argumentative writing

introductions are dumb

  • boy howdy there folks welcome to my essay here’s a hook that relates to the topic of this essay
  • allow to me to give you some background info on the topic that i’m about to write about
  • by the way, the side that i’m arguing for in this essay is _____
  • please enjoy this thesis statement that lists 2-3 reasons why i’m right

body paragraphs are also dumb

  • the first reason why i’m right is ____
  • here’s a quote that illustrates this reason (don’t forget to introduce the quote!)
  • let me explain why this quote illustrates the reason
  • now i’m gonna give you at least one more quote that illustrates the reason and im gonna explain that shit
  • in conclusion im fucking right because of this reason
  • now i’m gonna repeat that process with all of the other reasons why i’m right

here’s why the other side is wrong

  • some critics may argue that i’m wrong because _____
  • however
  • they are wrong because _____
  • therefore i am right

in case you have terrible short-term memory loss

  • let me repeat what side i took in this argument
  • here’s a one to two sentence summary of each paragraph
  • therefore i am right
  • because i am right, we should definitely do/start/make _____ because it’ll make the world better or bring about world peace or some shit
  • congratulations you just 1000% bullshitted an argumentative/persuasive essay enjoy your a

anonymous asked:

you know how steve always sleeps on the side of the bed facing the door "bECAUSE YOU ARE PRECIOUS TONY HUSH" okay but one if one night while they were asleep baddies did break in to try and snatch tony but were met with 240 pounds of kickass

If there was one good thing that would come out of this, it was that Steve now held the right to be able to gloat about being correct.


Although, when you woke up to the sound of foreign footsteps creeping through your bedroom as you held your very un-enhanced, very asleep and very vulnerable lover in your arms- that sort of thing tended to be pushed to the back of your mind.

(Read more, mobile users!)

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The Ingredients of Persuasion

Otherwise known as the lauded “big three” of rhetoric in the English language!

Rhetorical Devices are the devices used in the art or study of using language deliberately, (not accidental – intentional!) effectively, and persuasively. Almost all rhetorical devices that are used fall under the categories of ethos, logos, or pathos – otherwise known as Aristotle’s Ingredients of Persuasion. Being able to identify these three devices will make analyzing, annotating, and writing a million bajillion times easier (especially in argumentative settings)!

  • Ethos: Greek for character. Refers to the trustworthiness or credibility of the writer or speaker. Ethos is often conveyed through tone and style of the message and through the way the writer or speaker refers to differing views. It can also be affected by the writer‟s reputation as it exists independently from the message – his or her expertise in the field, previous record or integrity, etc. The impact of ethos is often called the arguments ethical appeal or the appeal from credibility.
    • The author is a trained expert in the topic or holds an important position in the topical field.
    • “My three decades of experience in public service, my tireless commitment to the people of this community, and my willingness to reach across the aisle and cooperate with the opposition, make me the ideal candidate for your mayor.”
  • Logos: Greek for embodied thought. Refers to the internal consistency of the message – the clarity of the claim, the logic of its reasons and the effectiveness of its supporting evidence. The impact of logos on the audience is sometimes called the argument’s logical appeal.
    • The author cites a collection of statistics supporting their claim.
    • "Ladies and gentlemen of the jury: we have not only the fingerprints, the lack of an alibi, a clear motive, and an expressed desire to commit the robbery… We also have video of the suspect breaking in. The case could not be more open and shut.”
  • Pathos: Greek for suffering or experience. Often is associated with emotional appeal, as it appeals to the audience’s sympathies and imagination. An appeal to pathos causes an audience not just to respond emotionally but to identify with the writer or speaker’s point of view – to feel what the speaker feels. In this sense, pathos evokes a meaning implicit in the verb to suffer – to feel pain imaginably.
    • The most common way of conveying a pathetic appeal is through the narrative or story, which can turn the abstractions of logic into something palpable and present. Pathos thus refers to both the emotional and the imaginative impact of the message on an audience, the power with which the speaker‟s message moves the audience to decision or action.
    • The speaker uses diction that has emotional connotations or recalls a personal anecdote to pull the audience’s heartstrings. 
    • "If we don’t move soon, we’re all going to die! Can’t you see how dangerous it would be to stay?”

