The 12 khalifas of prophet pbuh 1 - Abu Bakr as-Siddeq, 2 - Umar ibn Khattab, 3 - Uthman ibn Affan, 4 - Ali ibn Abi Talib, 5 - Hassan ibn Ali, 6 - Muawiyya ibn Abu Sufyan, 7 - Yazid ibn Muawiyya, 8 - Muawwiya ibn Yazid, 9 - Abdullah Ibn Zubayr, 10 - Marwan ibn Hakam, 11 - Abdul Aziz ibn Marwan, 12 - Walid ibn Abdul Aziz. These are the first 12 Khalifahs of the Islamic world, all were from the tribe of Quraish, though I think I got Abdullah ibn Zubayr and Marwan ibn Hakam mixed up.
LOL okay, first of all, if you are going to refer to a narration, then make sure you do so correctly. As per YOUR sahih Muslim, the narration goes as follows:
“It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. Samura who said:
I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say: “Islam will continue to be triumphant until there have been twelve Caliphs. Then the Prophet (ﷺ) said something which I could not understand. I asked my father: What did he say? He said: He has said that all of them (twelve Caliphs) will be from the Quraish.”
Source: Sahih Muslim, Book 33, Hadith 8
Okay so let’s dissect this hadith a little. Rasulliah (SAWS) said, “Islam will CONTINUE to be triumphant UNTIL there have been TWELVE CALIPHS…” So please tell me, if it is indeed the case, as you said, that the above mentioned list is the 12 that the Holy Prophet (SAWS) was referring to, please explain to me why Islam is still the number 1 fastest growing religion in the world even after the last one on your list died…
Here is another version of this narration, again from your Sahih Muslim:
“It has been narrated on the authority of Amir b. Sa’d b. Abu Waqqas who said:
I wrote (a letter) to Jabir b. Samura and sent it to him through my servant Nafi’, asking him to inform me of something he had heard from the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). He wrote to me (in reply): I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say on Friday evening, the day on which al-Aslami was stoned to death (for committing adultery): The Islamic religion will continue until the Hour has been established, or you have been ruled over by twelve Caliphs, all of them being from the Quraish. also heard him say: A small force of the Muslims will capture the white palace, the police of the Persian Emperor or his descendants. I also heard him say: Before the Day of Judgment there will appear (a number of) impostors. You are to guard against them. I also heard him say: When God grants wealth to any one of you, he should first spend it on himself and his family (and then give it in charity to the poor). I heard him (also) say: I will be your forerunner at the Cistern (expecting your arrival).”
Source: Sahih Muslim, Book 33, Hadith 11
Again, lets reflect a little on the words said. Rasulliah (SAWS), in this version of the narration clearly states that, “The Islamic religion will continue until the Hour has been established, OR you have been ruled over by twelve Caliphs, all of them being from the Quraish.” So tell me, have we been ruled by 12 caliphs yet? According to you, YES…so why didn’t the day of Judgement come yet? The condition of 12 caliphs, according to you, has already been fulfilled yet Islam is still here, alive and kicking…
Moving on, I think we can both agree that when Rasulliah (SAWS) speaks, it is out of wisdom. So when we study the biographies of the rulers on your list, we find that all but 2 of them were tyrants and innovators. Read about Abu Bakr and Umar’s caliphate and you will find cruelty after cruelty, and innovation after innovation. Read about Uthman and you will see how the whole ummah turned against him and assassinated him. Read about Muawiayh, and you will see he waged war against Imam Ali (as) and broke the treaty he made with Imam Hassan (as). Read about Yazid ibn Muawiyah and you will see he killed Imam Hussain (as). Read about the rest of the Ummayid and Abbasid caliphs and you will see how they lived and ruled in a way contrary to the Sunnah. So I ask you, why would Rasulliah (SAWS) be referring the THESE 12 when only Imam Ali (as) and Imam Hassan (as) upheld the Sunnah and saved Islam from amoungst your list? There must be different 12 who PROTECTED the sunnah and saved Islam, not a twelve (or a 10 in this case) which merely used islam as a means to power…
Okay, so with this being said, we can throw your list in the bin alhamdulliah.
However, now that your list is out, we need a better replacement for it. So let me prove to you, THROUGH YOUR SAHIH BOOKS, that the 12 Caliphs or Leaders, as the narration refers to, are indeed the IMAMS OF AHLUL BAYT (AS)….
Let’s start of with the famous narration known as, The Two Weighty Things. This version is taken from Sahih Muslim, under the chapter of ‘The Virtues of Ali Ibn Abi Talib:
Yazid b. Hayyan reported, I went along with Husain b. Sabra and ‘Umar b. Muslim to Zaid b. Arqam and, as we sat by his side, Husain said to him:
Zaid. you have been able to acquire a great virtue that you saw Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) listened to his talk, fought by his side in (different) battles, offered prayer behind me. Zaid, you have in fact earned a great virtue. Zaid, narrate to us what you heard from Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ). He said: I have grown old and have almost spent my age and I have forgotten some of the things which I remembered in connection with Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ), so accept whatever I narrate to you, and which I do not narrate do not compel me to do that. He then said: One day Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) stood up to deliver sermon at a watering place known as Khumm situated between Mecca and Medina. He praised Allah, extolled Him and delivered the sermon and. exhorted (us) and said: Now to our purpose. O people, I am a human being. I am about to receive a messenger (the angel of death) from my Lord and I, in response to Allah’s call, (would bid good-bye to you), but I am leaving among you two weighty things: the one being the Book of Allah in which there is right guidance and light, so hold fast to the Book of Allah and adhere to it. He exhorted (us) (to hold fast) to the Book of Allah and then said: The second are the members of my household I remind you (of your duties) to the members of my family. He (Husain) said to Zaid: Who are the members of his household? Aren’t his wives the members of his family? Thereupon he said: His wives are the members of his family (but here) the members of his family are those for whom acceptance of Zakat is forbidden. And he said: Who are they? Thereupon he said: ‘Ali and the offspring of ‘Ali, ‘Aqil and the offspring of 'Aqil and the offspring of Ja'far and the offspring of 'Abbas. Husain said: These are those for whom the acceptance of Zakat is forbidden. Zaid said: Yes.
