army in history

French soldiers in a trench probably somewhere on the Western Front during World War 1.

Source: University of Kentucky.


Indian Mutiny Victoria Cross Account: Henry Hartigan

No. 2 Construction Battalion

Fighting for a country that didn’t want them.

On March 25 1917, Canada’s first and only black military unit left Halifax harbor for the Western Front. Six hundred soldiers, mostly from Nova Scotia, formed up as No. 2 Construction Battalion. Many had been trying to enlist since 1914,  but winning this privilege had been an up-hill fight: for two years military authorities had turned down black recruits, telling them “This is a white man’s war.”

Finally, in 1916, Canada allowed black recruits entry into a segregated united of laborers. An additional 165 African-Americans crossed the border to join them, creating a full complement of 600 men. Winning the struggle to join up hardly ended discrimination. Except for the reverend, all officers were white, and even when they went to board their transport ship on March 25 the captain initially refused to let them on, saying that he would not let them travel on the same vessel as white soldiers.

The recruits hoped to be allowed to fight when they reached France, but instead the Canadian Expediotnary Force immediately downgraded them from a battalion to a company and assigned them to fell trees and prepare positions for white soldiers. They were not ever even issued with rifles. Their work was tedious and demoralizing, and many considered themselves failures even as they suffered casualties from artillery shells and poison gas.

The unit returned to Canada in 1919, but received no fanfare upon arrival. Much like America’s black soldiers, they returned to a country that did not value them or their sacrifice and actively oppressed their rights. Most of these veterans returned to poverty and unemployment. When they finally had their first reunion in 1982, only nine could attend from twenty known survivors. Their legacy and sacrifice has been revived since then. Although very few men were allowed the chance to serve, they began the first crack in the Canadian military’s institutionalized racism.


Hordes of the Soviet is-3 has fired the minds of many Western military commanders.

The draft design of self-propelled, later received the designation of 15 cm kanonvagn fm/49, January 1949. It became the starting point for the development of a new tank.

The sketch is-3 from the Swedish intelligence report, March 1950. The information obtained made KATF to revise the vision of the future tanks.

AMX M4 with an oscillating turret FAMH. For the first time the Swedes have learned about it in early 1951.

As can be seen in the diagram, dated August 1951, the tower of the new tank was significantly different from what has developed in FAMH.

Draft project EMIL, September 1951

Unlike the French tanks, the Swedish design was much more compact.

This could be the location of the rollers. In this scheme clearly shows the influence of the AMX 50

The range of guns which has been suggested to EMIL

The layout of the EMIL E3, the result of a brainstorm held in 1952. The layout depicts a tank with 150 mm cannon.