atomic element

Radio Silence

by reddit user bencbartlett

36,400,000. That is the expected number of intelligent civilizations in our galaxy, according to Drake’s famous equation. For the last 78 years, we had been broadcasting everything about us – our radio, our television, our history, our greatest discoveries – to the rest of the galaxy. We had been shouting our existence at the top of our lungs to the rest of the universe, wondering if we were alone. 36 million civilizations, yet in almost a century of listening, we hadn’t heard a thing. We were alone.

That was, until about 5 minutes ago.

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Also, you live on one planet next to one star among a galaxy filled with upwards of 300,000,000,000 stars, in a universe with 300,000,000,000 galaxies, each galaxy in turn filled with hundreds of millions to hundreds of billions of stars. You share fifty percent of your DNA with a banana. You are more closely related to chimpanzees than mice are to rats. You are directly related to every single living organism on this planet. You are, in fact, related to every non-living entity as well (including the device you’re using to read this) because all of our elements were forged together inside the hearts of dying stars. Everything you see in the universe has evolved from a point of infinite mass and density, to quark-gluon plasma, to hydrogen atoms, to complex elements, to you! But all of that stuff we can interact with only makes up 5% of the matter in the universe. The rest is dark matter and dark energy, which we can’t see, hear, touch, smell, or taste. You wouldn’t be here today if you didn’t have an unbroken lineage of survival tracing back to the beginning of life on this planet. That means not a single one of your direct ancestors, stretching back over three thousand million years, has ever died before successfully reproducing—this occurring on a planet where over 99% of all species that have existed are currently extinct. Survival is the exception, extinction the rule. Yet here you are. You are also constantly replacing the cells in your body, so much so that in 7-10 years not a single cell in your body will be the same as today. You are, down to every last atom, a different person than you were when you were born. Yet your brain still manages to be ‘you’, day after day, year after year. All the solid material around you is not only 99.9999999999999999% empty space on the quantum level, it’s also in a constant state of dynamic agitation. All of your atoms are dancing, jiggling waves and particles, existing not as individual entities, but only as probabilities. Put enough of them together, though, and we get the world as we know it.

reasons why I love hunk garrett and not just b/c he’s “the food guy”
  • got over his fear of flying in order to take the responsibility of the yellow paladin 
    • a fear that physically crippled him by-the-by – chronic motion sickness isn’t fun y’all
  • he has a natural pacifist nature but that gets tossed aside if he sees anyone, especially if those he cares about, are in danger
  • the fact that he’s literally on the front line all the time b/c he’s the tank of the team and he’s willing to get the brunt of the hit to keep people safe
  • he’s friends with everyone and everyone is friends with him!!!
    • lance likes him b/c they’re both laid back
    • pidge likes him b/c they both connect over science
    • keith likes him b/c he honestly makes him laugh
  • he’s headstrong and stubborn when he needs to be and isn’t just a push over, he stands up for his ideals when they matter
    • fighting for the Balmerans and their freedom
    • insisting Rolo and Nyma were no good
  • he’s so humble, I feel like Hunk sees himself as a background character (which makes me cry in the middle of the night t b h) but he knows how much voltron means to people, that it’s a symbol of hope, that he’s a symbol of hope now and he uses his services only to help others
  • he is literally such the mom of the paladins?????
    • idk why y’all think allura is mom when she’s more like the ruthless middle school P.E. coach who throws dodgeballs at screaming children but okay
    • hunk literally cooks for everybody and fixes their stuff and sasses them when they mess up and gives them hugs and is the voice of reason/caution of the group
    • but oKAY I GUESS ALLURA’S MOM
  • his sense of humor is literally the best, he either points out the obvious and screams about how they’re in giant cat heads or goes on a tangent of how superior sporks are in the middle of a galra recon mission with the straightest goddamn poker face I have ever seen
  • HIS BAYARD IS A FUCKING CANON
    • AND BOI CAN HE AIM AND SHOOT
  • he’s just so???? smart?????
    • probably the top astromechanical engineer at garrison 
    • he took apart galra tech on his first day while navigating the mine shaft to find his lion and again while analyzing the galra foot soldier with pidge
    • just that whole Fraunhofer line scene
    • he apparently knows the atomic signature of all the atomics elements known to earth 
    • literally made a device??? to track??? the blue lion????
      • when could your fave ever
      • where would the paladins be if they didn’t have hunk honestly?????
      • still in keith’s crotchety ass shack that’s where
    • he probably has photographic memory
  • I mean he is literally almost equally as smart as he is strong check out this shit 
    • [Strength 19/ Intelligence 17]
  • and finally: hunk is literally the sweetest cutie in the whole universe Facts™
    • who else would voluntarily cook for their friends on top of being the team engineer and weapons specialist
    • literally said “what, no, we’re friends” to pidge when they wanted him to kick them across the room
    • constantly validates lance to make him feel better about himself
    • made keith laugh probably the hardest laugh he’s had in awhile
    • helps shiro reign in everyone
    • let the Arusians go on piggy back rides
    • literally liberated all the Balmerans through the power of friendship
  • please love my beautiful POC, canonly chubby son more thanks (ʘ‿ʘ✿)
youtube