So those are the basics of the “big three” of rhetoric, formally known as Aristotle’s Ingredients of Persuasion! Here’s a little printable of these notes too! 

Glad to see other Comic Book Writers are also super leery of Nick ‘Imma Make Captain America a Nazi’ Spencer. 

“Quickly men! Into formation!”

“Sir, what purpose does this formation serve? None of us is aiming with even a remote chance of hitting any possible enemies and we’re in serious danger of starting a forest fire.”

“Shut up Steve. It looks awesome.”


(Photo by @nicolasbruno on Instagram)

Writing Antagonists: (Aka, Your Villains and Bad Guys)

The antagonist is often either one of the most fun things to write, or the most dreaded. But either way, they are a key element of the story, and that cannot be ignored. So, let’s talk about how to make a really great antagonist.

You may have in the past met a writer or teacher or whomever who insists on using the words “protagonist and antagonist” over words like “hero and villain.” Personally, I am not so stingy about it, I feel that I know what you mean anyway so it doesn’t really matter- what there is a legitimate reason as to why you should at least try to think of your villain as your antagonist instead.

And that reason is connotation. Well, denotation too, really- villain and antagonist aren’t completely the same thing, but I’m bringing it down to connotation. 

Simply said, when you think of the word “villain”, you’ll think something like “that’s the bad guy in the story.” And when you think of the “antagonist”, you probably think “that’s a fancy word for villain, aka the bad guy in the story.”

But antagonist isn’t just a fancy word. It’s a fancy concept. It means “the guy that opposes the good guy.” That can be on any argument or view. When writing your antagonist is to remember that nothing is black/white, good/bad thinking, and that includes your antagonist.

Let’s map out the steps to making a complex villain- aka, an antagonist.

First, remember that your antagonist (usually) is a person, just like your protagonist. It might help to develop them outside of their intentions first, and put a person to the upcoming reputation.

Background:

Chances are, your antagonist didn’t just rise up out of the ground ready to kill. They came from somewhere. Your readers don’t even have to know everything about your antag’s backstory, but you do, if you want to really understand them. It often holds the key reason as to why your antagonist is where they are. The drive behind anger, revenge, change, or pleasing someone else can come from the events in their background.

Why do they hold the beliefs they hold? Were they raised that way? Were they taught by some mentor figure? Were they cover from a reality they couldn’t bear? Are they trying to please someone, or get revenge on someone who displeased them? The answer should be in their background.

Motives/Beliefs:

Remember, every villain is a hero in their own mind. They believe that what they are doing is necessary, even if they recognize that it is unpleasant. What are they fighting for? Why does it matter to them so much, that they are willing to overlook all the harm they do?

“The Greater Good”: This is one of the more common and understandable villain motives. They believe that what they are doing now is paving the way to a better future. But keep in mind that what your antag views as a “better future” may be very, very different than the average opinion. Maybe a “better future” for them is a genocidal purge or the world ending in flames. Who knows.

That’s not the only type of motive. Be creative. Work with the information you established in your character’s background to find the most reasonable motive.

Tipping Point:

This is going to be related to your background and motive in an interesting way. Think of your antagonist as a character who has already completed their Character Arc and reached a negative end. Look at the points of change on the character arc- the ones that push your character farther down their path. What are those events? Those are the tipping points that prompted your character towards becoming they way they are now- those key moments where your character had a choice, and they chose to become bitter, hateful, vengeful, cold, or other negative things.

These could be the deaths of loved ones, the promptings of a mentor, or a moment of injustice that made them realize that the world isn’t always kind.

Personality/Actions:

This is the part where you develop them outside of their intentions. How do they behave? 

