at first i wanted to make them speak french and then translate it i english in the description

22 Common Mistakes by Non-Native Speakers

I’ve compiled a short list of some very common and sometimes embarrassing mistakes made by non-native speakers of Spanish that are almost always a clue that the person doing this is not fluent or wholly proficient in Spanish.

This isn’t a complete list, it’s things that I’ve thought of as very common. So if I’ve missed any of your most embarrassing mistakes or you have some other examples, send them in!

1. Overusing a personal pronoun

In some cases, the use of a personal pronoun (yo, tú, nosotros) is not necessary. In Spanish, most verbs have a specific conjugation that applies to a certain subject that are unique… so there’s less of a reason to add a pronoun. When you do, you sound overly emphatic.

hablo = I speak

yo hablo = the one who is speaking is me

This can be a useful thing to know if you’re answering questions like “Who did ___?” but in everyday speech if you go through a routine like: yo hago la cama, yo me ducho, yo como el desayuno and so on sounds incredibly tiresome to a native speaker because you’re putting unneeded emphasis on it.

Where emphasis is better served is when the subject is doubtful - 3rd person singular and plural.

Because if “he” is conjugated like “she”, and “they” could be anyone, it’s sometimes useful to write the pronoun él or ella or name them to avoid confusion.

This is especially useful in the subjunctive where 3rd person singular looks like yo.

2. Capitalizing nationalities

In English, we write English. We write American as American, and Chinese as Chinese.

In Spanish, it’s not like that. 

inglés / inglesa = English

español / española = Spanish

francés / francesa = French

griego/a = Greek

ruso/a = Russian

italiano/a = Italian

japonés / japonesa = Japanese

chino/a = Chinese

The only reason you would capitalize someone’s nationality or ethnicity would be if it were a tribe like los Iroquois or if it was their nickname/title like la Chinita [a historical woman]

3. Ser and Estar

Always a problem.

Ser is used with description, qualities, telling time, passive voice, what something is made of, what something is used for, set personality traits, and a few others.

Estar is used for location, temporary conditions (sick, tired, cloudy etc.), a person’s mood and NOT their personality, the progressive, and a few others.

The difference is best learned by practice and repeated example.

4. Ser and Haber

While ser is used for “to be”, one of the main functions of haber is “to be present/existing” which is typically hay but may be hubo/había/habrá etc. depending on the tense.

Son sillas = They are chairs

Hay sillas = There are chairs

When it’s a question of, “What is it?” you use ser.

When it’s a question of, “Does it exist?” use haber.

5. Addressing all letters with Querido/a for “dear”

In English, we just have “dear”. In Spanish there are two ways to say it.

Querido/a comes from querer which means “to love”. So querido/a means “dear” as in “person I care about” or sometimes “beloved”.

Generally, estimado/a is what you want to use when it’s someone above your station like a boss or a teacher, because “esteemed” is giving them respect and is more formal.

The real difference is if you’re on a first name basis, querido/a is fine.

If you’re not, or if you’re being formal, or it’s a stranger, estimado/a is what you want to use.

If you’re comfortable enough to begin a letter with, “Hey!” or “Yo!” then you can use querido/a but it can be seen as disrespectful or extremely buddy-buddy friendly to use querido/a instead of estimado/a in some contexts.

6. The use of americano/a

While americano/a is very commonly used for “American”, there are places where it’s frowned upon when you mean “from the United States”.

Because, while americano/a means “American” it refers to North AND/OR South America. Canada is “American”, Brazil is “American”, Haiti is “American”, Argentina is “American”.

So you might see: España tuvo colonias americanas / “Spain had American colonies”.

When you mean “from/pertaining to the U.S.”, it’s better to use estadounidense which means “from Los Estados Unidos” just to avoid accidentally being ethnocentric.

7. “I’m hot” =/= estoy caliente & “I’m cold” =/= estoy frío/a

Tengo calor. = I am hot. 

Estoy caliente. = I am aroused.

Tengo frío. = I am cold.

Estoy frío/a. = I am distant, not friendly, frigid, or a cold fish.

[Note: estoy frío/a can also be used in the sense of “my body is colder than average”; generally the estar kind of implies “a body” and not a person… so you could say el muerto está frío which would mean “the dead man is cold” which is “to the touch”. Worse than this would be soy frío/a which is more obviously “I am frigid and dislike people”.]

