Ancient Oceans on Mars

It is now widely accepted that Mars was once a very wet place. About four billion years ago Mars would have had enough water to cover its entire surface in a liquid layer about 140 metres deep. It is likely that the liquid would have pooled to form an ocean occupying almost half of Mars’s northern hemisphere, and in some regions reaching depths greater than 1.6 kilometres. This artist’s impression shows what the planet may have looked like with its ancient ocean. Imagine: could life have lived in such a place?

Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser



  1. Abstract Galaxies 2 
  2. The colors of the galaxy 
  3. Abstract Galaxies 4 
  4. The Colors Of The Galaxy 2 

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Our Milky Way Galaxy was once thought to comprise the entire known universe. Today our universe encompasses many billions of galaxies, and its history can be recounted back to its earliest moments.

Our universe began with an explosion of space itself - the Big Bang. Starting from extremely high density and temperature, space expanded, the universe cooled, and the simplest elements formed. Gravity gradually drew matter together to form the first stars and the first galaxies. Galaxies collected into groups, clusters, and superclusters. Some stars died in supernova explosions, whose chemical remnants seeded new generations of stars and enabled the formation of rocky planets. On at least one such planet, life evolved to consciousness. And it wonders, “Where did I come from?”

Learn more on the Rose Center for Earth and Space website


Four globular clusters in Fornax

These Hubble Space Telescope images show four globular clusters in the dwarf galaxy Fornax.

New observations of the clusters — large balls of stars that orbit the centres of galaxies — show they are very similar to those found in our galaxy, the Milky Way. The finding is at odds with leading theories on how these clusters form — in these theories, globular clusters should be nestled among large quantities of old stars — and so the mystery of how these objects came to exist deepens.

Left to right: Fornax 1, Fornax 2, Fornax 3 and Fornax 5. Their positions within the galaxy are shown in the wide field image.

Credit: NASA, ESA, S. Larsen (Radboud University, the Netherlands)
Wide-field: ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2

Astrophotographer Göran Strand captured this incredible solar prominence of almost 7 Earth-diameters high.

Using a particular method of astrophotography that involves hydrogen alpha filters, images of the Sun can be taken in great detail.

In the final edit, a scaled Earth was included to exhibit the sheer magnitude of the prominence, as well as the Sun itself.


Signs + Loneliness
  • Aries:sits blankly by the computer. Very unsettling.
  • Taurus:just kinda lies there. Completely consumed by loneliness.
  • Gemini:doesn't like it but can handle it, more or less. Daydreams about seeing them again.
  • Cancer:like a puppy. Stares out the window, waiting for their return.
  • Leo:bothers them, makes them angry that they can't do anything about it.
  • Virgo:doesn't affect them in the usual way. Antsy, tries to meet up with them.
  • Libra:literally cannot handle it. Goes insane with sorrow.
  • Scorpio:can't stand the feeling but doesn't let it show. Suffering on the inside.
  • Sagittarius:completely unfazed. Doesn't need anyone really.
  • Capricorn:tries to make the best of it. Attempts to distract themselves with books and tea.
  • Aquarius:it's fine. Company would be nice, but it's fine...(no it's not)
  • Pisces:depends. Either an absolute inconsolable mess or too busy lost in their own world to be troubled by it.

“Yeah. You know how? When the big bang happened, all the atoms in the universe, they were all smashed together into one little dot that exploded outward. So my atoms and your atoms were certainly together then, and, who knows, probably smashed together several times in the last 13.7 billion years. So my atoms have known your atoms and they’ve always known your atoms. My atoms have always loved your atoms.”