artificial hill

Humans and Terraforming

If there is one thing that can be said, humans are very good at changing their environment. Now regardless of your views on climate change or greenhouse gases, it cannot be denied that humans have left a big and very literally mark on our planet.

We’ve been doing it ever since our primeval ancestors figured out that fire can be used to clear forest, and that the grasslands created by such burning attracts grazing animals and gives us a clear line of sight for our throwing spears and nets. We have been doing it ever since the ancient humans figured out they could damn creeks to make ponds that lured in waterfowl. That if you repeatedly burned a clearing, the berry bushes would keep coming back ever year. That if you created stone walls along the low tide line, you could create sandy terraces that are perfect for clams. We managed our resources, only fishing at certain times, only hunting certain types of animals, or only cutting certain types of trees.

Then we invented agriculture and we wrought even more changes on the planet. We cleared forests to make room for our fields, pastures and cities. We terraced entire hillsides to allow us to grow crops. We drained swamps and cut the landscape with irrigation canals to provide our crops with water. Often we changed the very course of rivers and altered the soil we relied on, sometimes for better and sometimes for worse. Forests disappeared as our cities and emerging states needed timber for construction, ship-building, and fuel to make pottery, smelt metals, cook our food, and keep us warm.

But we didn’t just change the landscape, we also changed the plants we grew so that they suited our needs. We changed the animals we relied on. We turned wolves into dogs, auroch into cows, ibex into goats, jungle fowl into chickens, and wild boars into pigs. We called this process domestication, and soon quickly forgot that we had ever been without these domesticates.

We made artificial hills for our rituals, built mountains out of cut stone to mark the tombs of revered rulers, carved symbols into the landscape. Sliced into mountains to carve roads, mine metal ores, and quarry stone. We made monuments so astounding that people thousands of years later thought they must have been made by the gods, and buildings of the modern age that dwarf them.

We’ve also traveled. We’ve crossed all our oceans, bringing with us the animals and plants of our homelands, and returning home with the animals and plants of other lands. Some is intentional. New crops that offer new advantages. Animals from far away to awe visitors or remind us of home. Some is unintentional. Plant seeds lodged in the tread of our boots. Insect larva in the bilge of our ships. Rats that scurry and stay out of sight, and hitch a ride on our sailing ships and outrigger canoes. Some we regret bringing, intentionally or not, others have settled in and carved their own place in their new home.

And now we look to the stars and wonder if we could do the same to other planets. To bring our life and our world to the stars. To turn a red planet green and blue.

And what if we succeeded? What if a red planet turned green, and flushed with our success, we turned to other balls of rock orbiting distant stars.

And what if we encountered other life. Life that was like us, but also very different. What if they had never seen life like ours before, that spread to the stars turning red, grey, and brown planets blue and green.

What if some are fearful. What if they seen our domesticated animals, our sculpted landscapes, and our diverse nations and fear that we will assimilate and change them and their world like we did to our ancient animal enemies and our distant home planet.

But what is some our awed, and look at us and see a species that can not only adapt itself to new and challenges and environments, but that also changes the challenge and environment itself. Often changing and adapting to the changes they themselves wrought. For better and worse, humanity sailed the stars on the crest of a wave of change that they themselves have been creating since their distant ancestors set fire to the underbrush and realized they could use this.


How to Move an Ancient Egyptian Temple — The Relocation of the Abu Simbel Temples.

In the 13th century BC the mighty pharaoh Ramses II ordered the construction of two large temples in southern Egypt to commemorate the Battle of Kadesh, to honor his queen Nefertari, and to impress his Nubian enemies to the south.  Carved directly into the sandstone hillsides, the large facade of the temples feature four colossus statues of Ramses himself, each standing 67 feet in height.  The facade itself stands an incredible 100 feet high and 119 feet wide.  Inside of the temples are a network of rooms and hallways with many priceless hieroglyphic carvings detailing Egyptian history, religion, and folklore.