8. Por and Para

The Differences between por and para

9. Preterite vs. Imperfect

Should I use Preterite or Imperfect?

10. Position and Directionality - debajo vs. abajoatrás vs. detrásante vs. antes etc.

Generally, de- implies that something is in a particular position. And generally, a- implies that there is motion.

The trick to these words is if you are describing something’s static position, versus a state of movement.

debajo = underneath

abajo = downward

detrás = behind

atrás = moving behind [<<¡Atrás!>> as an interjection is, “Stand back!”]

tras = after / pursuing / chasing / following

ante = (to stand) before [e.g. ante la Corte "before the Court"; ante la Corona “before the Crown”]

antes = before (something happens) / just in front

11. Use of excitado/a

excitado/a = aroused sexually

emocionado/a = excited / filled with emotions of anticipation and maybe nervousness

12. Use of capable

capar = to neuter / to castrate

capable = able to be castrated

capaz = capable / having ability

13. Darse cuenta vs. Realizar

Both translate as “to realize” but in different senses.

Using darse cuenta is saying “to realize” as in “to have a revelation” or “to come to understand something” and is usually what you want.

Using realizar is saying “to make a reality” or “to finalize”. This is used primarily with projects or when making dreams a reality. It’s better translated as “to carry out” or “to finish”.

14. Preguntar vs. Pedir

Both mean “to ask” but not in the same way.

To ask a question is usually hacer una pregunta or preguntar. When you use preguntar you’re saying “to question (someone)” or “to ask about something of which you don’t know”. Hacer una pregunta is more often “to ask (someone) a question”.

Pedir on the other hand is “to ask for (something)”. It may be easier to think of it as “to request”. It’s most often associated with asking forgiveness [pedir disculpas], making demands, and especially in the sense of “ordering” at a restaurant.

15. Capitalizing everything in a sequence/title

Spanish typically capitalizes only the first letter of a sentence or sequence or title. English takes after German in the way of capitalizing every noun but not the prepositions or particle. Just be aware that this does not apply for proper names within the title.

So for instance…

Cien años de soledad = One Hundred Years of Solitude

Alicia en el país de las maravillas = Alice in Wonderland

Lo que el viento se llevó = Gone with the Wind

La vuelta al mundo en ochenta días = Around the World in 80 Days

El mago de Oz = The Wizard of Oz

16. Overuse of para with various verbs

Most commonly, this mistake happens with esperar "to wait for" and buscar “to look for”. 

People commonly write buscar para or esperar para, but because the “for” is already implied, there’s no need to add para.

Busco mi libro. = I’m looking for my book.

Busco novio. = I’m looking for a boyfriend.

Busco a ella. - I’m looking for her.

Estoy esperando el autobús. = I’m waiting for the bus.

Estoy esperando a ella. - I’m waiting for her.

17. Moverse vs. Mudarse

moverse = to move physically

mudarse = to move places of residence

*Note: mudar by itself means “to mutate” or “to molt” which is different from both of these meanings

18. Older/Younger vs. Elder/Younger

This is a problem that exists because English, but in Spanish there’s a clear distinction between both sets of words.

viejo/a / joven = old / young as in age

mayor / menor = elder / younger as in sequence of age

Mi hermana es mucho más mayor que yo. - My sister is much older than me. [“My sister is my senior in age because she was born first”]

Mi hermana es mucho más vieja que yo. - My sister is more of an old woman than me. [“My sister is a senior citizen”]

*Note: There’s a bit more leeway with joven and menor… the general distinction is that joven implies “youth”, but menor means “younger than” which implies a sequence.

19. Using en with days of the week / months of the year

Generally, with days of the week or months of the year, people are more likely to say: “On Tuesday” and write en martes

In Spanish, that’s not how it’s done. It’s more common to use el to imply a due date or when something occurs.

La tarea es para el lunes. - The homework is due Monday.

Hagan la tarea para el viernes. - Do the homework by Friday

*Note:

Mi cumpleaños es en febrero. = My birthday is in February.

Mi cumpleaños es el diez de febrero. = My birthday is February 10th.

