arteriovenous

Helen was 82. She’d survived both breast cancer and outlived her husband.

One summer day she began bleeding from her colon and was admitted to the hospital. We assumed the worst — another cancer. But after she endured a series of scans and being poked with scopes, we figured out that she had an abnormal jumble of blood vessels called an arteriovenous malformation in the wall of her colon.

The finding surprised us, but the solution was clear: Surgery to remove that part of her colon should stop the bleeding once and for all. The operation went well. But afterward Helen’s lungs filled with fluid from congestive heart failure. Then she caught pneumonia and had to be put on a ventilator in the intensive care unit.

Her medical problems and our treatments had simply stressed her aging organs beyond their capability.

Why Immortality Is Overrated

Illustration: Isabel Seliger for NPR

anonymous asked:

What do you think of the Bloody Cough of Death trope or just the "coughing is a sign of dying" trope in general? It tends to mean the character in question has a terminal illness (instead of the more common, treatable pneumonia and such) from what I've seen which also makes me wonder what incurable illnesses have coughing (bloody or not) as a main symptom.

Content Warning: Blood, barf, poops.

 I think this is a really fascinating part of our history that held through into the modern era.

I think this trope really comes back to tuberculosis, which is absolutely famous for its bloody cough. Once upon a time it killed a lot of people, and because that bloody cough is how it spreads, it was something to fear for literally generations. (It still exists today; I treated a patient with it yesterday actually and it’s rampant in prisons, but it’s a disease we’ve learned to treat.) But TB is almost certainly where this trope comes from.

We’ve talked about hemoptysis – a bloody cough – before. There are oh so many causes, such as TB, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the pulmonary blood vessels, acute pulmonary edema / congestive heart failure, and more. It can come from physical damage to the trachea or bronchi, from cancer, prom peneumonia, from House’s favorite (sarcoidosis).

Medically speaking, I’ll be honest: a bloody cough is in no way shape or form a Good Thing™. It’s certainly not always fatal, but it’s a sign of badness in the airway.

As a trope or convention or cliche (your pick) of TV shows, I think it’s used as a marker of illness/injury severity. If you’ve been shot in the chest and you’re coughing up blood, that is a Bad News Bear. Though it’s hardly used realistically – the most common cause I see is less “I cough and there’s blood” and more “I coughed and there’s this gob of ick and OH MY GOD LIKE 0.0004mL OF BLOOD I’M GOING TO DIE BECAUSE TV TOLD ME SO” because they’ve irritated the airway from coughing, or less “blood” and more “pink, frothy spittle” that’s associated with severe pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs), which typically comes from heart failure.

This is also closely related to vomiting up blood. Most “bloody vomit” is just small streaks of blood in vomit (or people barfing up tomato sauce and/or wine), but large amounts of blood in the puke is a severe medical emergency because it’s a bleed we can’t see and have a very hard time controlling. People have bled to death in their GI tract – ungood.

But yeah, how come Hollywood never shows us their characters are dying by having them poop blood, anyway? (That’s actually usually from hemorrhoids, but it can be from a severe GI bleed, colitis, etc.) 

Mostly, I think most writers as a visually-disturbing-but-not-actually-gross way of pointing out that “hey, this guy’s really sick”, even if what they’ve given their character has nothing to do with their lungs or a cough. I’d like to see it change, or at least come from something  that could actually produce it.

I hope this rambly answer gave you what you needed to keep writing great stories!!

xoxo, Aunt Scripty

disclaimer    

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Free eBook: 10 BS “Medical” Tropes that Need to Die TODAY!  

Diagnostic Criteria

Possible TW: Descriptions of medical trauma; sex; suicidal thoughts; graphic language (asterisked); illness

I have a headache.

Take Tylenol.

I can’t sleep.

Take Xanax.

I throw up a little every time I eat.

Take Nexium.

I have red patches all over my groin. Do I have bed bugs?

You’re allergic to Latex. Take Benadryl.

Now they’re all over my arms.

You’re not allergic to Latex. Take Benadryl.

My back is covered. So are my feet.

You’re not allergic to anything. Take Benadryl.

My lips are swollen.

Here’s an IV. Here are some steroids. Here is an antacid.

I have a cough.

Here’s cough medicine.

I keep having a cough.

Here’s a nose spray.

I am still having a cough.

Maybe it’s anxiety.

If it was anxiety it would have started long ago.

Here’s an inhaler.

Do I have asthma?

No. Does it help your cough?

Maybe. Or maybe it’s the antacid. But the cough gets less worse.
I have blood in my stool.

You have hemorrhoids.

The blood’s all over my floor and walls.

You have a GI bleed.
Here’s some blood. Infuse.

I’m still bleeding tar.

We’re going to put you to sleep and see what’s going on inside you.

What’s going on inside me?

Arteriovenous malformations.

Pathology differs.

Go to the Yale Clinic for Arteriovenous Malformations.

Pathology differs.

Have them call me.

Pathology does not concur.

Are you bleeding?

Pathology dissents.

Are you bleeding?

No.

It’s just hives.
It’s just hemorrhoids.
It’s just nodules.
It’s just chronic cough.
It’s just chronic idiopathic urticaria.
It’s just idiopathic chronic gastrointestinal bleeding.

You know what I’m worried about?

