art-theory

anonymous asked:

I graduated with a BA in art history last year. I took a break and am now feeling lost about how to continue my education. The art history program at my school was incredibly small and in retrospect I feel as though my undergrad education ended up being an incomplete due to apathetic professors/advisers and a limited range of courses. I don't feel intellectually prepared for grad school but I still want to continue studying art history. Do you have any advice for the next step I should take?

Thanks for writing! I’m so sorry to hear that you feel as though your undergraduate education was not as whole as it should have been. Course selection can make or break educational experience in many fields, especially art history, where courses often build off each other. To fill in any gaps in knowledge you feel you have, and prepare for graduate-level coursework in the process, the best advice I can offer is to read books and journal articles in those areas. The History of Art Series published by Oxford University Press is a good place to start book-wise, and JSTOR’s free Register & Read program is a godsend for journal articles. 

If you have the time, another option to continue studying art history before enrolling in graduate school is taking online art history courses offered through websites like Coursera, MIT OpenCourseWare, OpenLearn (courses offered by Open University), or MoMA. TED-Ed also offers brief video lessons on a variety of art historical and visual culture topics. Some of these classes will be more academically rigorous and stimulating than others; hopefully you will find some that are relevant. 

It could be useful to explore the Getty Research Portal for digitized art history publications, rare books, and related literature. For free e-books about architectural history, take a look at this list compiled by Arch20. Finally, you can search Academia.edu for scholarly papers on topics that you’re interested in.

I’m not sure if your college gave you a solid foundation in art history theory and methodology, but if this isn’t something you are familiar with, I recommend studying this in your spare time before entering graduate school. The University of Illinois library has an online subject guide containing a fantastic list of books on theory.

Did your coursework give you a sense of what you might want to specialize in in graduate school? If so, in addition to studying and reading about aspects of art history that your college didn’t familiarize you with, you should also read as much as you can about your area of focus. Get familiar with the cornerstones of scholarship in your field now, if you aren’t already, so you can draw from it from Day 1 in your graduate program. 

On a related note, do you have reading knowledge of at least 1 language other than English (preferably related to your specialty, if you have one)? If not, this is another area to work on, as knowing at least one more language allows you to understand more scholarship, and, in some cases, primary sources, inscriptions in/on artworks, archives, curatorial files, and the like. 

Lastly, you might find my guide ‘Applying to Graduate School in Art History’ to be helpful.  I discuss how to decide whether or not graduate school is the right choice, how to evaluate and select programs to apply to, and what elements comprise a typical application. There are also printable worksheets that you can use to guide you through the decision and application process. 

In your personal statement, you might want to describe your experiences as an undergraduate, highlighting your academic strengths, and describing the ways that you have worked to increase your knowledge and skillset after graduation. 

I hope this helps! 

stxrmsvrfer  asked:

-sees you saying to not love you- I'M GOING TO LOVE YOU 1,000X MORE BECAUSE YOU'RE THE BEST AND I ADORE YOU, YOUR ART, YOUR VOICE, YOUR THEORIES...AND JUST YOU IN GENERAL?

AAAAAAAAAA ❤️❤️❤️ OMG KEIFF QVQ IM WEEPING THANK YOU SO MUCH!!! I LOVE YOU TOO!!! 💕💕💕💕

Some practice stuff this morning. Why am I always so much more active in Fall/Winter than Spring/Summer? Jeez.

I’ve made notes about the skin tone, I need to do more experimentation and blending with more tones. Despite it’s overall flaws, I really enjoyed drawing one of my childhood icons.

.. That pun wasn’t on purpose.

It’s probably because that’s when I try new things and it takes like 6 months before it becomes polished enough to post for everyone.

I have to laugh when I see folks going “well, what if the artist didn’t intend for there to be any deep symbolism?” The Death of the Author entirely aside, any artist can tell you that the fact that you didn’t intend for there to be any deep symbolism doesn’t mean you didn’t put some there anyway. I personally know multiple fanfic writers who’ve put together what they thought was just an interesting bit of fluff, then they went back and re-read their own story a month later and they were all: “oh, god dammit - this is about my relationship with my mother, isn’t it?”

For the last lord knows how long, I have developed this rather nasty habit of spending up to half an hour each morning frittering away time on the internet. Religiously Checking X, Y or Z before doing anything creative or productive. A lot of high performing creatives, whose game I truly aspire to, talk frequently about the value of a mindful approach to both time management and investment. Evaluating my own habits, I really wanted to kick this, often mood altering, time sink to the curb so I decided to replace it with a bit of reading. In particular - Art Theory. 