“IBM MAKES IT POSSIBLE FOR DATA TO BE STORED ON INDIVIDUAL ATOMS”

 Scientists at IBM have figured out a way to encode data on individual atoms, which would be the most compact information storage ever achieved.
 The common thinking amongst hardware designers is that as digital storage continues to get smaller, the basic unit of information storage is also shrinking as well. Eventually the amount of atoms required to store data will become so small that storing a single bit will someday require only a single atom.
 This is what IBM researchers have brought to life. Using holmium atoms embedded on a magnesium oxide base and a scanning tunnelling microscope, they have managed to encode data on an atom and managed to read the same data right after.
 Since the atom has a special characteristic called magnetic bistability, it has two different magnetic spins. Using the microscope, the researchers applied about 150 millivolts at 10 microamps to the atom. This electricity acted as a sort of lightning strike that caused the atom to switch its magnetic spin state (one state represents 1, the other 0 in binary code).
 "To demonstrate independent reading and writing, we built an atomic-scale structure with two Ho bits, to which we write the four possible states and which we read out both magnetoresistively and remotely by electron spin resonance. The high magnetic stability combined with electrical reading and writing shows that single-atom magnetic memory is indeed possible,“ the abstract read.

Read more about this fascinating story at: https://techcrunch.com/2017/03/08/storing-data-in-a-single-atom-proved-possible-by-ibm-researchers/

Science Teacher Combeferre

Because I love teacher AUs and I cannot lie

  • Combeferre loves teaching so much? Kids can be so curious and like he always says, there are no dumb questions. Even kids who don’t like science have to admit that M. Ferre is amazing
  • His classroom is decorated with projects he organised with his students. There’s a mobile of the solar system, a mobile of an atom, of different chemical elements…
  • There’s an entire wall dedicated to “Quotes Albert Einstein Never Said, But That Could Make You Look Smart Anyway”
  • He used the solar system as his grading system, so a 100% mark is the Sun, a 90% is Mars etc etc. He draws and colours them himself. Students who were absent for the test get Pluto, because Combeferre has to admit it’s not a planet but he’ll be damned if Pluto gets forgotten
  • There’s probably a portrait of Neil deGrasse Tyson framed somewhere
  •  PERSONALIZED GOGGLES
  • “Today we’re going to study astronomy. Notice that I said astronomy and not astrology, because the fault may be in our stars, but giant balls of gas won’t give you the answers to next Friday’s test.”
  • He sings the Period Table song at the school’s talent show every year
  • “Everything is chemical, Kevin.”
  • Probably has some cool patches sewed up onto his lab coat, and students always offer him new ones on the last day of the year
Space Theoi

Zeus is gravity– unseeable, unknowable, defying human understanding. He holds the planets in place. He slingshots rockets back home. He cradles Earth in a steady orbit and tells them that they are safe.

Hera rests on the rings around Saturn. She drapes herself across their icy surface, riding their steady rotations, ever-watching, ever-awake. 

