The Cottingley Fairies are a series of photographs taken by two little English girls, Elsie Wright and Frances Griffiths. These photographs sparked a lot of attention at the time, even the attention of the famous Arthur Conan Doyle, author to Sherlock Holmes. This is because one of the ‘proofs’ that fairies do exist. Unfortunately, it was later proven that these fairies are actually cutouts from a children’s storybook. Nevertheless, it looked believable though. See it for yourself:
Sinn Féin and the Irish
Volunteers hold conventions to formalize their organizations and elect
leadership, electing Eamon de Valera its president. The party compromises
between Arthur Griffith‘s original, more moderate policy calling for an Irish parliament
with the British monarch as head-of-state, and
the out-and-out republicans led by Cathal Brugha.
The Fordson tractor goes into production in October 1917 in Dearborn
The steel four-masted barque Carribin, was torpedoed and sunk 10 miles
south of the Daunt Rock. The armed trawler Anthony Aslett picked up survivors
and landed them at Queenstown.
4 October - Corporal Jesse Short is executed at Boulogne, the only soldier executed
after the Etaples mutiny. Jesse Short
almost certainly fought with the Tyneside Irish on the first day of the Battle
of the Somme, 1 July 1916, when the Brigade lost 600 men killed and over 1,500
wounded. A year later, the Brigade was
serving on the front at Ypres, where, because of a shortage of replacements,
the 24th and 27th Battalions Northumberland Fusiliers were merged into one
battalion. As he had been executed, the British War and
Victory Medals were not sent to his widow.
12 October -
First Battle of Passchendaele: Allies fail to take a German defensive
position with the biggest loss of life in a single day for New Zealand, over
800 of whose men and 45 officers are killed, roughly 1 in 1000 of the nation’s
population at this time.
14 October – The Munster Football Final in Tipperary ends
with a cruel result:
5-4 Cork 0-1
The 4321ton steamship East Wales was captured and
sunk by German submarine U-57, 8 miles SW of Daunt light vessel. Three crew were killed during the shelling and
armed trawlers picked up the survivors.
17 October – The first bombing of Germany by the British
The first American troop transport, the Antilles,
was sunk. This vessel had landed her troops at Brest and was returning for a
second cargo when she was torpedoed. She sank in 6 minutes, with a loss of 67
out of 234 persons on board.
Gertrude Crocker, Gladys Greiner, Alice Paul, and Dr.
Caroline Spencer are arrested for obstructing the sidewalk while protesting women’s
rights in Washington. Alice Paul and Caroline Spencer are sentenced to
7 months in prison while Gertrude Crocker and Gladys Grenier face or 30 days in
prison or a $5.00 fine.
Indus R. McLendon, Sgt. Alex Arch and the 6th Field Artillery gun
which fired the first American shot at 7a.m. near the village of Bathlemont,
21 October –
US troops enter front lines for the first time in the war near Sommervillier in
Lorraine as Sergeant Alex Arch, 6th Field Artillery, fires the first
American artillery shells of the war at the German lines.
Gillespie, African-American musician, is born Cheraw S.C. (died 1993)
22 October –
Joan Fontaine, British-born actress, is born in Tokyo (died 2013)
23 October –
1stInfantry division ‘Big Red One’ shoots 1st US shot in
freighter Macau is destroyed by U-93
near the coast of Spain, encouraging Brazil to enter the war.
25 October –
1,700 Sinn Féin delegates attend a convention in the Mansion House where De
Valera replaces Arthur Griffith as the organisations president.
(O.S.) – (7 November N.S.) Traditional beginning date of the October Rebellion
and the Russian Civil War
26 October –
Brazil declares war against the Central Powers and is the only Latin American
country directly involved in the war.
27 October – Ottoman forces attack Desert
Mounted Corps units garrisoning el Buqqar ridge in the last days of the stalemate
in Southern Palestine.
march in a suffrage parade in New York, USA.
30 October –
The British government give final approval to the Balfour Declaration which
proclaims support for a Jewish state in Palestine.
31 October –
The British XX Corps and Desert Mounted Corps (Egyptian Expeditionary Force)
attack and capture Beersheba ending the stalemate in Southern Palestine.