It’s tempting to just say that your villain is a villain because they torture and kill people. But those are not the only things that make a villain a scary or serious threat. Some characters might jump to violence easier than others. Some might be more into psychological torment. Some might actually seem really charming or persuasive, which is frightening in it’s own way- they might actually be tricky enough to confuse you into making bad decisions on your own. Think about your character’s background again. What makes the most sense for them as a person?

Presentation:

This is how your antagonist comes across to others. Keep in mind that your reader and your other characters don’t know your antagonist like you do. How does this person present to the world? 

-Are they open to discussion/negotiation?

-Are they open about their intentions?

-How quick are they to violence?

-What are their methods of war?

-When you meet them, are they charismatic, quiet, charming, vulgar? Do they have a sense of humor, or are they stoic?

-Do they seem to enjoy what they are doing, or do they express regrets even as they do it?

Moral Complexity:

What are they willing to do to achieve their goals? Do they have weaknesses in their personal lives?

1. Do they have noble ends behind their controversial means?

2. Is there a line even they won’t cross?

3. Do they have someone/something that they care about?

4. Do they prefer to do the killing/torturing etc themselves or do they just give the order?

Remember that if your antagonist does have any of these moral weaknesses, they are not going to want to show it. One has to keep up intimidating appearances, after all. 

Speaking of appearances…

Appearance:

This part is here to tell you what not to do. There are certain appearances that are getting really old with villains.

1. Dressing in all black. Why do they even do that? It’s time to stop associating black with “bad” and white with “good”. It just isn’t like that, so stop making villains all dark and stuff.

2. Scars. I think scars are pretty cool, don’t get me wrong. But if there is no relevant reason for it to be there, don’t talk about it all the time. That goes for all characters, not just villains. Like the color black, scars are not just a villain thing. Everyone has them. Don’t associate them with “bad.”

3. Sexy. I get the idea that making a villain attractive makes them harder to hate, but that can be kind of a cop out of actual complexity. Again, if there is no legitimate reason to make your villain sexy, then don’t. It’s not necessary.

4. Ugly. I hesitate to call any traits inherently ugly, but if you’re striving to make your character unpleasant looking just because they’re bad, then once again, you are associating feature=evil, which is not creative at best and seriously socially harmful at worst. 

Basically, your villains should be just as diverse as anyone else. You don’t need stereotypes to make them scary. Sometimes it’s scarier than anything else to just have an average person. It sort of adds to the idea that anyone could be a villain. And that’s pretty frightening.

Key Point:

- Complicate your villains. They’re not just Evil McEvilpants. 

That’s it for now, but like anything else in writing, antagonists have a lot of possibility and exceptions. But that was your basic rundown on the things to consider when making a complicated antagonist. 

~Penemue

Life Choices

In which Dean and Castiel’s date is going great until Castiel gets pizza… with pineapples on it. 

(AO3)

“Do you want to grab dinner?” Dean asks hopefully.

His date with Castiel is going swimmingly and Dean doesn’t want the night to end just yet.

And neither does Cas if the way his eyes light up is any indication.

“Yeah, of course,” Cas says, shoving his hands into his coat’s pockets. “There’s this really great pizza place a few blocks down if you don’t mind making the trek.”

It was freezing, sure, but Dean didn’t want to say goodnight yet so he was going to brave the cold. Turning up his collar he says, “Come on, lead the way.”

“I swear it’s worth it,” Cas reassures him as they make their way down the street shivering. “You don’t have to order full pizzas. You can get individual slices so that way you can have more than one flavor.”

“How’d you find it?” Dean asks curiously. “I’ve clearly never been.”

“It was an accident, really.” Castiel runs a hand through his hair and Dean’s heart skips a beat. “I was going to my brother’s bakery and I could smell the pizza from out on the street.”

“You’re a big fan of pizza, aren’t you?” Dean teases, nudging Cas with his elbow.

“It’s good pizza!” Cas exclaims, smile big and gummy, and seriously, Dean’s heart is about to fucking give. “And, because of all the pizza ovens, the place is warm,” he says enticingly.

