“Belief, dignity, power.”

Descended from a long line of Celts, the warlike Arverni are one of the most powerful tribes of central Gaul. Far more than mere barbarian looters and raiders, they have a complex and sophisticated culture centred at Nemossos, their stronghold near the Gergovia plateau.

Ruled by kings and tribal chieftains, but deferent to their druids, there exists a rigid social order amongst the Arverni. Prestige and power come from a man’s abilities as a warrior and a leader as much as his lineage.

Heavily dependent on infantry, the Arverni make great use of javelins and the devastating impact of the charge, led by elite warriors such as Spear Nobles and Oathsworn. It is by fighting this way that leaders have earned their places: as champions, proving themselves in conflict.

While many matters ostensibly fall to the Arverni’s kings and chieftains, in reality, much is governed by the will of the druids, including declarations of war or peace. Blending animism with a pantheon of greater, local and lesser household gods, the Celtic religion is one of the key factors uniting the disparate Gallic tribes.

Seemingly unstoppable en masse, Gallic tribes sacked Rome in 390BC and terrorised much of the Aegean as recently as 279BC, invading Thrace, Macedon and Illyria. Maybe their destiny lies across the sea to Britannia, with all the Celtic tribes united under a single king? Or to the south, to finally put paid to the growing threat from Rome?

Noted craftsmen, the Arverni enjoy improved income from their artisans, as well as profiting from the Gauls’ expertise with gold-working. In battle, their cavalry benefit from natural Gallic horsemanship, while the charisma and fighting prowess of their kings and chieftains make them formidable warriors, and earns them diplomatic respect amongst other barbarian tribes.

The Gauls - the forgotten city builders

By Roman History Made Easy

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A map of Gaul in the 1st century BC, showing the relative position of the Helvetii and the Sequani (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

It’s one of those strange paradoxes of archaeology - an ancient authority on Gaul describes Gallic cities 2000-years ago but his descriptions are often ignored by modern historians. The 19th and 20th century produced the idea of Gauls as the ‘Noble Savage’ and clearly, noble savages couldn’t go around living in cities. As a result many of us - if we’ve ever heard of Gauls at all - will conjure up images of Asterix and Obelix living in thatched roundhouses rather than a sophisticated western civilisation that was rapidly catching up with Rome and Greece. Julius Caesar embraced this latter concept when he foresaw Gaul in its ascendancy - his reaction was to control the economic powerhouse Gaul could become through diplomatic and military force. If he hadn’t, then it’s likely just a few unified states from modern day central France would have had the economic means and resources to make Rome a client rather than the master.

Celtic Gaul was dotted with several large commercial hubs by the 1st-century BC - many, such as Cenabum (modern day Orleans) and Lutetia (modern day Paris) had built their power on river trade. Cenabum’s position on the Loire allowed it to control almost all commodity trading between the Atlantic Coast and the Mediterranean Basin, likewise Lutetia controlled the Seine, the gateway to the North Sea and the Baltic lands. But for both of these shipping corridors to prosper, short land routes between the southwards flowing Saone and, the northwards flowing Loire and Seine was an unavoidable necessity - making the area between Chalon-S-Saone (Cavillonum) and Nevers (Noviodunum) the place where the real money was to be made. This 100-mile land corridor was the bridge for all north-south trade across Celtic and Belgic Gaul. For all intents and purposes, every wine amphora moving north and every talent of iron heading south had to be taken off ships and road hauled. So whoever controlled this land bridge stood to make a lot of money - and it they did so by collecting tolls. Think about it - imagine a single freeway linking northern and southern Europe over which every pedestrian, pack animal and wagon had to pay for the pleasure. It was a cash cow and it was critically important - and it drove Gallic politics before and after Julius Caesar arrived in 58BC. The money this region was producing was almost certainly the reason for the continual warring between the Arverni and Aeduans in the early 1st-century BC and why Julius Caesar moved to eject Ariovistus and his German mercenaries from the same region as soon as the Romans arrived. That Caesar elected to maintain close relations with the Aeduans rather than the more powerful Arverni also suggests he was much more interested in where the Aedui were - rather than who they were.