What?

Three things.
GI Bleeding.
GI Bleeding.
GI Bleeding.

But my face is numb.

You have no money.

But my arms are tired.

You can have no more of my money.

But my hands are trembling.

It’s just trembles.

But my nose is bleeding.

Just in the discharge.

Just in the discharge.
Just in the discharge.
I’m not bleeding internally.
I’m not choking – am I?
Am I?
Am I?
Am I?
Am I?
I have no money.

You have no money.

I have no health.

You have perfect health.

I’m coughing again.

You’re never going to bleed again.

Will I re-bleed?

Never.

I’m bleeding again.
The tar.

Stop talking to me.

I’ve lost my voice.

Finally.

I’ve lost my words.

Schizophrenia.

No.

Maybe.

No.

No.

Maybe.

No.

Schizophrenia.

No.

Yes.
It’s just that.
It’s just negative symptoms.
It’s just disordered thinking.
It’s just personality issues.
It’s just unhealthy mental health.

No, it’s not.
I wish it were.

Then what is it?

It’s inflammation.

It’s inflammation.

Show me.
See?
There is no inflammation.

It’s Schizophrenia.

It’s Leaky-Gut.

It’s anxiety.

It’s stress.

It’s not a metaphor.

It’s not a metaphor. It’s mystifying. It’s enigmatic. It’s concerning.

It’s a metaphor.

It is?

It’s double-vision.

That’s seeing what’s not there.
That’s a delusion.

No. It’s post-traumatic stress disorder from the I.C.U.

Stop seeking diagnosis.

No

Stop seeking diagnosis.

No

Stop seeking diagnosis.

Okay. Fine.

Better?

Yes. No. Maybe. No.

You’ve lost control.

I have been ill!

But you’re not ill now.

I’m ill now.

It’s anxiety.

Shut up.

It’s anxiety.

Shut up.

I’m not going to sit here and pretend you’re impaired.

Fine, then don’t.

You shouldn’t take any medicine. You’re hyper-sensitive.

I won’t take any medicine.

You should be in an institution.

I should be in an institution.

You should be on the street. You can’t afford an institution.

I can afford an institution.

Not any more, no institution.

My stomach’s hurting me.
It’s been a year.
It’s been two years.
My legs are losing track of themselves.
I have cuts up and down my arms from accidents.
I’ve become even more clumsy.

Every mistake is an intention.

I’m intent on diagnosis.

That’s sick.

I’m sick.

You’re not sick.

I’m sick.

That’s sick.

I’m fine.
Just symptomatic.

But of what?

I’m just a complainer.
That’s all I am.
I’m a whiner.
Stop talking to me.
Stop talking to me.
Stop talking to me.
Cancel my appointment.
Cancel my appointment.
Cancel my appointment.
Stop taking your meds.
Stop taking your meds.
Stop taking your meds.
I have no money.
I have no money.
I have no money.
I need to move.
I need to move.
I need to move.
I’m bleeding.

He says he’s dying.

I’m bleeding.

He says he isn’t bleeding.

I’m the employee of a powerful person.

Give me a piece of your small intestine.

I’m recovering.

Thank you.

I’m no longer the employee of a powerful person.
I should leave New York.
I should move somewhere else.
I should move on from obsessing over illness.
Ow. My throat hurts me.
My head.
I’m nauseous.
I can’t sleep.

Tylenol. Klonopin.

I can’t think.

Lithium. Divalproex.

I can’t see.

Lamotrogine. Seroquel.

I can’t hear.

It’s true. You have lost your hearing.

I told you.

You’ve lost your eloquence.

I told you.

When did you lose your confidence?

When I lost my eloquence.

Were your parents like this?

Like what?

Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

What?

Bleeders?
Depressives?
Bipolars?
Borderlines?
Narcissists?
Sociopaths?
Hypochondriacs?
Hysterics?
Litigious?
Fat?
Diabetics?
Ingrates?
Stupid people?

No diagnosis.
But everyone else in my family—

You can’t afford to have something.

No, but—

You can’t afford to have anything.

What if—

It won’t.

It does.

It didn’t.

I took a picture.

It’s not in your records.

Let me show it to you.

Doctors won’t see it.

Let me collect them for you.

You are no good for me.
Leave me.

Left to my own devices
I am no good for me.
I’m sorry.

Radio silence.

I’m sorry.

Radio silence.

I’m sorry.

Radio silence.

F— you

Radio silence

F— you

Radio silence

I’m going to kill myself

Radio silence

I’m not going to kill myself

Radio silence.

This is not what’s supposed to happen to people.
I don’t need to negotiate my illness’s legitimacy.
Why am I talking about this with you?
I need to move on from you?
Help me!
What’s wrong with me?

Radio silence

I’m wrong for me

Radio silence

I’m wrong

Silence

Wrong

Silence

Which way should I go?

That’s a lot to cover

What should I do?

Come see me in six months

But I’ve been ill

With what?

Read my records

You have thick records

I haven’t had sex in a year

Secondary panic. Tertiary depression.

To what?

Inflammation

Show me

I’ll puncture you

Hurt me

On Thursday

Hurt me

On Thursday

Hurt me

On Thursday

Heal me

No findings. Nothing to—

Heal me

Nothing to heal.

You hurt me.

I’m a doctor.