They turn a corner and, yeah, that’s definitely pizza that Dean can smell. He doesn’t realize that he’s literally sniffing until Cas smirks and says, “I told you so.”

Cas was right. The place smells like Heaven and is warm as Hell. As soon as they enter a girl with bright red hair shows up.

“Hey, Cas,” she greets him, nods a hello at Dean and turns back to Cas. “Your usual?”

“Yes, thank you, Anna,” Cas says to her before taking Dean’s hand and making his way to the serving counter. “There are millions of options.”

“And yet you have a usual,” Dean says absently, more focused on the, seemingly, millions of options. “Man, this is going to be like choosing between Star Wars and Star Trek.”

“You can come back for different flavors,” Cas repeats. “I’ll go catch us a table, yeah?”

Dean hums in acknowledgment even though he’d rather be holding Cas’ hand. After scanning his options one last time, Dean picks a slice of plain old pepperoni and makes his way to where Cas is.

He sits down just as Anna plops Cas’ pizza in front of him and-

“Dude, no!” Dean exclaims.

“What.” Cas pauses, pizza halfway to his mouth.

“There is pineapple on your pizza.”

Cas rolls his eyes. “I am prepared to argue about this till the end of time itself.”

“So am I,” Dean says, just as determinedly. “What kinda life choices man…”

“Pineapples have tons of health benefits,” Cas tells him.

“You’re eating pizza!” Dean counters. “I’m pretty sure anybody eating pizza isn’t really thinking about their health.”

“Well, I don’t see the problem,” Castiel asserted. “It’s sweet and savory at the same time.”

“Why would you pay extra for people to put that monstrosity on such deliciousness?” Dean asks, sounding genuinely worried about Cas’ logic.

“Ugh, Dean, what-” Castiel starts indignantly before a glass of soda is placed in front of him.

“Don’t you two fight like an old married couple?” Anna says.

“This is our first date, actually,” Dean tells her feeling a smile making his way onto his face. He really likes Cas.

“Couldn’t have guessed myself,” Anna smirks, walking away.

Turning to Cas, Dean holds out his hand, sighing. “Truce?”

Cas stares at him for a moment before leaning over the table and kissing him. Dean’s a hundred and ten percent sure his heart is going to combust because, oh my god, he’s kissing Cas. He doesn’t even mind the awkward angle or the fact that he can taste the pineapple Cas has been eating.

Cas pulls away and smiles down at his lap before looking up at Dean. “Truce.”

LATER

“Just remember that every time you put pineapple on a pizza an Italian dies.”

“Dean, we are literally naked. Shut up.”

Russ, J. (1983). How to suppress women’s writing. University of Texas Press.

The cover of Russ’s book does an excellent job of summarising its main argument: that women’s writing is deliberately devalued in a range of ways. It’s on the wrong subject matter, it’s the wrong genre, it’s morally objetionable, it’s not proper art. In 1983 Russ wasn’t writing specifically about fan fiction (yet), but fan fiction readers and writers will recognise these tactics employed against them. “She wrote about men banging! And it most definitely isn’t art - it’s derivative and unoriginal!”

One of my favourite moments in the book comes towards the end, when after some self-reflection Russ realises that she and other white women within academia and the feminist movement have been employing exactly the same tactics to devalue Black women’s writing. With recent debates on race in both fandom and Fan Studies, this powerful moment of realisation is worth keeping in mind.

Image description:

The cover of How to suppress women’s writing by Joanna Russ, which consists of the following text:

She didn’t write it. But if it’s clear she did the deed… She wrote it but she shouldn’t have. (It’s political, sexual, masculine, feminist.) She wrote it, but look what she wrote about. (The bedroom, the kitchen, her family. Other women!) She wrote it, but she wrote only one of it. (“Jane Eyre. Poor dear, that’s all she ever… “) She wrote it, but she isn’t really an artist, and it isn’t really art. (It’s a thriller, a romance, a children’s book. It’s sci fi!) She wrote it, but she had help. (Robert Browning. Branwell Brontë. Her own “masculine side.”) She wrote it, but she’s an anomaly. (Woolf. With Leonard’s help…) She wrote it BUT

Bossy Boots

Madara & Tobirama
Words: 2,617
A/N: The Kid!Tobirama fic that no one asked for. Here it is anyway! Possible sequel in the works. Betaed by the shameless enabler, @redhothollyberries. Set in IzunaIsAlive!AU because no Izuna = no me.