Source: Sahih Muslim, Book 44, Hadith 55
To add to this, let us also take another version found in Sahih Tirmidhi which states the following:
“I am leaving among you something which is very important and should be followed, you will not go astray if you get hold of it after I am gone, one part of it being more important than the other: Allah’s Book, which is a rope stretched from Heaven to Earth, and my close relatives, who belong to my household. These two will not separate from one another till they come down to the reservoir, so consider how you act regarding them after my departure.“
Source: Sahih Tirmidhi
Okay, so with this being said, several points come to mind. The first being that Rasulliah (SAWS) CLEARLY is passing on the authority after him to his Ahlul Bayt (AS) and to the Quran. He started by letting everyone know that he is about to depart from this world soon, and thus the statement after he said this is a statement of appointment of his successorship and authority. Not to mention, that he clearly appointed Imam Ali (as) on this day, as even your Sahih Muslim confirms this narration was given at a place called Khumm (hence Ghadeer Khumm did indeed happen and this narration was part of his longer sermon where he raised the hands of Imam Ali (as) and said, “Whomsoever I am his Master, Ali is his Master).
Point two is that, even this narration proves that the Ahlul Bayt (AS) are infallible (this can also be proven via the Quran, Surah 33 verse 33, and other narrations like the Hadith of the Cloak, but we will focus only on this narration for now.) For Rasulliah (SAWS) has placed the Ahlul Bayt (as) alongside the Quran. Meaning that you MUST follow and hold on to BOTH if you don’t want to go astray. Logically this means that the Ahlul Bayt (AS) MUST BE the WALKING, TALKING Quran bc if you were to believe that they can sin, or make mistakes, then this means that you CANNOT follow BOTH the Ahlul Bayt (AS) and Quran WHILE SIMULTANEOUSLY being on the straight path. Furthermore, if you were to believe that the Ahlul Bayt (as) were fallible and can make mistakes, then that also means you must in turn, believe that the Quran is fallible and has mistakes in it, and since we are both certain that the Quran is flawless, we must also accept that the Ahlul Bayt (as) are flawless…
But to answer your main question regarding the 12 Caliphs, we will refer to Sahih Tirhmidhi’s version of this narration where he has recorded the Holy Prophet (SAWS) saying, “These two will not separate from one another till they come down to the reservoir, so consider how you act regarding them after my departure.“
Rasulliah (SAWS) said that ‘these two,’ meaning the Quran AND the Ahlul Bayt (as), will not separate from one another until the day of judgement. So I ask you, do we have the Quran with us today? Yes. So where is the Ahlul Bayt (as)? If you are to say they all died, then you have questioned Rasulliah (SAWS), bc then this narration is a lie. And again, you cannot believe this bc this is in your authentic books. So this leads us to one logical conclusion, and one which the Shia believe in, and that is that the Ahlul Bayt (as) IS indeed with us even until today, via the occultation of the TWELFTH IMAM, the Imam of our time, Imam Mahdi (as)!
Notice how the Shia view gives the best answers to ALL of your narrations. For we have solved problem one, of Islam still being around even after YOUR 12 historical caliphs have ruled (since the 12th real caliph, Imam Mahdi (as), hasn’t ruled yet). We have solved the problem of successorship as well, as the Ahlul Bayt (as) WAS CLEARLY appointed after the Prophet (SAWS), leading us to say that the 12 caliphs are the Imams of Ahlul Bayt (as). We have also avoided the other problem of the separation of the Ahlu Bayt (as) and the Quran, since the Imam of our time is still with us, thus rendering all the conditions for all these narration true. Not to mention, you have narrations which state that those who don’t know the Imam of their time dies the death of Ignorance…so who is the Imam of your time? None other than the last of the 12 caliphs, the 12th Imam of Ahlul Bayt (as), Imam Mahdi (may Allah hasten his reappearance)!
So let me present to you the real list of the twelve caliphs:
1- Ali Ibn Abi Talib (as)
2- Hassan Ibn Ali (as)
3- Hussain Ibn Ali (as)
4- Ali Ibn Hussain (as)
5- Muhammad Ibn Ali (as)
6- Ja’far Ibn Muhammad (as)
7- Musa Ibn Ja’far (as)
8- Ali Ibn Musa (as)
9- Muhammad Ibn Ali (as)
10- Ali Ibn Muhammad (as)
11- Hassan Ibn Ali (as)
12- Muhammad Ibn Hassan (as)
When you read the biographies of these 12 infalliables, you will see that each and every one of them saved this religion from destruction. This is the wisdom of mentioning these personalities, because they are the ones whom we were meant to follow.