It would be unethical.

It never happened.

She hit me.

You’re delusional. 
I’m calling psych.

I’m not psychotic.

Okay, you’re not psychotic.

I’m psychotic.

Not really.

I’m psychotic.

Stop taking so much Adderall.

I’m psychotic.

You’re afraid you are.

Hurt me.

Just a pinch.

Hurt me.

May I open you?

Surely.

I may have to open you.

Please do.

I open you.

Heal me.

I totally did.

I’m not healed.

You just don’t realize you are.

Massage me.

Your neck has spasms.

Scope me.

You have no concerns.

F— me.

No. You had blood in your stool.

F— me

No. You had blood in your stool.

F— me.

No. You had blood in your stool.

Hit me.

Okay.

Sit on me.

Sure.

F— me.

No. You had—

F— me.

No. You had—

F— me.

Shut up.

Make me.

Want me to?

Slap me.

Okay.

Choke me.

Okay.

Don’t kill me.

I won’t.

Don’t kill me.

You’re alive.

I survived.

You survived.

Heal me.

Heal yourself.

Help me.

You hurt me too bad.

Me Me Me Me

The truth.

I’m shaking.

You’re a mad man

I’m shaking

You’re delusional

I’m shaking

You’re illogical

I’m shaking

Call the Paramedics.
Wait!
Your blood work is fine.

I’m sick.

Says who?

I’m sick.

With what?

I’m sick.

Show me.

I put on a show.

You put on a show.
That’s malingering.
That’s sick.

No.
I’m sick.
I’m sick.
When will you heal me?
I’m sick.
I’m sick.
When will you solve me?

You’re not that complicated.

I’ve become risk-averse.

Your brain has—

I’m shrinking.
Diagnosis?

Stop asking.

Diagnosis?

Who cares.

Diagnosis?

Radio silence.

Stigma!

B.S.

Overshadowing.

You spend too much time with Google.

I care too much about myself.
Diagnosis:
Narcissism.
Diagnosis:
Borderline.
Dyagnosis:
Hysteric.
Diagnosis:

No, I don’t think so.

Stop denying me.

Take this.

Hurt me.

Take this.

Hurt me.

Take this.

That works.

Take this.

But that worked.

It isn’t good for you.
You have white blood cells in the periphery.

A finding.

False finding.

How do you know?

You’re on steroids.
Spare them.

I’m shaking.

Neurosis.

I’m shaking.

Psychosis.

I’m shaking.

Shake it off.

I’m shaking.
I’m shaking.
I’m shaking.

Stop.
Radio silence.
Radio silence.
Radio silence.

Dig me a hole.
Give me no rope.
Pretend I dug myself into it.

You dug yourself into it.

Why?

Why doesn’t matter.
Don’t ask why.

How?

You’re being nostalgic.

Help me out.

You’re out.

I’m out?

You’re out.

Then why’s it so dark.

Radio silence.

Help.

Radio silence.

Help.

Radio silence.

My brother is crying.

Radio silence.

My mother is crying.

Radio silence.

This whole family is crying.
This whole family is fatigued.
I’m nauseous.
Can I have Zofran?

Sure.

Zofran.

Don’t have it.

But they said they would call it in.

They didn’t.

You didn’t call it in.

I will.

They’re calling it in.

Got it.

Go to the hospital.

But I’m not sick.

Just to be safe.

But you said I was –

Go to the hospital –

I can’t afford it.

People live.

People live.

People live.

And then they die.
I don’t want to die.

I know that.
Nobody wants to die.
Be original.

I want to be well.

You’re well.

I’m tired.

Go to sleep.

I’m tired.

Eat me.

I’m tired.

Drink me.

I’m tired.

You slept in.

I’m tired.

You’re fired.

I’m tired.

You slept.

Help me.

Help me.

Help me.

Help.

I wear my shoes with laces untied.  But I don’t wear chap stick because I don’t mind chapping my lips. I don’t ever remember to take an umbrella with me when it’s raining outside, because I don’t check the weather, and I don’t mind getting wet. I’ve never owned rain boots or galoshes. I don’t mind getting beaten up in bed in the name of love. But I built myself an igloo when it wasn’t even winter; and that feels like a contradiction to me.

alphabet soup: disease edition

Here are a few commonly used medical abbreviations:

