arthur griffiths

The Cottingley Fairies

The Cottingley Fairies are a series of photographs taken by two little English girls, Elsie Wright and Frances Griffiths. These photographs sparked a lot of attention at the time, even the attention of the famous Arthur Conan Doyle, author to Sherlock Holmes. This is because one of the ‘proofs’ that fairies do exist. Unfortunately, it was later proven that these fairies are actually cutouts from a children’s storybook. Nevertheless, it looked believable though. See it for yourself:

It Seems Nothing Change

Paul Cussen

October 1917

Sinn Féin and the Irish Volunteers hold conventions to formalize their organizations and elect leadership, electing Eamon de Valera its president. The party compromises between Arthur Griffith‘s original, more moderate policy calling for an Irish parliament with the British monarch as head-of-state, and the out-and-out republicans led by Cathal Brugha.

The Fordson tractor goes into production in October 1917 in Dearborn Michigan.


1 October – Cahal Daly, Cardinal, former Archbishop of Armagh, is born in Loughguile, Co. Antrim (died 2009)

The steel four-masted barque Carribin, was torpedoed and sunk 10 miles south of the Daunt Rock. The armed trawler Anthony Aslett picked up survivors and landed them at Queenstown.

4 October - Corporal Jesse Short is executed at Boulogne, the only soldier executed after the Etaples mutiny.   Jesse Short almost certainly fought with the Tyneside Irish on the first day of the Battle of the Somme, 1 July 1916, when the Brigade lost 600 men killed and over 1,500 wounded.   A year later, the Brigade was serving on the front at Ypres, where, because of a shortage of replacements, the 24th and 27th Battalions Northumberland Fusiliers were merged into one battalion.   As he had been executed, the British War and Victory Medals were not sent to his widow.

Battle of Broodseinde near Ypres where the Allies overpower the German 4th Army’s defences.

6 October - Canadian troops capture the village of Passchendaele in the Third Battle of Ypres, after 250,000 casualties on both sides.

8 October – Leon Trotsky is named chairman of the Petrograd Soviet.

10 October - Thelonious Monk, American jazz pianist, is born in Rocky Mount, N.C. (died 1982)

12 October - First Battle of Passchendaele: Allies fail to take a German defensive position with the biggest loss of life in a single day for New Zealand, over 800 of whose men and 45 officers are killed, roughly 1 in 1000 of the nation’s population at this time.

12-19 October - German forces land on and capture the West Estonian archipelago in Operation Albion.

13 October – Thousands of people gathered to witness the Miracle of the Sun at Fátima

14 October – The Munster Football Final in Tipperary ends with a cruel result:

                                                  Clare 5-4 Cork 0-1

The 4321ton steamship East Wales was captured and sunk by German submarine U-57, 8 miles SW of Daunt light vessel.  Three crew were killed during the shelling and armed trawlers picked up the survivors.

15 October –Kevin Boland, Fianna Fáil TD, is born in Dublin (died 2001)

Dutch dancer Mata Hari is executed by firing squad at Vincennes outside Paris, for spying for Germany.

17 October – The first bombing of Germany by the British The first American troop transport, the Antilles, was sunk. This vessel had landed her troops at Brest and was returning for a second cargo when she was torpedoed. She sank in 6 minutes, with a loss of 67 out of 234 persons on board.


20 October — 51-year-old poet W. B. Yeats marries 25-year-old Georgie Hyde-Lees at Harrow Road register office in London with Ezra Pound as best man, a couple of months after having had a proposal of marriage to his ex-mistress’s daughter, Iseult Gonne, rejected.

Gertrude Crocker, Gladys Greiner, Alice Paul, and Dr. Caroline Spencer are arrested for obstructing the sidewalk while protesting women’s rights in Washington. Alice Paul and Caroline Spencer are sentenced to 7 months in prison while Gertrude Crocker and Gladys Grenier face or 30 days in prison or a $5.00 fine.

Captain Indus R. McLendon, Sgt. Alex Arch and the 6th Field Artillery gun which fired the first American shot at 7a.m. near the village of Bathlemont, Lorraine, France.

21 October – US troops enter front lines for the first time in the war near Sommervillier in Lorraine as Sergeant Alex Arch, 6th Field Artillery, fires the first American artillery shells of the war at the German lines.

Dizzy Gillespie, African-American musician, is born Cheraw S.C. (died 1993)

22 October – Joan Fontaine, British-born actress, is born in Tokyo (died 2013)

23 October – 1stInfantry division ‘Big Red One’ shoots 1st US shot in WW I. A Brazilian freighter Macau is destroyed by U-93 near the coast of Spain, encouraging Brazil to enter the war.

25 October – 1,700 Sinn Féin delegates attend a convention in the Mansion House where De Valera replaces Arthur Griffith as the organisations president.

25 October (O.S.) – (7 November N.S.) Traditional beginning date of the October Rebellion and the Russian Civil War

26 October – Brazil declares war against the Central Powers and is the only Latin American country directly involved in the war.

 27 October – Ottoman forces attack Desert Mounted Corps units garrisoning el Buqqar ridge in the last days of the stalemate in Southern Palestine.

20,000 women march in a suffrage parade in New York, USA.

30 October – The British government give final approval to the Balfour Declaration which proclaims support for a Jewish state in Palestine.

31 October – The British XX Corps and Desert Mounted Corps (Egyptian Expeditionary Force) attack and capture Beersheba ending the stalemate in Southern Palestine.