-

Days-off are a scarce, sacred thing. Everyone knows better than to disrupt Madara’s routine of sleep, eat, train and read when it’s his day off on the threat of having their head bitten off. Like most things in life, however, Hashirama is the exception.

Or Hashirama just doesn’t care. Most likely both. Senjus seem to be immune to his scare tactics.

Hashirama knocks on his door, an hour earlier than Madara had planned to wake up. Irate, Madara opens the door ready to breathe fire - only to halt and blink his bleariness away.

Madara stares at Hashirama. Then he stares harder at the child in his arms. A very familiar-looking child with white spiky hair, red streaks down his cheeks and chin and the most fearsome glower to be ever paired with such chubby cheeks.  

“What is that?” Madara blurts out.

Lord, the way the child is glaring at him makes him feel as skewered and spit roasted as a hunted boar. It’s ridiculous. This teeny tiny child shouldn’t be able to exude so much malicious intent.

Hashirama sighs. “Don’t be mean, Madara. This is Tobi. There was an accident when Tobi was field testing his jutsu.” Hashirama pauses. “Again.”

Whether Hashirama realised his wording or not, Madara snickers. “Isn’t he too old to be having accidents around the place?”

Tobirama sneers, all squeaky and squinty and evil.

You’re an accident.”

Madara gapes. “Excuse you?”

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Y'all do know what “write what you know” refers to, right? It’s about including issues you don’t understand, not,,,, excluding characters,,,, that experience those issues,,,,, altogether,,,, Like I am a white, so I wouldn’t write a book about racism or a character whose arc had to do with racism, but i can still write characters that are people of color??? It’s really not a difficult concept, write about the ISSUES you know, and do some RESEARCH if you’re going to write about a type of person you aren’t super familiar with.

if you’re writing an argument in discourse, and one of your points is that the LGBT community is for people who are “non-normative”, “abnormal”, “socially deviant”, etc, here’s a fun idea what to do instead!

1) stop
2) just admit you hate gay people and stop wasting our time
3) go away

anonymous asked:

Draco and Harry casually having an argument over lemonade and how it should be made that ends up with deep kissing in the kitchen. Draco and Harry having their first little pool party together and kissing in the water or behind the house

ohoho fuck i’m so weak for domestic drarry i’mma just do the first one


“Harry what the bloody hell are you doing to those lemons?”

Blinking, the bespectacled man pulled his hands away from the large pitcher he was currently squeezing half-lemons into. “I am…making lemonade,” he said rather obviously as he turned to stare at Draco who had just walked in with a horrified expression. “Do you not want any?”

“Of course I want some,” the pale man said, “But how on earth are you making it?”

Harry pressed his lips thin as his brows furrowed. He glanced back at the pitcher where the lemon juice was now sliding onto his forearms. He’d be sticky soon. “This is how we made it at the Dursleys. Squeezing fresh lemons. Unless you want artifici-”

“Merlin, don’t even say the word. No, Harry, I mean why aren’t you using the fruit juicer we own?” 

At that, Harry had absolutely no reply. Did he even know they had a fruit juicer?

“Well, it’s not like I can’t squeeze them proeprly,” he muttered, trying to defend his sticky arms and messy workspace. It would’ve been cleaner had Draco not barged in and interuppted his work. 

“Really,” an exasperated voice said as his lover grabbed his forearm, holding it up. “This is why we have a fruit juicer. So that you don’t get dirty and your shirts don’t get ruined.” Pale eyes skeptically stared at the juice lines. “You have to clean up.”