AAA - abdominal aortic aneurysm
ACS - acute coronary syndrome
ADHD - attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
AIDS - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
AKI - acute kidney injury
ALS - amyotrophic lateral sclerosis aka Lou Gehrig’s disease
ARDS - acute respiratory distress syndrome
ASD - atrial septal defect
AVM - arteriovenous malformation
BPH - benign prostatic hyperplasia, now known as LUTS
BV - bacterial vaginosis
CAD (s/p PCI/CABG) - coronary artery disease (status post percutaneous coronary intervention/coronary artery bypass grafting)
CHF - congestive heart failure
CKDI-IV - chronic kidney disease (stage I-IV)
COPD (on HOT) - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (on home oxygen therapy)
CVA - cerebrovascular accident aka stroke
DDD - degenerative disc disease
DJD - degenerative joint disease
DLD - dyslipidemia aka HLD
DMD - Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
DMI aka IDDM - Diabetes mellitus Type I aka Insulin-Dependent Diabetes mellitus, previously known as Juvenile-onset Diabetes
DMII aka NIDDM - Diabetes mellitus Type II aka Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes mellitus, previously known as Adult-onset Diabetes
DT - delirium tremens
DVT - deep vein thrombosis
ED - erectile dysfunction
ESRD on HD - end stage renal disease on hemodialysis
GAD - general anxiety disorder
GERD - gastroesophageal reflux disease
GIB - gastrointestinal bleed
GVHD - graft vs host disease
HIV - human immunodeficiency virus
HLD - hyperlipidemia aka DLD
HPV - human papillovirus
HTN - hypertension
HUS - hemolytic uremic syndrome
IBD - irritable bowel disease
IBS - irritable bowel syndrome
ICH - intracranial hemorrhage
IDDM - see DMI
ITP - idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
LEMS - Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
LGIB - lower gastrointestinal bleed
LUTS - lower urinary tract symptoms
MAC - Mycobacterium avium complex
MDD - major depressive disorder
MM - multiple myeloma
MS - multiple sclerosis
NIDDM - see DMII
NPH - normal pressure hydrocephalus
NSTEMI - non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction
OA - osteoarthritis
OCD - obsessive compulsive disorder
OHS - obesity hypoventilation syndrome aka Pickwickian Syndrome
OSA (on BiPAP/CPAP) - obstructive sleep apnea (on bilevel positive airway pressure/continuous positive airway pressure machine)
pAF (on AC) - paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (on anticoagulation)
PBC - primary biliary cirrhosis
PE - pulmonary embolism
RA - Rheumatoid arthritis
SARS - severe acute respiratory syndrome
SLE - systemic lupus erythematosis
STEMI - ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction aka ischemic heart attack
STD - sexually transmitted disease
TB - Tuberculosis
TBI - traumatic brain injury
TIA - transient ischemic attack aka stroke symptoms that last <24 hours
TMJ - temporomandibular joint disorder
TTP - thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
UC - ulcerative colitis
UGIB - upper gastrointestinal bleed
URI - upper respiratory tract infection
UTI - urinary tract infection
VSD - ventricular septal defect

The untold truth about Fistulas :)

Let’s get serious for a minute.

What’s a fistula?

An abnormal communication between two epithelialized surfaces.

What’s the most famous examples you know of? perianal fistulas, arteriovenous fistulas, etc.

Normally, fistulas close spontaneously unless FRIENDS come in the way.

F.R.I.E.N.D.S are factors interfering with the natural closure of fistulas.

F Foreign body

R Radiation

I Inflammation/infection

E Epithelialization

N Neoplasm

D Distance (the shorter the worse), Drainage (the lower the output the better, 500mL/d is your cut value), Distal obstruction, Drugs (chemotherapy)

S Steroids

Got it?

2

Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system. This vascular anomaly is widely known because of its occurrence in the central nervous system, but can appear in any location. Although many AVMs are asymptomatic, they can cause intense pain or bleeding or lead to other serious medical problems.

An AVM lacks the dampening effect of capillaries on the blood flow, which means that the AVM can get progressively larger over time as the amount of blood flowing through it increases, forcing the heart to work harder to keep up with the extra blood flow. It also causes the surrounding area to be deprived of the functions of the capillaries — removal of CO2 and delivery of nutrients to the cells. The resulting tangle of blood vessels, often called a nidus (Latin for “nest”), has no capillaries. It can be extremely fragile and prone to bleeding because of the abnormally direct connections between high-pressure arteries and low-pressure veins. The resultant sign, audible via stethoscope, is a rhythmic, whooshing sound caused by excessively rapid blood flow through the arteries and veins. It has been given the term “bruit”, French for noise. On some occasions a patient with a brain AVM may become aware of the noise, which can compromise hearing and interfere with sleep in addition to causing psychological distress.

nilimadaisy-blog  asked:

I will love to have all your study notes ,as I am also appearing final prof coming January 13th :( and I'm in dire need of help. P.s I am from india too. Means same subjects n same syllabus ;)

I haven’t made a lot of notes this year. But I have made sure whatever lil notes I have made are published on the blog, you can find them on the contents page here :)

Same syllabus, yaay! So we have Medicine, Surgery & Orthopedics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Peadiatrics, right?

Here’s the list. Hope it helps!

PeadiatricsDevelopmental milestones mnemonic: Copies, draws, scribbles!
Developmental milestones mnemonic: Pincer grasp
Pica mnemonic
Thumb sucking sequelae mnemonic
Hydrops fetalis mnemonic
Minor clinical problems observed in normal infants during first week of life illustration
Malnutrition: Waterlow Gomez classification menmonic
My low osmolarity ORS notes for MBBS exam and constituents of ORS mnemonicOral Rehydration Therapy
Management of nephrotic syndrome (Mnemonic + notes for MBBS exam)