20. Historia vs. Cuento

la historia = a long story / history (the subject)

el cuento = a short story [related to contar “to tell”]

21. Words that end in -a that are masculine, words that end in -o that are feminine

This is mastered by repetition. Sometimes it’s because they’re loanwords (especially from Greek)

  • el día [Indo-European and not Greek] = day
  • el poema [Greek] = poem
  • el clima [Greek] = climate
  • el aroma [Greek] = smell / aroma
  • el programa [Greek] = program

Other times they’re abbreviations

  • la radio(grafía) = radio / radiography
  • la moto(cicleta) = motorcycle
  • la bici(cleta) = bicycle
  • la tele(visión) = television

You just have to do your best to learn them as you go.

*Note:

la radio = radio [the machine or a radio program]

el radio = radius [geometry]

22. Reflexives with me, te and nos

When a reflexive is listed, it’s often in the “unconjugated” infinitive + reflexive se.

So for instance, irse “to leave” is listed as irse in the dictionary. When it’s conjugated however, the reflexive must adhere to the subject.

So when it's yo it turns to me and so on:

Tengo que irme. = I have to leave.

Tienes que irte. = You need to leave.

Ella tiene que irse. = She needs to leave.

Ellos tienen que irse. = They need to leave.

Tenemos que irnos. = We need to leave.

*Note: This applies to all reflexives and in all tenses; me fui, te fuiste, se fueme ibate ibasse iba; me vaya, te vayas, se vaya and so on.

The se is only used for 3rd person, singular or plural.

Muñeca Traicionera

Summary: Sam decides to pull a prank on one Bucky Barnes - how far will it go? 

Pairing: Bucky Barnes x Latinx!Reader

Warnings: Language, Sexual Innuendos?

Word Count: 2.2k

A/N: I’m real scared about this fic b/c I feel like its not good but ANYWAYS, about 85% of the dialogue and some descriptions are in Spanish - NO English translations so either ask me or google translate for help lmao sorry - the songs mentioned are Propuesta Indecente by Romeo Santos and Loco by Enrique Iglesias!  I want to dedicate this to all my Hispanic/Latinx/POC writers and readers who have felt the lack of representation; hopefully this is the start of something good for all of us :) Enjoy! [PS: this is definitely not the last time I write a poc!/latinx!reader fic!]

Masterlist

Originally posted by papi-chulo-bucky

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Because people inexplicably like my daft punky trash here’s a third fic
HNNNNGH MOTHER. FUCKING. ELECTROMA. No spoilers though. Robot!Thomas/human!Guy AU, Thomas goes through ‘robotic adolescence’. Cute, sexy, thoughtful, angsty, humanistic.

It even has a title, ’Tabula Rasa’.
I heard, I shipped, I philosophized.

—–

Define: 'Love’ ->
… ’A strong affection for another arising out of kinship or personal ties’.


“Good morning,” a soft male voice calls in the darkness. A searching hand roams downwards until it finds the desired switch and presses it; such a carefree act, but to the android in question, it is his first awakening, his genesis, the first light summoned forth just for his sake. “welcome to the world. It’s nice to meet you.”

The robot’s visor lights up in red, rapidly scrolling text indicating its first boot-up sequence before displaying a prompt with a blinking cursor, stating “PASSWORD?”. He is quite 'awake’ and is actually seeing what’s around him with vivid clarity, it’s just that he can’t move much without confirming that he’s where he’s supposed to be.

“Ahh. Bien sûr. How do I…” rapid footsteps sound beside him, followed by the sound of pages turning. “… I just recite, do I? Password: T - V - E-” the letters are typed as soon as they are spoken out aloud, fading quickly into asterisks after a second. “-B - O - R, enter.”

The prompt blinks and disappears after flashing “CONFIRMED”. His internal processes begin updating almost immediately and the robot checks what date it is; it has been three months since he was manufactured. Only then does he allow himself to turn his head, seeing his new owner for the first time, and the sunlight is drifting in from the window behind him and they’re alone and it’s so beautiful. “Good morning, master,” he says, a faint metallic timbre audible in his voice. So far he speaks in monotone, but he will pick up more inflections in time. “systems initializing, please state your name for future reference.”