This morning I finished “The science & Practice of Drawing” by Harold Speed, after having chomped through “Oil Painting techniques and Materials” and I have to say, I highly recommend them! I feel like I have learnt so much from them. When I originally ordered them, I was expecting much more in the way of an instructional format, as is often the case with any book on method and application but these books offer a much more in depth and wordy analysis than I have ever come across before. Every time I put It down, the fire beneath my creative ass was lit! I have not been so inspired to study for a long, long time. 

As I said, I cannot recommend these books to artists enough! Even if you work primarily digitally, there is a lot to be gained from giving these a go!


Paragraphs on Conceptual Art

By Sol LeWitt 

The editor has written me that he is in favor of avoiding “the notion that  the artist is a kind of ape that has to be explained by the civilized  critic”. This should be good news to both artists and apes. With this assurance I hope to justify his confidence. To use a baseball metaphor (one artist wanted to hit the ball out of the park, another to stay loose at the plate and hit the ball where it was pitched), I am grateful for the opportunity  to strike out for myself.

I will refer to the kind of art in which I am involved as conceptual art. In conceptual art the idea or concept is the most important aspect of the work.  When an artist uses a conceptual form of art, it means that all of the planning and decisions are made beforehand and the execution is a perfunctory affair. The idea becomes a machine that makes the art. This kind of art is not theoretical or illustrative of theories; it is intuitive, it is involved with all types of mental processes and it is purposeless. It is usually free from the dependence on the skill of the artist as a craftsman. It is the objective of the artist who is concerned with conceptual art to make his work mentally interesting to the spectator, and therefore usually he would want it to become emotionally dry. There is no reason to suppose, however, that the conceptual artist is out to bore the viewer. It is only the expectation of an emotional kick, to which one conditioned to expressionist art is accustomed, that would deter the viewer from perceiving this art.

Conceptual art is not necessarily logical. The logic of a piece or series of pieces is a device that is used at times, only to be ruined. Logic may be used to camouflage the real intent of the artist, to lull the viewer into the belief that he understands the work, or to infer a paradoxical situation  (such as logic vs. illogic). Some ideas are logical in conception and  illogical perceptually. The ideas need not be complex. Most ideas that are successful are ludicrously simple. Successful ideas generally have the appearance of simplicity because they seem inevitable. In terms of ideas the artist is free even to surprise himself. Ideas are discovered by intuition.  What the work of art looks like isn’t too important. It has to look like something if it has physical form. No matter what form it may finally have it must begin with an idea. It is the process of conception and realization with which the artist is concerned. Once given physical reality by the artist the work is open to the perception of al, including the artist. (I use the word perception to mean the apprehension of the sense data, the objective understanding of the idea, and simultaneously a subjective interpretation of both). The work of art can be perceived only after it is completed.

Art that is meant for the sensation of the eye primarily would be called perceptual rather than conceptual. This would include most optical, kinetic, light, and color art.

Since the function of conception and perception are contradictory (one pre-, the other post fact) the artist would mitigate his idea by applying subjective judgment to it. If the artist wishes to explore his idea thoroughly, then arbitrary or chance decisions would be kept to a minimum, while caprice, taste and others whimsies would be eliminated from the making of the art. The work does not necessarily have to be rejected if it does not look well. Sometimes what is initially thought to be awkward will eventually be visually pleasing.

To work with a plan that is preset is one way of avoiding subjectivity. It also obviates the necessity of designing each work in turn. The plan would design the work. Some plans would require millions of variations, and some a limited number, but both are finite. Other plans imply infinity. In each case, however, the artist would select the basic form and rules that would govern the solution of the problem. After that the fewer decisions made in the course of completing the work, the better. This eliminates the arbitrary, the capricious, and the subjective as much as possible. This is the reason for using this method.

When an artist uses a multiple modular method he usually chooses a simple and readily available form. The form itself is of very limited importance; it becomes the grammar for the total work. In fact, it is best that the basic unit be deliberately uninteresting so that it may more easily become an intrinsic part of the entire work. Using complex basic forms only disrupts the unity of the whole. Using a simple form repeatedly narrows the field of the work and concentrates the intensity to the arrangement of the form. This arrangement becomes the end while the form becomes the means.

Conceptual art doesn’t really have much to do with mathematics, philosophy, or nay other mental discipline. The mathematics used by most artists is simple arithmetic or simple number systems. The philosophy of the work is implicit in the work and it is not an illustration of any system of philosophy.