By the 1960’s the Abu Simbel Temples were a national treasure for the new Egyptian nation.  However, Egypt’s industrial modernization would threaten the temples in a way that no pharaoh could have ever predicted.  Near Abu Simbel was the construction of a 364 foot hydroelectric dam known as the Aswan dam.  A key objective of the Egyptian government, the dam would provide electricity for the developing nation and kick start a new agricultural plan which would create a massive irrigation project.  However, Abu Simbel was literally in deep trouble, for construction of the damn would leave the ancient temples submerged at the bottom of the Lake Nasser Reservoir.

To save Abu Simbel, a team of archeologists, historians, engineers, architects, and construction workers were recruited by UNESCO to conduct one of the most ambitious rescue operations of an ancient structure.  The plan was to relocate the ancient temples above the flood plain of Lake Nasser.  Incredibly, the team cut the temple facade and structure into individual blocks weighing 20-30 tons.  Each block was numbered then recorded to keep track of where they would go when reassembled.  The blocks were lifted out of their original foundation using massive cranes, then transported to another site where they could be catalogued and stored for later.  From 1964-1965 over 10,000 stone blocks were cut, lifted, and transported away from the site. 

The new home for the temples was located 200 meters inland and at a height  65 meters higher than the original Abu Simbel site.  To recreate the look of a temple carved from a sandstone hill, artificial hills were created using concrete which simulated sandstone.  Once the new Abu Simbel site was ready, each block was meticulously fitted back into position, reconstructing the ancient temples anew.  In fact the reconstruction is so precise that it would impress ancient Egyptian engineers, on the façade of the temples there are no visible seams where the blocks meet.  Only a few joins can be found from within the temple complex.  The project was completed in 1968 and cost $40 million, over $250 million dollars today.  The cost was well worth it as the Abu Simbel complex is considered one of the great treasures of Egypt and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.  Over 500,000 tourists visit the temples every year.



“The Birkenkopf is a prominent hill in Stuttgart, Germany. At an elevation of 511m, it is the highest point in the city centre of Stuttgart and is almost 300m higher than the river Neckar on which the city lies. It is in part a Schuttberg, an artificial hill built from the ruins and rubble from World War II.

During the war, 53 Allied bombing missions destroyed over 45% of Stuttgart, and nearly the entire city center. Between 1953 and 1957, 1.5 million cubic meters of rubble were cleared and moved to the hill, which resulted in an increase in height of around 40 meters. At the summit there are many recognizable facades from ruined buildings. The locals colloquially call the Birkenkopf “Monte Scherbelino”, which roughly translates as “Mount Shards” but in an expression alluding to Italian. One of the pieces of rubble has a plaque attached to it, which says: Dieser Berg nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg aufgetürmt aus den Trümmern der Stadt steht den Opfern zum Gedächtnis den Lebenden zur Mahnung. This translates roughly as: This mountain piled up after World War II from the rubble of the city stands as a memorial to the victims and a warning to the living”. - (source:

The Kofun burial mounds - built in 4rth century Japan - often have similar size and are shaped as an artificial hill. The burial chamber lie beneath and are Decorated with small terracotta figures called Haniwa. The large tomb is in Tarumi, Kobe, Japan. It is an artificial hill 18m high from that seen Awaji Island and Akashi Kaikyo Bridge.  

renewebb  asked:

I've always thought that Bree, Roger and Claire should've devised some photographic equipment and taken pictures before they (Bree/Roger) left to go back to the future - would love to see a story of them doing this and then maybe Bree showing Joe (who I always felt was Claire's BFF) a picture of Jamie/Claire so he can see how happy Claire is...

Photographs - Part Two

Part One

Brianna looked at her supplies laid out on her bed and tried to prioritize everything. She needed to carry anything she brought through the stones with her so it would be a good idea to get rid of some of the things before her. The problem was that she kept thinking of new things to add to the pile instead of actually removing anything.

The pearls were going with her no matter what. She set them aside in a new pile—the “definitely going” pile. Then she went through her first-aid kit and pared it down to the absolute essentials (including a bottle’s worth of aspirin stored in a wax-paper packet, which she figured would be less obviously out of time) before adding it to the “definitely going” pile as well.

Slowly she pared everything down and then tried packing the sackcloth bag she planned to use.

She accomplished her task a little too well—there was room in her pack to spare.