“Forenames, 'Guilliaume’, 'Emmanuel’ and 'Paul’ in that order. Surname, 'de Homem-Christo’, hyphen between 'Homem’ and 'Christo’,” the man recites with a luxurious French lilt, longish dark hair falling over his eyes; he smiles, showing brilliant white teeth, and sweeps it out of his face just in time, as if he were aware that the silver robot is taking an identification photo with his optical sensors. “but call me 'Guy’ and don’t feel obliged to call me 'master’ or use my surname, either, there is no need for formality between us.”

“Affirmative. Please wait,” There is silence for a minute or two while he waits for more of himself to stabilize. “Guy, your first language appears to be French. My operating language may be set to that if you so wished.”

“This is fine for now, though I might eventually take you up on the offer. Merci,” the man reaches out to touch him properly, both hands resting on his shoulders - sending a warmth spreading through the robot’s back - before moving up to stroke over his helmet once lightly. The slight hum of the other’s motor increases and he 'leans’ into the touch, which is of great relief to Guy; he must enjoy the sensation. “and now. What is your name?”

“I have none. My unit number is TB3-645, but it’s possible for me to be renamed.”

“Would you like another name?”

There is no reply. Personal preference doesn’t tend to be something that machines concern themselves with. The man can tell that the other is curious, though, and coming from a robot, that’s as good as direct permission. “Then I’d like to call you 'Thomas’,” he smiles, the name pronounced with the accent on the second syllable. “you look like a 'Thomas’ to me. Oui. I love it.”

The robot can’t admittedly understand what about him looks so much like a 'Thomas’, nor what the average 'Thomas’ should look like, but he accepts and is just about to confirm his new name - before suddenly pausing and displaying a question mark. “Query. That usage of 'love’ does not correspond to the definition that I can find. One cannot form personal ties towards the action of bestowing a name. Can you clarify?”

To say that Guy’s surprised would be a lie; he’s been anticipating this question at some point, and if anything, he’s delighted that it came so quickly. This is a very intelligent and curious specimen indeed. “Perhaps you can, if said name had a personal context behind it. And Thomas, what you have is an exceptionally lackluster description of what love entails. There are many abstract concepts in the world, of which love is only one, and those you have to figure out on your own.”

“Am I to do this via repeated empirical observations?”

“Correct. I can give translations - the French verb for 'to love’ is ’aimer’ - and I can define what it means for me to say 'I love you’ in several ways. But 'love’ itself is only going to be meaningful to you if you observe it yourself.”

Thomas falls silent for a second. The translation program is still initializing, but he makes use of it nonetheless, wanting to show Guy his learning capacity as soon as possible. “'I love you’ would translate to ’Je aimes-tu’?”

“Non, non,” Guy laughs and gently strokes the back of Thomas’s helmet. “too literal. ’Je t'aime’. You’ll get the hang of it soon.”

Thomas will indeed 'get the hang of it’ within a few hours when his systems are running at full power and foreign-language updates have been installed. Even as Guy speaks, he realizes that the phrase does indeed correspond to 'I love you’ just as he asked; the touch of his hand is warm and gentle, too, which is much appreciated by Thomas. His new master is trustworthy, he decides, and as likable as he’s capable of 'liking’ anything. “Were any truth values intended in that statement?” he asks, hoping that he might get another inkling as to how to solve his new intellectual puzzle.

Guy considers. He looks Thomas over thoroughly, his quicksilver-shine polish and sharply-pressed attire and all. “Regarding ’je t'aime’?”

“Affirmative.”

“I did.”

“Positive or negative?”

“Oh, funny that you should question it,” Guy bends down and kisses the robot lightly over his visor. “positive, I should think. Absolument!

Keep reading

Cavalier/Knight Talk: Heraldry

Well, I’m bored, so inspired by our Captain’s post about Naval Flags, I decided I was going to do a short bit on something common to all Knights and nobles; Heraldry!


Let’s begin!


WHAT IS HERALDRY?

Heraldry is a pretty broad term, but generally refers to a Coat of Arms, personal, hereditary, military, or to some extent, even national. This usually takes the form of a shield or badge with associated colours, symbols, or heraldic beasts, mottoes, and occasionally a crest.
It is important to note a crest and a heraldic Coat of Arms are not the same thing; a crest refers to a 3D icon placed atop a helmet. Often this is related to the family of the one wearing the said crest, but not always.


WHAT IS IT FOR?

