’s great ideas and reminds us that the world doesn’t have meaning– it just is.

Demeter grows galaxies as if they are crops. She names them as if they are her children, “Sunflower”, “Andromeda”, “Tadpole”, and she nurtures them from seeds, waiting for the day that they will be ready for harvest.

Hephaestus sculpts quarks into atoms, atoms into elements, elements into entire nebulas. He knows that the other deities rely on him to make the universe work, but they seem to forget.

Hermes is the speed of light. He knows that he can’t be matched, can’t be broken, can’t ever be surpassed. He is infinite.

Hades sleeps at the center of blackholes. He pities those who quiver at the chaos, the terror, the horrible uncertainty of his gaping cracks in space; he knows that there is nothing to fear about darkness.

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GUYYYYS!

If anyone is studying chemistry I found this free app that I use on my laptop called Elements: The Periodic Table

It is sooo easy to use and super helpful as it has loads of information on each element and has a feature to compare elements

I thought I’d share this as I hate needing to search for information about elements on the internet and having like a million tabs open, plus it has relative atomic masses for each element which I find a lot easier to find than searching through my data book.

Hope this helps!! 

anonymous asked:

Hello! As you are, I am too, fascinated in chemistry. However I don't seem to have the talent for understanding parts of it. If it's not too much to ask, please could you explain how those hexagonal diagrams work like when writing molecules and what all the different lines mean? If you don't mind that is x

Hello there! It’s a form of notation for the structure of molecules, especially organic compounds, called the skeletal formula. Each unlabeled point in the structure represents a carbon atom, while labeled points represent the corresponding atom of the element. Each line represents a bond; two parallel lines drawn together represent a double bond. Hydrogen atoms bonded to carbon atoms are usually not shown as they are implicit (though some people tend to draw out hydrogen atoms in aldehydes).

This notation greatly simplifies the drawing of molecules, especially when it comes to monsters like this (though I admit it’s not a walk in the park even if we were to draw the skeletal structure):

Or this:

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Les Amis Metal and Stones Aesthetic: Jehan & Gold

1. a yellow precious metal, the chemical element of atomic number 79, valued especially for use in jewelry and decoration, and to guarantee the value of currencies. (noun)

2. a deep lustrous yellow or yellow-brown color.“her eyes were light green and flecked with gold” (adj.)