She turned back to the discard pile; she could bring one more thing.

It shouldn’t be anything too conspicuous or too heavy… It should be something to remind her of home while she was away, after all, she wasn’t going to be in the eighteenth century for that long.

It struck her that while she was excited by the prospect of seeing her mother again—an opportunity she hadn’t thought they would ever have—this time would undoubtedly be the last time she would see her mother, in addition to being the first and only time she would see Jamie… her father.

Her eyes drifted to the new Polaroid instant camera on her dresser—it hadn’t even been among her initial pile of possibilities but now she wanted to bring something that would allow her to capture, preserve, and bring the past back with her when she did return to her own time.

It was too conspicuous and if it failed while she was there she would have no means of repairing it. What would people think if they caught her using it? Her mother had mentioned in great detail the trial she’d endured at Cranesmuir. The thought of the possible consequences made Brianna shudder. It had been chance as much as anything that saved her mother and there was no guarantee that she might be as lucky under similar circumstances.

But to have a picture of her parents together—of herself with them…

She could always paint them… assuming paints, canvas, and the other necessary supplies could be found… and doing a self-portrait of that kind… but again, she would have to carry anything she wanted to bring back with her and a painted canvas—even in its most portable form—was awkward at best. However if she was very careful…

She wrapped it in amongst the bandages in the bottom of the pack and prayed the stones would let it through unharmed.

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Day 3

I’m a bit late… It has been tough week, I had so many things to do… but the hardest part is now over!!!

同区「どうく」 same ward

区別「くべつ」 distribution, differentiation

区長「くちょう」 ward headman

区役所「くやくしょ」 ward office

管区「かんく」 jurisdiction

配管「はいかん」 plumbing, piping

気管「きかん」 trachea

灯火管制「とうかかんせい」 blackout

鉄管「てっかん」iron pipe

毛管「もうかん」 capillary

築城「ついき」/「ちくじょう」 fortification, castle construction

築港「ちっこう」 harbour construction

建築「けんちく」 construction, architecture

改築「かいちく」 reconstruction

築山「つきやま」artificial hill

畜生「ちくしょう」 beast, brute, damn

家畜「かちく」 domestic animals, cattle


畜力「ちくりょく」 animal power

鬼畜「きちく」 brute

消防士「しょうぼうし」 fire fighter


防炎「ぼうえん」fire prevention

防ぐ「ふせぐ」 to defend (against), to protect

予防「よぼう」 prevention

鋭角「えいかく」 acute angle

気鋭「きえい」 spirited, energetic

鋭気「えいき」 courage, ardour, high spirits

鋭利「えいり」 sharpness

鋭い「するどい」pointed, sharp

But what if people decorated or changed their homes to suit their pokemon partners

Low lights and lanterns or twinkle lights for dark types and nocturnal pokemon

Lots of potted plants and open windows for grass types

Pool access for water types, basins or tanks in every room for when they want to move around to be with you, to keep them moist.

Window or rooftop access for flying types, small radio bands so you could keep track of them when they’re out on a flight.

Heated cabinet or hot pillows for fire types, maybe a flameproof closet or room where they could overheat without hurting their trainer.

Sandbox or dust bath for ground types, special parks where they could go dig holes wherever without getting in trouble.

Pranks and jokes left around for ghost types so they could express their mischievous nature without hurting anyone.

Puzzles and games for psychic types to test their psychic powers and access to ‘human things’ if they like to copy their trainer’s activities. extra spoons for kadabra.

A gym and punching bags for fighting types so they don’t get pent up and frustrated

Baths and ventilated rooms for poison types to prevent build up of toxic chemicals, making them easier to handle and less a danger to themselves

A terrarium or natural space for bug types so they can go molt somewhere not on your couch

Climbing areas or artificial cliffs + hills for rock types, maybe sharing the same kind of park access as the ground pokemon.

Air conditioned rooms or cool boxes for ice types

Pokemon-safe battery power stations for electric types, to prevent them from going for your plug-in outlets.

Reinforced furniture for heavy steel types.

Fairy and Normal types like similar things and a simple space, and are easy to take care of.