Heraldry has kind of been in use since antiquity, but the essential purpose is to identify yourself and your allegiance. It’s not too dissimilar to modern forms of identification. For a Knight in the mediaeval period of history (so; fall of Rome onward to early Modern period), their heraldry was a way of declaring “I am Sir/Dame X of Y, belonging to house Z, etc”. Naturally, you’d think someone could just create their own heraldry and blag their way to the top, but Heralds kept a close eye upon which house had what heraldry, meaning it was not an easy task to create a convincing bit of heraldry without close scrutiny. Not to say it didn’t happen; it was just difficult.
Naturally, a person or family that was ennobled had the right to create their own heraldry, thus having special permission to do so.
Heraldry also played a part in combat; Knights would often avoid targets without heraldry, seeing the average soldier as beneath them, and targeting only other knights specifically. Or at least, ideally they would have done so. In reality, and especially toward the late mediaeval period, Knights would target anything in their way. However, even then, heraldry served the purpose of revealing whom was whom, what allegiance they held, and what forces they had gathered about them. Wearing your heraldic banner allowed your allies to rally around you, but also allowed enemies to focus upon you, making it a double-edged sword. However, glory-seeking Knights favoured open displays of their valour, thus it was considered honourable to display one’s Heraldry in battle.

HOW DOES IT WORK?

Well that’s a pretty broad function to narrow down, but let’s focus upon the basics here:
To create heraldry, you have to use an assortment of things: ·       
- a shield/badge·       
- a heraldic symbol or beast·       
- personal colours of Heraldic specification (Tinctures)·       
- Occasionally (especially in modern military and academic organisations), a motto
All these things should be fairly unique and personal, which differentiates the bearer and marks them out. Remember; this is a form of identity!


(EXAMPLE)
Knight will use their own Coat of Arms for reference (no I’m not about to show you an image of it; that’d be telling), via description:

Knight’s Family Coat-of-Arms is a Shield/Field (Verte), slashed with Crosses (Ermine). The small crosses are all that separates this heraldic Coat from the similar Heraldry of the Kingsley Family.

So to translate that: Green Shield, White Crosses/Lines, Black small crosses.

The heraldic beast used as a crest for Knight’s family is usually depicted as either a Goat’s head or an Antelope, depending upon stylistic depiction, though more commonly the Goat.

The Motto is (as mottos often were), fluid, and there are two different mottos associated with the Family, specifically: “Virtute et Fortutido” and “Haud Facile”, meaning, respectfully: “By Valour and Strength” and “Not With Ease”. Both correlate well, making it fairly straight forward why both correspond to the theme here. 


HOW DOES IT WORK?

Now, if Knight wanted to enter a tournament in the mediaeval period, along with a patent of nobility, he’d be expected to display his heraldic colours. Partly to gain glory, but also to let people know, again, who is who.
Special exceptions exist however, with “black knights” entering the tournaments using false or fake heraldry, or even fully painted black shields. Such things were allowed when a patent of nobility was presented at the lists, though a knight could keep anonymity by way of changing or hiding their heraldry. This was allowed in rare cases for rule of drama (hey, the mediaeval people liked plot-twists as much as we do now), sometimes without noble patent, but this was a very rare instance usually again permitted for dramatic purposes. A tournament is, after all, as much about showing off as it about sport!
Naturally, there were times when it was favourable to hide one’s heraldry, and this is where heraldry that was well known was useful; for example, in the High Middle Ages, High Middle French was commonly spoken by the nobility as their primary language. So, say you were a Knight in the Hundred Years War, trying to hide your English identity in French territory? Well, speaking High French was a good start, but if you happened to be able to repaint your shield of kit with Heraldry belonging to the Constable of France (Charles I of Albret), as an extremely high-profile example, you’d manage to pass in the French countryside fairly well. So essentially,  


WHAT ARE TINCTURES?
Back to basics: Tinctures!
What are they? Essentially, colours, specific in Heraldry.
The most prominent and basic are the two Metalics: Or (Gold) and Argent (Silver/White). Essentially, these make up whites and yellows on Heraldry, and the former is usually used by Royalty.

Next up are the primary Heraldic colours: Gules (red), Azure (blue), Verte (green), Sable (black), Purpure (purple), Sanguine (blood red), Tenny (tan).In addition to that are the furs: Ermine (white and black), Emines (black and white), Erminois (yellow and black), Pean (black and yellow), Vair (blue with white belled shapes), Counter-Vair (blue with white), Potent (Blue with white T shapes), Counter-Potent (reverse of the former). 