Artemis holds the moon in her hands. Some call her goddess of the moon, but she knows that she is but a friend to Selene. She watches in awe as Selene glows, and she tries to bring that peace back to the forest with her.

Apollo lights up his sister’s hands as he rests upon the Sun. He surrounds himself with light, and he tries to find music in between the sunspots and the harsh solar winds. When he can’t find any music, he makes it for himself.

Hestia kindles the flames of the stars. She watches them grow up, and she mourns at their supernovas. She paints Earth’s skies with constellations, and she tries to keep the world aglow despite their dying light.

Poseidon takes pleasure in placing water in places where no one dares to look. He crafts great oceans in distant planets, at the center of unexplored moons. He knows that life is sacred, even if it is unknown.

Ares hurls meteors across distant skies. Asteroids are his cannonballs. Comets are his bullets.

Aphrodite watches in awe as Ares’ ammunition glides through the atmosphere. She sets them aglow and calls them shooting stars. She listens to the faraway wishes, but she can’t grant them all.

Athena plants ideas in the minds of faraway astronomers and cosmologists. She whispers of string theory, of the multiverse, of membranes, of dimensions. She smiles as ideas become theories and theories become facts.

Dionysus sends out constant reminders that the universe can never make sense. He muddles Athena’s great ideas and reminds us that the world doesn’t have meaning– it just is.

Demeter grows galaxies as if they are crops. She names them as if they are her children, “Sunflower”, “Andromeda”, “Tadpole”, and she nurtures them from seeds, waiting for the day that they will be ready for harvest.

Hephaestus sculpts quarks into atoms, atoms into elements, elements into entire nebulas. He knows that the other deities rely on him to make the universe work, but they seem to forget.

Hermes is the speed of light. He knows that he can’t be matched, can’t be broken, can’t ever be surpassed. He is infinite.

Hades sleeps at the center of blackholes. He pities those who quiver at the chaos, the terror, the horrible uncertainty of his gaping cracks in space; he knows that there is nothing to fear about darkness.

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GCSE CHEMISTRY C1 NOTES (part 1)

C1.1 Fundamental ideas
C1.2 Rocks and building materials
C1.3 Metals and their uses
C1.4 Crude oil and fuels
C1.5 Other useful substances from crude oil

If you need help/can’t read something please message me 😊

2

GUYYYYS!

If anyone is studying chemistry I found this free app that I use on my laptop called Elements: The Periodic Table

It is sooo easy to use and super helpful as it has loads of information on each element and has a feature to compare elements

I thought I’d share this as I hate needing to search for information about elements on the internet and having like a million tabs open, plus it has relative atomic masses for each element which I find a lot easier to find than searching through my data book.

Hope this helps!! 

theoretical physicists, including myself, mostly agree that two universes have collided into one another to form the big bang. contrary to the more accepted theory where the universe gradually expanded over many eons to create the visible universe we can see now. i cannot stop thinking of the romance intertwined with the lesser known theory of two gorgeous galaxies getting close enough to collide and form something even greater, and through their deaths they have blessed us with these wonders. we are all made of stars, quite literally. every atom, molecule, element, etc… we were all formed through a vast series of creations from somewhere beyond our current reach. in us, we hold stars that have died billions of years ago, all of the pretty colors you see when you look up in the night sky is what’s deep inside of your heart, your lungs, your eyes. so when i hold your hand, and look into your eyes and brush your hair back, i am caressing the universe itself gently and embracing the beauty within you. you are an entire universe, an enigma of yourself and there is no one else quite like you. so look at yourself and see the stars, nebulas, galaxies, the whole worlds and dimensions in which i see when i look at you.

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Les Amis Metal and Stones Aesthetic: Jehan & Gold

1. a yellow precious metal, the chemical element of atomic number 79, valued especially for use in jewelry and decoration, and to guarantee the value of currencies. (noun)

2. a deep lustrous yellow or yellow-brown color.“her eyes were light green and flecked with gold” (adj.)

And chapter two of the Evanstan magician!Seb and FBI agent!Chris fic with @boopifer now up! In which Chris and SEbastian actually talk (sort of) and face an Evil Henchman.

