Dr Warhol’s Periodic Table of Microbes

51. Sb. Salinibacter

If you put so much salt on your food that your friends and family think you’re trying to kill yourself, you just may want to hang out with Salinibacter.

The organism was isolated from salt crystallization ponds in Spain. It cannot live below 15% salinity and prefers between 20% and 30% salt concentration. Remember those osmolarity labs with human red blood cells? We are at around 0.9%, these microbes enjoy 20X that amount!

Some people feel that it is important that Salinibacter is a halophilic bacterium rather than a halophilic Archaean. You may also. This is a relatively new genus of microbes, first described in 2002.

At a molecular level, these microbes have adaptations to cope and thrive with high salt levels. There are three recognized Salinibacter species: iranicus, luteus, and ruber. You can probably guess that ruber produces red pigmented colonies, luteus grows up orange, and iranicus was isolated in Iran.

If you like travelling to salt lakes, you could also find these in Tuz Lake in Turkey, the Wadi an Natrun depression in Egypt, and in the Peruvian Andes.

Salinibacter is a Gram negative very long rod, measuring around 0.5 microns wide by 15 to 60 microns long!

Cover your walls in Periodic Table of Microbes posters! You can’t do the Microbiome thing without one!

Copyright 2016 Warhol.

One (1) shiny internet point

To the first person who can guess what I’m doing.

(Hint: it is tedious and yet catastrophically likely to go wrong)

$fileArray = @()

pushd D:\workspace\client\src\client2

$fileArray += ls -r *.c

pushd D:\workspace\client\include\client2

$fileArray += ls -r *.h

$reservedArray =

foreach($word in $reservedArray)
   $word | out-file -filepath “d:\scriptOut\reservedWords.txt” -append
   $fileArray | sls $word | out-file -filepath “d:\scriptOut\reservedWords.txt” -append


Dr Warhol’s Periodic Table of Microbes

48. Cd. Candida

Yes, this is not a bacterium, it is a yeast, but this is a Table of Microbes (not just bacteria) and we do have a number of Archaea here, and we need to be fair.  Plus all microbiology courses mention yeasts. Yeasts are great because they make beer, bread, and wine.

Yeasts are eukaryotic, so they have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles, unlike everything else on this Table. There are around 1500 different yeasts (probably a lot more, but I’m deep into the 15,000+ named bacteria at the moment). Yeasts are dimorphic, meaning they can exist in 2 shapes, one is single-celled, the other is filamentous and fungus-like. In fact, fungi are yeasts, and yeasts are fungi. The big yeasts to remember are Saccharomyces cerevisiae (which is famous for fermentation that makes alcohol and CO2) and Candida.

Candida is the other frequently mentioned yeast because it can cause “yeast infections” like oral thrush and vaginal candidiasis, if it gets a chance. That said, Candida albicans, the predominant species, is considered a normal part of flora on human skin and mucous membranes. It’s called “albicans” because it forms white colonies. For the geneticists out there, Candida is one organism that violates the absolutely inviolable genetic code by using CUG to code for serine instead of leucine.

But the really big news, that nobody mentions much, is that Candida is essential for making chocolate. Yes, no Candida, no chocolate! This is because cacao beans (the source of chocolate) need to be fermented in order to break down the pulp on the outside of the beans and remove the bitter taste. The organisms responsible for this are Candida krusei and another fungi known a Geotrichum.

Candida appears as a Gram positive spherical or budding cell ranging from 2 to 12 microns long, much bigger than bacteria!

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Copyright 2016 Warhol.