HERALDIC BEASTS?
This is VEEEERY broad subject. Basically most animals can be used in heraldry, as with mythological beasts, most typically a dragon (early England, Scandinavian countries) or Unicorn (Greece). The way an animal is depicted in posture defines it at times by name. Most obvious example:Lion on all fours = “Leopard”/Lion-passant-guardant
Lion on hind legs = “Lion”/Lion-RampantBoth are Lions, but depending on how it is depicted, it will be named a Lion or a Leopard. Reason being is caught up in mediaeval zoology; a leopard was thought to be a beast created by the union of a lion and a fictional beast called a Pard; hence “Leo-Pard”.Back on topic; literally any animal can be used and there is a huge list of heraldic beasts, and if I tried to list them all we’d be here all day. In short; the only limit is your imagination. Though, naturally, people will try to keep it noble, native, or mythological, and somewhat serious. 


EXAMPLES?
Let’s make some imaginary examples of heraldry, using the WAA gang.
To make it simple, I’m going to use Tarek (Paladin), Meriel (AntiPaladin) and Edward (Knight/Cavalier), as they are all knights, and would use heraldry.

So let’s take what defines each as a character, and their symbolisms/aesthetics;
Tarek = Light, black and gold, goodness, courage, Middle-Eastern aesthetics.
Meriel = Darkness, blood red and black, evil, fear and strength, Lovecraftian aesthetics.
Edward = Chivalry, red, gold and black, honour, bravery, High Mediaeval aesthetics.Some of those are, again, a bit broad, but these are what I’ll work with.
So, assuming all of them use a shield base, lets take their colours.

Tarek = Black and gold becomes Pean (black field with gold marks)
Meriel = Sanguine field and Sable (blood red and black)
Edward = Gules field and Or (red and gold)Now add additional symbolism.

Tarek is an adherent of the First Sun, so we can use a Sol alchemical symbol, or to fit his aesthetics, a Persian inspired sun symbol, in the colour Or (gold). This fits nicely on the black background and golden symbols (which themselves give a mid-eastern look).
Meriel USED to be a Paladin of Serenae (sun goddess), but is now a dark and corrupted version. Considering her family had an attachment to said Goddess, and being the landed gentry, I’ll assume they used the sun as well in their own heraldry, and Meriel has since altered it to fit her new Patron; red field upon which a Sable jagged Sol/Sun sits, sort of like the Germanic Black Sun symbol of antiquity.
Edward embodies Knighthood on the whole; knights and chivalry are associated with armour and the sword. For this mental exercise, I’ll draw upon both; a gauntlet grasping a sword, Ors (gold).

Now the Heraldic beasts. Kind of hard to summarise for the characters individually, but I’ll take what seems to fit:

Tarek = Persian inspired Lion/’Leopard’ (Lion-passant-Guardant), or perhaps a Phoenix? Naturally, the colour here will be Or (gold).
Meriel = Lovecraftian aesthetics are hard to put onto heraldry, so I’ll use a very odd creature for hers that is terrifying – either a Yale, or Biscoine. The former being a bizarre and somewhat terrifying looking beast almost resembling a goat, the latter being a serpent in the act of consuming a child. Colours used will be Sable (black).
Edward = Lion Rampant, due to the courageous, noble, and chivalric connotations. Colour used will be Or (gold).

So what do we get for our basic level Heraldry?

Tarek = A shield in Pean (black with gold), depicting a stylised Sun and Lion/Phoenix roaring or rising beneath the dawning sun imagery.
Meriel = A shield in Sanguine (blood red), depicting a black and wrong looking Sun in Sable (black), beneath which a Yale or Biscoine howls or swallows the very symbol of youth and life itself under the corrupted sky.
Edward = A Gules (red) field, with a Lion Rampant in Or (gold), wearing a gauntlet and grasping aloft a sword, also in Or (gold). 

This is, of course, just a basic example, but I hope this has been an interesting read for all that have observed it!

~ Knight

PS:
@weareantipaladin, @wearepaladin
I know Antipaladin wanted help with heraldry a while back, not sure what became of that. If you’re still looking, hopefully this is useful.
As for Paladin…I just hope you enjoy the idea for your heraldry?