Read at AO3 here! Teaser below - enjoy!

##

He’s unsure whether Chris Evans has noticed the frantic slip of magic with the second cuffs. He’d been desperate; he’d pleaded with his own wrists and with the sleek metal atoms and elements, had asked to be let go, and then he had been free, and he’d run.

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AP Chem summary: Chapter 1

1.1

Chemistry: the study of composition, structure, properties, and changes of matter.

  • Composition of matter relates to the kinds of elements it contains 
  • Structure of matter relates to the ways the atoms of these elements are arranged 

Property: any characteristic that makes a sample of matter unique 

Molecule: an entity composed of two or more atoms with the atoms attached to one another in a specific way. 

1.2 

States of Matter: the three physical states matter exists in; gas, liquid, solid

There are two types of pure substances: 

  • Elements: has a single kind of atom and is represented by a chemical symbol (basically anything on the periodic table of elements) 
  • Compounds: composed of two or more elements joined chemically 

The Law of Constant Composition/ The Law of Definite Proportions

The elemental composition of a pure compound is always the same 

Mixtures: have variable compositions and can be homogeneous mixtures (solutions) or heterogeneous mixtures 

1.3 

Physical and chemical properties can be used to identify a substance 

Physical change: matter does not change its composition (ex: Changes of state; gas to liquid, etc) 
Chemical change (Chemical reaction): substance is transformed into a chemically different substance 
Intensive properties: independent of the amount of matter examined (internal qualities) 
Extensive Properties: relate to amount of substance present (external qualities) 
Scientific Method: dynamic process used to answer questions about our physical world; can lead to scientific laws (general rules that summarize how nature behaves) Makes use of hypotheses (tentative explanations) which can be tested and refined into theories that can predict the results of future observations and experiments.

1.4 

Measurements in chem are made using the metric system and SI units. 

length- meter (m), mass- Kilogram (kg), time- second (s).  

Kelvin = Celsius + 273
Celsius = (5/9)(Fahrenheit - 32) 
Density = Mass / Volume 

1.5 + 1.6 

All measured quantities are inexact to some extent 

Precision: how closely different measurements of a quantity agree with one another Accuracy: how well measurement agrees with the accepted or “true” value Significant Figures: one estimated digit, the last digit of the measurement. Certain rules must be followed. 

Dimensional Analysis: a problem solving technique where units play a major role within the calculation using conversion factors (ratios constructed from valid relations between equivalent quantities)  

We Don’t Talk Anymore

Summary: It’s been almost two years since you and Peter Parker parted ways, and you never understood why. Unfortunately, he didn’t either. 

Warnings: Cursing

Word Count: 5,215


Your nails tapped against the fake wood desk, occasionally snagging on the scratched surface as your chemistry teacher droned on about the elements, hardly looking back at the ocean of inattentive students. If Mr. McKinley wasn’t the oldest and strictest teacher at Midtown, you’d be checking your Instagram feed unabashedly, scrolling through the pictures of yesterday’s party you decided to skip out on.

Your eyes flicked back to the clock, which had moved about a fucking millimeter since the last time you’d checked it. You held back a groan, knowing that somehow McKinley would pick you personally out of the crowd. It was like the old man had a vendetta against you, dubious of your ability to pass his class and maintain a popular social life.

He set his marker down, pristine oxfords clicking against the tile floors as he shuffled back to his desk. He ignored the cacophony of students settling in place, appearing as though they’d been enthralled at his lesson. You gave the man no such grace as you sighed, inspecting your green painted nails once more as the grey-haired man cleared his throat.

“That’s the end of the atoms and elements lecture. You have an assignment, as written in your beginning of the year syllabus, and it’s worth twenty percent of your grade this quarter,” he boomed, making the entire class sag their shoulders at once.

“You will have assigned partners, and I expect a certain degree of work from all of you. You will both do fair amounts of work, and if I hear otherwise both of your grades will be dropped, is that clear?” The class slumped even lower, some students slipping out of their chairs dramatically. You snickered at the classes antics, until you heard your name being called.