SurgeryGastrointestinal system
Tumors of colon and various polyposis syndrome mnemonic
What is the cause of reversal of sleep wake pattern in patients with cirrhosis?
Choledochal cyst types mnemonic
Ransons criteria for prognosis of acute pancreatitis mnemonic
Cullen’s sign, Grey Turner’s sign and Fox’s sign seen in pancreatitis mnemonic
Child Pugh score mnemonic
Medical management of variceal bleeding mnemonic
♥ Clinical features of acute appendicitis mnemonic
Somatostatinoma mnemonic
Whipple’s triad mnemonic
Charcot’s triad mnemonic
Exception to Courvoisier’s law mnemonic
Saint’s triad mnemonic
Pyloric stenosis mnemonic
Hematemesis mnemonic
Risk factors for carcinoma stomach mnemonic
Treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer mnemonic
Sugiura Futagawa operation mnemonic
Surgery for acute bleeding varices and portal hypertension that cause portoazygos disconnection mnemonic
Treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding mnemonic
Intussusception mnemonic
Fistula in ano mnemonics
Abdominal anatomy mnemonics related to hernia
Surgery mnemonics
Genitourinary system:
Differentials of inguinoscrotal swelling
Treatment of carcinoma penis mnemonic
Unilateral and bilateral causes of hydronephrosis
Epidural anaesthesia mnemonic
Testicular tumors surgical management mnemonic
Paraumbilical hernia mnemonic
Fournier’s gangrene mnemonic
Other:
Thyroid eye signs mnemonic
Types of perforators of the lower limb mnemonic
Intermittent claudication notes
Treatment of Varicose veins mnemonic
What does flush ligation mean?MBBS surgery instruments mnemonic
OrthopeadicsFoot drop (Notes)
Injuries that can occur due to fall on outstretched hand mnemonic
Tuberculosis spine mnemonic
Types of sequestrum
Clinical features of tuberculosis spine mnemonic
Colles fracture mnemonic
Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (CTEV) and club foot surgical treatment mnemonic
Tuberculosis spine mnemonic (Potts disease)
Heberden’s and Bouchard’s Nodes Mnemonic
Bones that undergo avascular necrosis mnemonic

Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynecology:
DeLancey supports of genital tract mnemonic
Semen report notes + mnemonic
What is the difference between menstrual regulation and vacuum evacuation?
Vaginal candidiasis (Candida infection) mnemonic
Fothergills repair or Manchester operation mnemonic
Hirsutism mnemonic
Dermoid cyst mnemonic
What is extra ovular space?
Obstetrics:
Breech delivery diagrams
Tests for ovulation mnemonic
Tocolytic agents mnemonic
Magnesium sulphate regimens for eclampsia and preeclampsia mnemonic
Total dose infusion formula (Haldane and Ganzoni) mnemonic
Hydatidiform mole (Complete vesicular mole) mnemonic
Tubal ectopic pregnancy mnemonic
What is the significance of pain during child birth?
Normal labor: Mechanism on dummy pelvis and mnemonics
Difference between partial and complete hydatidiform mole mnemonic
Quad screen results and trisomy mnemonicMinimum number of antenatal visits recommended by WHO mnemonicEngagement, synclitism and asynclitismPostpartum hemorrhage causes mnemonicLecithin–sphingomyelin ratio mnemonicPathophysiology and Medicine- Cardiac and vascular pathophysiology
Types of pulse mnemonic
Evaluating axis from ECG (Mnemonic)
Kawasaki disease mnemonic
Submissions: Mnemonic for arterial involvement in atherosclerosis
Baroreceptors mnemonic
Mean systemic filling pressure
Cardiac Output and Venous Return curve mnemonic
♥ Vasomotor reversal of Dale
Why does heart stop in diastole when plasma potassium level rises?
♥ Why are there differences in cardiac action potential in different parts of the heart?
Cardiac fast fibers and slow fibers - Why does a less negative membrane potential convert a normally fast fiber into a slow fiber?
Behind the scenes: Subendocardial fibres lack phase 1
♥ What are the factors affecting diastolic blood pressure?
Arteriovenous fistula - What happens to cardiac output and total peripheral resistance and why?
Investigations in renovascular hypertension
- Pulmonology (Respiratory)
Nail disorders, diagnosis and abnormalities due to systemic diseases mnemonic
Case scenarios: When you don’t give patients 100% O2 and why
Decompression sickness - Caisson’s disease
Ondine’s curse
Exudate & Transudate
Why lactate dehydrogenase in Light’s criteria?
♥ Obstructive and restrictive lung diseases
♥ Oxygen - hemoglobin dissociation curve mnemonic
Ghon’s complex in primary tuberculosis mnemonic
- Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary system (Abdomen)
Causes of hepatosplenomegaly mnemonic
Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease mnemonic
Leptin thin. Ghrelin gobble. Mnemonic.
Ulcers of the stomach mnemonic
♥ Difference between primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis mnemonic
♥ Difference between chronic atrophic gastritis type A and type B
- Hematology (Blood) and oncology
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) treatment mnemonic
♥ Hairy cell leukaemia simplified
French American British classification of Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia (AML types) mnemonic
Oxygen saturation mnemonic
Mechanism of Invasion of Tumor cells
Mantle cell lymphoma mnemonic
♥ Burkitts lymphoma mnemonic
Follicular lymphoma mnemonic
Hemolytic uremic syndrome mnemonic
Thalassemia blood picture mnemonic
Hemolytic face mnemonic
♥ Clotting factors mnemonic
Methemoglobin
The Rh factor
Difference between iron deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic disease
♥ How to remember lipoprotein disorders
- Reproduction
Which cell secretes what? Male reproductive system mnemonics
Which cell secretes what? A simplified ovarian cycle comic video
Which cell secretes what? A simplified ovarian cycle comic
- Nephrology (Renal)
Normal arterial blood gas values and serum electrolytes mnemonic
Clearance of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid mnemonic
♥ Free water clearance
Glomerular filtration rate formula and mnemonic
♥ What is the difference between prerenal failure & acute tubular necrosis?
♥ Darrow-Yannet Diagrams simplified
Darrow Yannet diagram: Doubt
Aniridia
- Endocrine
What happens in type 1 diabetes mellitus?
What happens in type 2 diabetes mellitus?
Hashimoto’s & Graves’ disease mnemonic
Intrinsic tyrosine kinase and receptor-associated tyrosine kinase mnemonic
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia mnemonic
Treatment of thyrotoxic crisis mnemonic
What is the function of thyroid peroxidase?
Felty’s syndrome mnemonic
- Neurology (CNS)
Causes of ischemic stroke
Clinical manifestations of stroke within anterior circulation
Peripheral neuropathy definition and causes (MBBS notes)
Neurofibromatosis 1 mnemonic
Tuberous sclerosis mnemonic
Remembering the autonomic innervation of the bladder
Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome mnemonic
Cerebellar lesion clinical signs and symptoms mnemonic
Site of lesion of CNS disorders that cause involuntary movements mnemonic
The crossed paralyses: Millard-Gubler, Foville, Weber & Raymond-Cestan brainstem syndromes mnemonic
Multiple sclerosis mnemonic
Site of lesion of CNS disorders that cause involuntary movements mnemonic
Pilocytic astrocytoma
Pathology brain tumors mnemonic- Other
Neuromuscular (myoneural) junction
♥ Difference between Pemphigus vulgaris & Bullous pemphigoid mnemonic
Marfan’s syndrome
Collagen in wound healing & Ehlers-Danlos syndrome mnemonic
Kartageners syndrome
Bone talk - How to remember the most commons of bone tumors
Paget’s cells mnemonic