It doesn’t really matter if the viewer understands the concepts of the artist by seeing the art. Once it is out of his hand the artist has no control over the way a viewer will perceive the work. Different people will understand the same thing in a different way.

Recently there has been much written about minimal art, but I have not discovered anyone who admits to doing this kind of thing. There are other art forms around called primary structures, reductive, ejective, cool, and mini-art. No artist I know will own up to any of these either.  Therefore I conclude that it is part of a secret language that art critics use when communicating with each other through the medium of art magazines. Mini-art is best because it reminds one of miniskirts and long-legged girls.  It must refer to very small works of art. This is a very good idea. Perhaps  “mini-art” shows could be sent around the country in matchboxes. Or maybe the mini-artist is a very small person; say less than five feet tall. If so, much good work will be found in the primary schools  (primary school primary structures).

If the artist carries through his idea and makes it into visible form, then all the steps in the process are of importance. The idea itself, even if not made visual, is as much a work of art as any finished product. All intervening steps –scribbles, sketches, drawings, failed works, models, studies, thoughts, conversations– are of interest.  Those that show the thought process of the artist are sometimes more interesting than the final product.

Determining what size a piece should be is difficult. If an idea requires three dimensions then it would seem any size would do. The question would be what size is best. If the thing were made gigantic then the size alone would be impressive and the idea may be lost entirely. Again, if it is too small, it may become inconsequential. The height of the viewer may have some bearing on the work and also the size of the space into which it will be placed. The artist may wish to place objects higher than the eye level of the viewer, or lower. I think the piece must be large enough to give the viewer whatever information he needs to understand the work and placed in such a way that will facilitate this understanding. (Unless the idea is of impediment and requires difficulty of vision or access).

Space can be thought of as the cubic area occupied by a three-dimensional volume. Any volume would occupy space. It is air and cannot be seen. It is the interval between things that can be measured. The intervals and measurements can be important to a work of art. If certain distances are important they will be made obvious in the piece. If space is relatively unimportant it can be regularized and made equal (things placed equal distances apart) to mitigate any interest in interval. Regular space might also become a metric time element, a kind of regular beat or pulse. When the interval is kept regular whatever is irregular gains more importance.

Architecture and three-dimensional art are of completely opposite natures.  The former is concerned with making an area with a specific function. Architecture, whether it is a work of art or not, must be utilitarian or else fail completely. Art is not utilitarian. When three-dimensional art starts to take on some of the characteristics, such as forming utilitarian areas, it weakens its function as art. When the viewer is dwarfed by the larger size of a piece this domination emphasizes the physical and emotive power of the form at the expense of losing the idea of the piece.

New materials are one of the great afflictions of contemporary art. Some artists confuse new materials with new ideas. There is nothing worse than seeing art that wallows in gaudy baubles. By and large most artists who are attracted to these materials are the ones who lack the stringency of mind that would enable them to use the materials well. It takes a good artist to use new materials and make them into a work of art. The danger is, I think, in making the physicality of the materials so important that it becomes the idea of the work (another kind of expressionism).

Three-dimensional art of any kind is a physical fact. The physicality is its most obvious and expressive content. Conceptual art is made to engage the mind of the viewer rather than his eye or emotions. The physicality of a three-dimensional object then becomes a contradiction to its non-emotive intent. Color, surface, texture, and shape only emphasize the physical aspects of the work. Anything that calls attention to and interests the viewer in this physicality is a deterrent to our understanding of the idea and is used as an expressive device. The conceptual artist would want o ameliorate this emphasis on materiality as much as possible or to use it in a paradoxical way (to convert it into an idea). This kind of art, then, should be stated with the greatest economy of means. Any idea that is better stated in two dimensions should not be in three dimensions. Ideas may also be stated with numbers, photographs, or words or any way the artist chooses, the form being unimportant.

These paragraphs are not intended as categorical imperatives, but the ideas stated are as close as possible to my thinking at this time. These ideas are the result of my work as an artist and are subject to change as my experience changes. I have tried to state them with as much clarity as possible. If the statements I make are unclear it may mean the thinking is unclear. Even while writing these ideas there seemed to be obvious inconsistencies (which I have tried to correct, but others will probably slip by). I do not advocate a conceptual form of art for all artists. I have found that it has worked well for me while other ways have not. It is one way of making art; other ways suit other artists. Nor do I think all conceptual art merits the viewer’s attention.  Conceptual art is good only when the idea is good.