Continued at

Related articles

* “The Conquest of Gaul” by Julius Caesar
* The World of Caesarius of Arles 
* The First Roman Camp in Germany… in English

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Dreadlock History

Dreadlocks are one of the oldest hairstyles in the world, with records dating far back in history and contrary to popular belief, not exclusive to the Rastafari movement or African American hair-types.
European cultures rumored to have worn dreadlocks were the Celts (specifically the Druids) as well as some other Gallic tribes. Documentation is scarce but it is said that some Celtic warriors would lime their hair, making it lighter and stiffer,so that it would spike back in a more intimidating fashion (an iron-age replication of Celtic warriors is to the left and the one at the middle is shown with locks over his shoulders while the rest of the hair is spiked outward.)
Vercingetorix of the Arverni tribe united the Gauls against Rome unsuccessfully. He was captured by Caesar and held prisoner, later to be executed.
Just below is a Roman coin that was made depicting the Gaul at the time (with locked hair.) In later renditions (paintings or statues) he is depicted with either flowing, chunky locks or dreadlocked hair… since the coin was made in 48 b.c. it makes you wonder which is the more accurate depiction.

In Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet there is mention of “elf-locks”. Elf-locks (or pixie-locks; fairy-locks) are said to be tangles that where put into the hair of livestock or people by the fae. It was said that to undue the tangles would cause bad luck and many believers would intentionally leave these locks to continue to dread throughout the rest of their lives. The aforementioned quote was in reference to Queen Mab of the fairies:
“She is the fairies’ midwife, and she comes
In shape no bigger than an agate stone…….
That plaits the manes of horses in the night
And bakes the elflocks in foul sluttish hairs,
Which once untangled, much misfortune bodes.”
Another example of this is of Gna Vanna (left) who is recorded by Eliza Putnam Heaton in her book from 1920, The By-Paths in Sicily, as following the Strega Path (Italian spiritualist/healer) and having pixie locks that she refuses to brush out or cut saying that in her doing so would cause her to die.
Dreadlocks were a desirable hairstyle of the Egyptians who would wear either their hair or wigs of dreadlocks or plaits (braids) adorned in gold and were a status symbol of the wealthy. This has been proven by statues and hieroglyphics depicting the style as well as archaeologists confirming dreadlocks on unwrapped mummies (as King Tutankhamen’s preservation can attest!)
Sadhus and Sadhvis of India grow locks which are considered sacred and the manifestation of their disregard for vanity (also considered a sign of virility!)
As with Hinduism, some forms of Buddhism (such as Ngakpa) also hold dreadlocks as a sign of letting go of vanity and materialism.
Various ethnic groups throughout Africa wear dreadlocks for varying reasons such as the Fang people of Gabon, Akan people of Ghana, Maasai wariors and Turkana people of Kenya are among a few. Mostly this style is reserved for spiritual people but not exclusive domain throughout the continent.
Whether it is for fashion or for a spiritual connotation, dreadlocks have been grown on various hair types throughout history and the world, including those wearing them today. It’s important to know a little background because a lot of today’s “dreadheads” are accused of cultural appropriation by allowing their hair to dreadlock due to dreadlocks more commonly being associated with the Rastafari movement, which was adopted in the 1930’s.

For all of you fucking assholes complaining about is white people having dreads and accusing us of it being cultural appropriation.


This museum quality heavy resin cast carved human skull is to honor Verconetorix and his warriors spirit.

Vercingetorix was a chieftain of the Arverni tribe; he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesars’s Gallic Wars.Vercingetorix came to power in 52 BC: he raised an army and was proclaimed king at Gergovia. He immediately established an alliance with other Gaulish tribes, took control of their combined armies, and led them in Gaul’s most significant revolt against Roman power. He won the Battle of Gergovia, in which 46 centurions and 700 legionaries died and more than 6,000 people were injured, whereupon Caesar’s Roman legions withdrew.  However, a few months later, in the Battle of Alesia, the Romans besieged and defeated his forces and captured him. He was held prisoner for five years. In 46 BC, as part of Caesar’s triumph, Vercingetorix was paraded through the streets of Rome and then executed. Vercingetorix is primarily known through Caesar’s Commentaries on the Gallic War.