Tagged by robinofthewood/Ama!

Rule 1: Post the rules
Rule 2: Answer the questions the tagger set 
for you in their post and then make eleven new ones.
Rule 3: Tag 11 people and link them to your post.
Rule 4: Let them know they’ve been tagged.

1. What’s your favorite meal?
My favourite meal is… something really typical and probably boring to other people. I really love chinese food, general tso’s chicken is the best, so that. Or even some pasta and sauce or sushi OR the best thing, specialty burger and fries. :) I think my favourite burger place at the moment is Kebab Paradise in Hiawatha. So yummy.


2. What character do you relate to most?
Aw man, this is probably because I’m rereading the HP series right now but I really want to say Ron, which is surprising because I AM FRED WEASLEY but okay I def. understand basically everything Ronald feels. I know how it feels to be a shunted friend, I know how it feels to be from an EPIC family but to be made feel like it’s horrible and like I should be ashamed of my awesome family. I know how it feels to be lost in the crowd a lot. I am fiercely loyal, and I love and trust openly and probably easily, surprisingly. I LOVE FOOD so yes, I would go in on that table. I’m attracted to highly intelligent people. I know how it feels to be worth less… but I also sometimes understand that I’m not worthless and I CAN achieve great things and I AM brave and my loyalty is worth a lot. I AM the knight. I have stepped out of my comfort zone and into a scary scene because I wanted to protect my friends. I got into a load of altercations when I was younger in order to defend a lot of my friends and family and I was put through a lot by a lot of Malfoy-like people too. So, I think I relate a lot to Ron Weasley. XDD I’m also badass and I love redheads too. And I say bloody hell and wicked too much.

3. If you could only watch one tv show/movie for the rest of your life, what would it be?
I was gonna say Game of Thrones but then I was like lol no because everyone I love dies SO perhaps Once Upon a Time where everyone I love dies but occasionally can make a reprise or even possibly may come back to life because fan favourite. 

4. What’s your favorite holiday?
Well, since we really have a few amount of major holidays, I wanna say Eid ul-fitr because presents and just an awesome time. Even though Eid al-adha is supposed to be bigger and more important, we always seem to slack on that end with planning and such. I also really like thanksgiving and christmas because my cousins and I always spend the night before by my grandparents and then spend the day cooking and hanging out and it’s always insanely epic. :) 

5. Describe your ‘perfect’ man/woman/significant other.
THIS IS SO HARD. I really want to say Etienne St. Clair because he’s just SO lovely. Like the fluffy hair and hard time letting go / adjusting to change… or, wait, maybe I’m more LIKE etienne idk. I feel like I might have been really attracted to Josh if I were *in* that story. I do love artists. Okay. Let me give this more thought… 

*returns* lol. OKAY. I can’t even answer this properly. I’d just be really nice to have someone understand equality and shared abilities. I like the idea of someone that can help out with things I need and vice versa, that can cook so doesn’t wholly depend on me for stuff but likes it when I do stuff anyway… someone that appreciates books and is smart. (WhatIneedismyownHermioneIguesswhat.) 