2

I submitted my term paper while sipping coffee at my bed desk. I’ll be spending the weekend visiting art shows in London with my boyfriend, who is an actual darling for putting up with our long distance.

♪ Anne-Marie – Do It Right

My Thoughts on Vaporwave (Vektroid)

There’s so much I want to say about it, so I’m just going to start. 

Consider this a brainstorm that I accidentally posted.

Vaporwave is a lot more complicated than putting aesthetic Greek statues in zany computer-space. The way I see it, there are a few different messages (or “strains”) that Vaporwave conveys, each with their own colors, sounds and symbols.I’m going to categorize them using Vektroid’s albums as a posterchild of each. Vektroid, not only as the creator of Vaporwave but a powerful force in its ongoing evolution, is a great artist to look into to better understand Vaporwave’s underlying messages.

“Beach” Vaporwave
Features neon pinks and blues, sounds from the 80′s, including computerized voices and radical synths. Nostalgiac “retro” vibe. Very western.

Probably the most accessible tangent that leads into and out of Vaporwave. It captures a positive kind of eagerness looking forward to a technological future through the eyes of the 80′s. However, the imagery and nostalgia are invoked with a sense of irony, at least when juxtaposed with the darker future that other strains of Vaporwave inhabit. Hotline Miami is a game with a similar retro-vibe that serves as a backdrop for bloody mass murder.

“Japanese” Vaporwave
Features Greek statues, the infinite abstract planes depicted by math textbook-covers, sounds from the 90′s, warped and corrupted. Very westernized. Depression.

The “core” of Vaporwave. Both a celebration and damnation of commercialism. At its essence, it is about ephemerality, and a meditation on those who cannot see it. As the Greeks depicted their ideas in marble, we depict ours in the commercial. As such, it’s wonderfully interesting to look back at Japanese commercials from the 90′s and see how they appropriate western values to thrive in a globalized economy. It paints the entire world with a kind of purity that we, regrettably, only enjoy through irony.

The deepest irony that Japanese-style Vaporwave reminds us is that even marble gods crumble. All ideals are sold to use promising some kind of eternity, but even the ideals themselves fall apart – and some more quickly than others, as portrayed through the ironic use of outdated aesthetics and warped 90′s pop songs. The depressive tone of Floral Shoppe is at least in part genuine, and grants us a layer of irony with which to discuss these feelings more openly. It’s a contemplative vibe; both of acceptance and bittersweet sorrow.

Furthermore, the abundance of Vaporwave-inspired art only plays into the hands of the original message. Much like the new accessibility to technology that the 90′s experienced, the simple memers of the internet found Vaporwave’s aesthetic to be an easy-to-replicate style that could express their own battle, or spectatorship, with our modern technology-induced depression.

“Dark” Vaporwave
Features seclusion, dehumanization, glitches given breath. VHS tapes. TORNADO WARNING. Very mid-western. Super depression.

This is the deeper interest in the aspect of decay that other strains of Vaporwave tend to counterbalance with a generous amount irony. However, even when thinned, that veil of irony is what I believe separates this strain of Vaporwave from other kinds of glitchy, dark-ambient aesthetics. It’s the subtle nods and winks of familiar sounds that reassure you that this “isn’t just some harsh noise or something”. That mote of accessibility is important to bridging the gap between normies and those that would otherwise wallow in the dark catharsis that bold-faced, un-ironically dark music offers.

It’s little more than a nametag and a few “in-jokes” that can ease those who get Vaporwave into something deeper. This is more of a testament to the underlying language that Vaporwave itself merely taps into, and I’m looking forward to seeing how deep some people can be lead.

In the work of art the truth of an entity has set itself to work. ‘To set’ means here: to bring to a stand. Some particular entity, a pair of peasant shoes, comes in the work to stand in the light of its being. The being of the being comes into the steadiness of its shining. The nature of art would then be this: the truth of being setting itself to work.

Myth is immanent. This is the final sense of sacredness. But the existential plight of secularism is revealed in the desire to flee the sacred, to escape myth entirely in the architecture of modernism, in its ‘externalities of action’ and its annihilation of the spirit. We yearn to gallop into a utopian future devoid of a need for ornament, gods or spirits. Belief only grounded in certainty, an architecture of benign, practical reason. No more myths or superstitions. No bangs. No surprises.
Instead, we got the horror of two world wars.
—  Narrative Machines, available now on Amazon.com