“…And Peter Parker,” Mr. McKinley gave you a side glance, milky green eyes watching for any signs of objection, but you gave none.

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Radio Silence

by Reddit user bencbartlett

36,400,000. That is the expected number of intelligent civilizations in our galaxy, according to Drake’s famous equation. For the last 78 years, we had been broadcasting everything about us – our radio, our television, our history, our greatest discoveries – to the rest of the galaxy. We had been shouting our existence at the top of our lungs to the rest of the universe, wondering if we were alone. 36 million civilizations, yet in almost a century of listening, we hadn’t heard a thing. We were alone.

That was, until about 5 minutes ago.

The transmission came on every transcendental multiple of hydrogen’s frequency that were listening to. Transcendental harmonics – things like hydrogen’s frequency times pi – don’t appear in nature, so I knew it had to be artificial. The signal pulsed on and off very quickly with incredibly uniform amplitudes; my initial reaction was that this was some sort of binary transmission. I measured 1679 pulses in the one minute that the transmission was active. After that, the silence resumed.

The numbers didn’t make any sense at first. They just seemed to be a random jumble of noise. But the pulses were so perfectly uniform, and on a frequency that was always so silent; they had to come from an artificial source. I looked over the transmission again, and my heart skipped a beat. 1679 – that was the exact length of the Arecibo message sent out 40 years ago. I excitedly started arranging the bits in the original 73x23 rectangle. I didn’t get more than halfway through before my hopes were confirmed. This was the exact same message. The numbers in binary, from 1 to 10. The atomic numbers of the elements that make up life. The formulas for our DNA nucleotides. Someone had been listening to us, and wanted us to know they were there.

Then it came to me – this original message was transmitted only 40 years ago. This means that life must be at most 20 lightyears away. A civilization within talking distance? This would revolutionize every field I have ever worked in – astrophysics, astrobiology, astro-

The signal is beeping again.

This time, it is slow. Deliberate, even. It lasts just under 5 minutes, with a new bit coming in once per second. Though the computers are of course recording it, I start writing them down. 0. 1. 0. 1. 0. 1. 0. 0… I knew immediately this wasn’t the same message as before. My mind races through the possibilities of what this could be. The transmission ends, having transmitted 248 bits. Surely this is too small for a meaningful message. What great message to another civilization can you possibly send with only 248 bits of information? On a computer, the only files that small would be limited to…

Text.

Was it possible? Were they really sending a message to us in our own language? Come to think of it, it’s not that out of the question – we had been transmitting pretty much every language on earth for the last 70 years… I begin to decipher with the first encoding scheme I could think of – ASCII. 0. 1. 0. 1. 0. 1. 0. 0. That’s B… 0. 1. 1 0. 0. 1. 0. 1. E…

As I finish piecing together the message, my stomach sinks like an anchor. The words before me answer everything.

“BE QUIET OR THEY WILL HEAR YOU”

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The top image shows the emission spectra of each element. Emission spectra is seen by objects putting off electromagnetic radiation, the emission spectra shown above are the emission spectra an atom of each element above in the optical range. 

A key point to keep in mind is that the spectra is created by a photon emitted, which emit electromagnetic radiation, of which we can observe wavelengths our eyes can see. If you have ever used a thin prism like film to look at light or a flame in a science class and have seen these colorful lines; you were looking at the emission spectra. Since every single type of atom and molecule has a unique emission spectra, spectroscopy can be used to identify unknown matter.

I also included the periodic table, so you can look at which elements create what spectra :)

Balancing Equations
  • repeat until all the elements are balanced

    • never change the subscripts of the atoms
    • it is usually easier to leave balancing oxygen and hydrogen to the last steps as these elements are often in more than one chemical on each side, so it’s hard to know where to start

    practice questions:

    1. __NaCl + __BeF2 –> __NaF + __BeCl2

    2. __FeCl3 + __Be3(PO4)2 –> __BeCl2 + __FePO4

    3. __AgNO3 + __LiOH –> __AgOH + __LiNO3

    4. __CH4 + __O2 –> __CO2 + __H2O

    5. __Mg + __Mn2O3 –> __MgO + __Mn

    answers:

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