6. You’re stranded in a remote tropical island (overrun with zombies!) with six of your favorite characters. Who would you choose to help you survive and why?
FINNICK ODAIR wait, he’s not my character. Well damn. If this has to be *my* characters I’d chose Kas, Fids, Noah, Jack, Stefan, and I can’t choose between Col, Mariella, and Avery for the sixth. XDD Kas/Fids/Col would be really helpful for keeping zombies away and killing them. As well as Noah tbh, but I think I’d chose Jack and Noah to keep things organized and be good leaders as well. Mariella and Stefan would be great for healing/medical purposes. 

If I get to choose other chars that aren’t mine FINNICK ODAIR and Katniss, Robin Hood, Huntsman (Jamie Dornan’s), Etienne St. Clair because I love him, and I can’t even decide. Harry Potter has really good survival odds. XD I can def. imagine having to dive into the sea and learning how to fish without proper rods with Finn. And then Robin/Katniss could help me improve my aim with the bow and we’d be able to catch land animals for food too. And Kat could be like “Rae, those BERRIES ARE LETHAL!!” and save me from killing myself obvs. Huntsman would be all “yo animals, what’s up? let’s be friends. I’ll only kill you if we REALLY need food, kays?” and he’d be lovely and my best friend. And Etienne my love. Idk I’m still confused about whether I’d love Etienne or I’d BE Etienne. Er. And aguamenti bro. Aguamenti.

7. If you were chosen to be part of the Hunger Games, what place do you think you’d place? 1st? 2nd? 24th? XD
I probably wouldn’t die first but I also mightn’t win. I have a morality problem - I can’t imagine killing anyone. Especially if they’re younger than I am, are you serious? XDD I might be like… 8th or something. Maybe 7th if I’m lucky. Foxface it.

8. Greek, Roman, or Norse Mythology? (Or any other kind of mythology?)
GREEK. Aw man, I even starting planning my NaNoWriMo project with some Greco-Roman mythological stuff in there so this question is great. (Athena and Merc and Venus yessss. No wait, shhh, stop jabbering again, it’s not November yet… shucks…)

9. If you could live anywhere in the world, where would it be?
Probably somewhere in Ireland, maybe Derbyshire where Fids’ house is located. Or in Florence, Italy because of all the reasons. Realistically, I’d love to share that Brownstone or an apartment in Manhattan. If I were dreaming I’d have a home in the ideal locations my chars are from. XD

10. What’s one of your AU ships you wish could become canon?
I don’t have a lot of AU’s… at least that I can think of at the moment. I’d maybe like to see how JK would’ve written Dramione BUT I’m really happy that’s not canon because Romione is so epic on all the levels. Er… maybe Luna/Neville? Gah. This is tough. I might return to this later.

11. Would your rather have a dragon or a direwolf? 

Direwolf!! Ackkk wait. Is this in GOT-verse or not? Cause if I could have an Eragon-esque dragon maybe… idk… Aw man, if I could get on a direwolf and fly places and if it breathed fire then I would chose a direwolf. I love wolves and I ~am wolfy, I think maybe a Dragon. Now I feel like I’m betraying the starks for the targaryens and I’ll be stuck with Viserys instead of happy with robb or jon or arya asdasda. XD This is hard! Can I be a wolf with a dragon or…?

My 11 people: arteriovenous, hallucifernations, allan-a-dales, fbees, youngned, neptunepirate, missmalena, surrendersavedmylife, robinofthewood, aryarahl, willliamherondale. You guys can answer if you want!

11 questions:
If you could fly anywhere at this moment, where would you go and why? 
What was your most memorable dream about?
What’s a random place you remember from your childhood?
You’ve just landed on a whodunit train to an undisclosed location, what role do you take on? Do you try to escape, or do you panic, or do you try to figure out where you’re headed and who the killer is, or… are you the killer?
What is your absolute favourite book OR just a book that you can read whenever without qualms?
Who is your favourite author and why? If you don’t have one, how about a favourite movie?
What scene is a movie/tv show is really beautiful to you? [ie: the main character moving through a forest scene while the camera pans out and shows the scenery and it feels really… joyous…]
You’ve just landed in the Twilight-verse, what do you do?
If you could change your name or you needed to come up with a faux-name for some reason, what would you name yourself?
What’s your most comfortable clothing item?
What is your favourite breakfast food?

hallucifernations replied to your post: Am I cheating for NaNo if I try to start coming up…

pretty sure it’s not ‘cheating’ unless you’re doing the actual writing… and no one’s going to check anyway :D

Ah, but if it’s cheating I’ll know and it’ll bug me. I can’t help being honest, even on the internet when no one checks. XD But good, I can start working this out. 

 arteriovenous replied to your postAm I cheating for NaNo if I try to start coming up…

I don’t think it is cheating? My friend is thinking of plots and ideas too. :P I did NaNo last year!

I haven’t done Nano in… 4 years? Wow. I used to start thinking about it in November too. No wonder I only finished Nano once before. You should do it this year as well if you’re not too busy! On another note, have I mentioned how much I love your url?
New 'Flight Simulator' Technology Gives Neurosurgeons A Peek Inside Brain Before Surgery

NYU Langone Medical Center is now using a novel technology that serves as a “flight simulator” for neurosurgeons, allowing them to rehearse complicated brain surgeries before making an actual incision on a patient.