By contrast it’s super hard to build an environment your dragon type pokemon likes. They’re very particular, and given to hording precious things.

Accessible housing if you own a very large pokemon. And, more importantly, for disabled trainers with assistive pokemon.


Bjarke Ingels’ firm has unveiled plans for a recycling facility in Copenhagen, encased within a manmade hill that could double as a running track, picnic area or even a snowboarding slope. …

Conceived as “a public space rather than a piece of infrastructure”, the Sydhavns Recycling Center is designed as an artificial hill with recycling facilities in its centre and a grassy park over its top.

“As a society, our investment in waste management often ends up as utilitarian facilities of concrete boxes that constitute grey areas on our city maps,” explained BIG in a statement. “What if they could become attractive and lively urban spaces in the neighbourhoods they form part of?”

Read more on Dezeen.

Herodium, Judean Desert, West Bank

Herodium was a fortress built by Herod the Great from 23 to 15 BC in memory of his victory over Antigonus in 40 BC. He was considered one of the greatest builders of his time—his palace was built on the edge of the desert and was situated atop an artificial hill, geography did not daunt him. He died at his winter palace in Jericho, however according to his wishes, he is believed to have been buried at Herodium. The city was conquered and destroyed by the Romans in 71 AD.

This is the only site that was named after King Herod the Great. It was known by the Crusaders as the “Mountain of Franks”. Arab locals call it Jabal al-Fourdis (“Mountain of Paradise”).

The ruins are located in the Judean desert, 6 km to the south east of Bethlehem.

More about Herod the Great

More about Herodium

Preference #184 Storm

Liam- You were taking a Buzzfeed quiz online which was supposed to tell you which superhero you were and you happened to be Captain America. You smiled with pride and looked over at Liam who was taking the same quiz only his face was pissed off. “I got Storm. Who is she? She’s irrelevant I mean, she’s in the X-Men.” you liked Storm and tried defending her honor, “But all she does is change the whether! I wanted Iron Man or Thor at this point,” “Embrace your feminine whether channel side, Liam.” he glared at you but you laughed at his pout.

Harry- The sky was black as coal only illuminated by a shy moon and many lightning bolts. Harry was staring at the window looking at the rain running down the street like a small river as flashes of white light showed in the sky. “Y/N, pass me my phone, I want to see if I can catch lightning,” you rolled your eyes but gave him his phone and for the next hour Harry was cussing and snapping pictures until he almost got a good picture. “This one counts,” he showed you and you agreed “Oh yeah it’s great!” you only half lied but his smile was worth it.

Zayn- “I fucking hate storms.” Zayn was walking around the house making sure that all the windows were shut. “Why? I don’t mind them,” Zayn sat on the couch and turned on the TV only to find out that the signal was lost. “Well, I can’t watch the TV, and thunders are so loud.” you cuddled next to Zayn and propped your head on his shoulder, playing with his hair with your free hand. “Don’t worry, think happy thoughts.” It wasn’t much advice but you being there to hold him made the storm seem less threatening and gave Zayn an excuse to have you close to him.

Niall- You and Niall were in the middle of a golf game when rain started pouring and dark clouds invaded the green hills and artificial lakes. Niall picked up the equipment and ran towards the golf cart when he heard thunder and let out a short but meaningful scream. The rain was coming down hard and your only shelter was a golf cart with Niall who flinched each time he saw lightning. You were pretty wet and cold from the rain that made its way into the cart when finally Niall noticed and gave you his hoodie, “Sorry babe, storms are just thrilling.” you didn’t agree “Should we talk about the scream Niall?” “Nope, not today.” You smiled and snuggled in Niall’s hoodie.

Louis- It was about midnight when you and Louis decided to run to the store for… necessity. He ran out of condoms and you wanted some ice cream for later so there you were at the local store. Everything went fine until you stepped outside and got mobbed by a dozen paparazzi and photographers who took pictures of the condoms asking personal questions about your sex lives. You could tell a storm was starting in the back of Louis’ mind and eventually he struck, “At least I get laid you tossers!” you held his hand until you got home and giggled, “I like you when you’re bitchy.” “Thanks babe. Now let’s use these shall we?”