The new simulator, called the Surgical Rehearsal Platform (SRP), creates an individualized walkthrough for neurosurgeons based on 3D imaging taken from the patient’s CT and MRI scans. Surgeons then plan and rehearse the surgeries using the unique software, which combines life-like tissue reaction with accurate modeling of surgical tools and clamps, to enable them to navigate multiple-angled models of a patient’s brain and vasculature.

The SRP was developed by Surgical Theater of Cleveland, Ohio. This augmented reality technology may help improve safety and efficiency during surgeries for conditions including pituitary tumors, skull base tumors, intrinsic brain tumors, aneurysms, and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and could potentially allow surgeons from around the world to simultaneously collaborate on a patient’s case in real-time.

 "We are excited to partner with Surgical Theater to bring their Surgery Rehearsal Platform to our institution,“ said John G. Golfinos, MD, chair of the Department of Neurosurgery at NYU Langone Medical Center and associate professor of neurosurgery at NYU School of Medicine. "The reaction of tissue in these 3D images is incredibly life-like and modeling of surgical tools is equally impressive. The SRP also will enhance the training of medical students, residents and fellows and help them hone their skills in new and more meaningful ways.”

When using the SRP, surgeons can rehearse a specific patient’s case on computer monitors connected to controllers that simulate surgical tools. For example, when rehearsing a surgery for an aneurysm, the SRP reacts realistically when the surgeon virtually applies a clip to the blood vessel. The surgeon then can assess the tissue’s mechanical properties and view realistic microscopic characteristics including shadowing and texture to plan approaches, so that when the real surgery is being performed, doctors have rehearsed and already have a mental picture of what is being seen in the OR.

The SRP obtained clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in February 2013 as a pre-operative software for simulating and evaluating surgical treatment options.

In addition, a newer-generation of this technology from Surgical Theater, the Surgical Navigation Advanced Platform (SNAP), has an application pending with the FDA to allow the tool to be taken into the operating room, so surgeons can see behind arteries and other critical structures in real-time.

This has been a rough week...

My beloved girlfriend informed me, in a rather alarming manner, that after an MRI to investigate a facial twitching that she has been dealing with intermittently for the last 10 years, that her doctor advised her to head directly to the Emergency Room at Johns Hopkins.  I left work immediately on Thursday and headed down to the hospital.  Come to find out, she has an AVM or a arteriovenous malformation in her brain… I breathed a sigh of relief when they informed us that this is a treatable condition and not a brain tumor which I had been fearing.  They admitted her around 3AM on Friday morning and she stayed until Saturday after a large round of tests - CT scans and angioplasty specifically. 

Regardless, this is just a note to let my friends here on Tumblr know where I’ve been and to remind everyone out there to never pass-up that kiss or hug goodbye each morning, never pass-up the time you can spend just enjoying your loved one’s company and most of all, be sure to tell those you love how much they mean to you and how much they are truly loved. 

Warmest Regards,

Roger

Arteriovenous Malformation: an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins. An AVM can develop anywhere in your body but occurs most often in the brain or spine, usually before birth.

Ever since I was in middle school, I’ve had dreams of one day seeing my name in print.  While other kids concerned themselves with throwing spitballs and coordinating that wild middle school romance, I would write.  I would write during class, I would write during lunch and I would write at home when I was supposed to be doing homework.  Writing was my passion and the stories I concocted, usually involving heroic adventures by myself and assorted friends in all sorts of perilous and utterly ridiculous situations, are what started my life-long obsession with putting the right words together in the right order to convey the full spectrum of human emotion.  But, I am getting away from the purpose of this post…

Last November I celebrated my 43rd birthday and that day when I was seated at work staring down another tedious stack of work I needed to get done, I took a moment to reflect upon my life.  I really had no reason to complain… I have a good life.  I have a loving girlfriend, four relatively happy and healthy kids, loving family and friends, a nice house, an ugly but reliable car that gets we where I need to go, a job that pays the bills and is at least vaguely related to what I studied in college and a civil relationship with my ex-wife but I felt like something was missing. 

Last August my girlfriend Patti was diagnosed with an untreatable AVM or arteriovenous malformation in her brain… it’s nothing that severely impacts her daily life or her abilities but it’s something that makes her consider her own mortality and quite frankly dampens her ability to know in the back of her mind, that everything is always going to be fine.  She was rightfully scared and I was too because after so many years of unhappiness with my former “life situation” I had found someone who  I truly loved and who loved me right back and now there was a possibility that all that could come crashing down simply because of a rogue blood vessel.  So after much soul-searching I realized that I needed to rekindle my long-lost dream of seeing my name in print and at least put in the effort to see if I could at least give it a go.

That’s where I came up with the idea for Roger Wilkerson’s Cocktails in Suburbia… half original cocktail recipe book all with a decidedly mid-century suburban theme, half short story recollections and tales of mid-century suburbia.  It is in the preliminary stages right now and something that I anticipate devoting a lot of time and effort into completing but it is something I feel like I want and need to do.

I’m floating this out there to you good folks and I’m hoping that once the gears really start turning and this dream makes that transformation from my brain waves to paper, it would be something that you would be interested in owning.  I anticipate great imagery, great drinks and a fun read that will put smiles on your faces.  I’m going to start a Kickstarter Campaign for this project but right now I’m still at the preliminary stages of figuring exactly what shape this thing is going to to take.  Stay tuned my friends!