Harry frowned. “But i’m literally almost done, can’t i just-”

His voice disappeared when a tongue suddenly darted out, licking the line of juice from the middle of his arm to his wrist. He stared wide-eyed at Draco who was sending him an expression of tired affection. “You’ll finish. You just have to clean up.”

Thankfully, Draco did not complain when Harry’s other sticky arm slid around his waist, pulling him in closer, allowing the other man to taste the sweet juice on his lips. 

When pharmacy won’t release a med and the doc insists they do, but they won’t actually talk to each other about it

anonymous asked:

I just had the phrase "The Great Bitty-Parse War of Attrition" pop into my head. Is there any chance you can write something inspired by that phrase

I’ve been saving this prompt for … a while… lol. But here it is! Poor Jack is caught in the middle. 

“Say it.”

“No.”

“Just say it.”

“I won’t.”

Bitty pulls away the cherry almond pie that has been wafting under Kent’s nose, a quiet promise, and it’s all Kent can do not to chase the smell. With one last mournful look at the golden almond streusel, the bright red cherry still bubbling under the crust, Kent wrenches his eyes back to Bitty with a determined glare. It’s gonna take more than delicious, made-with-love pastries to change his mind on this.

The front door clicks open but neither Bitty nor Kent dares to be the first to look away.

“Hey boys- oh.”

In his peripheral, Kent can see Jack taking in the scene before him: Kent in the kitchen, sitting at the table with a straight back and crossed arms, and Bitty leaning forward, one hand braced against the old wood while the other spins the pie plate temptingly.

“You still arguing about this?” Jack takes several small steps backwards, trying to escape without getting caught in the vortex. He’s managed to stay neutral so far, but Kent’s not sure how long that will last.

“Kent was just about to apologize,” Bitty says brightly, pushing the pie back in closer to Kent, close enough to feel the warmth of it. “Wasn’t he?”

“Never.”

Bitty’s cheshire cat grin falls into something truly terrifying for a moment, and Kent swears he can see Bitty’s teeth glint.  

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Also, you know what? Kudos to Russell T Davies. He might have been initially sceptical about being able to sell a female Doctor to the audience, but he absolutely laid some of the groundwork too.

In the same series in which Moffat brought in River Song, sonic screwdriver and all, RTD went on to write all three major companions of his as Doctor figures. Donna saving the day as the DoctorDonna. Martha coming face to face with the decision to destroy her planet and her people, or let the universe perish. And Rose travelling through different realities, her name a secret, strange words on her lips, with a plan to save the world.

wow okay so I actually reblogged that post about how “women doing anything in history is inaccurate karen” with a ton of commentary about how it was based on a straw feminist argument to begin with and women haven’t always done what they’re meant to in history but I guess Tumblr decided to delete that???

anyway that was a shitty post and here’s a bit about why

yes, women’s lives were more circumscribed in the west for most of history. that doesn’t mean they all sat at home raising children and being beaten by their husbands or whatever misogynists like to write in their historical fiction

and yes it irritates me when people write princesses throwing a fit about the almost comically submissive and feminine role that they’re expected to play (which, wow, I could unpack the inaccuracy of that trope in a whole other post) and then going off to fight in a chainmail bikini and nobody says a word about it. but the way around that is not to just write women doing nothing

the way around it is- bear with me; this will involve actual work -research. 

learn the world you’re writing inside and out. read what real women wrote about their real lives. read how they were supposed to behave. read how they misbehaved in the eyes of society. read what men said about them, positive or negative. read the recollections of their children. learn the circumstances under which the rules that were meant to bind their lives could be bent and broken

you want to write a female warrior in medieval Europe? okay, there’s precedent for that. Joan of Arc, to name just one example. but you have to understand the fabric of the world around your warrior and how what she does becomes possible even though it’s not technically supposed to be. does she disguise herself as a man? is she a camp follower (laundress, cook, sex worker, etc.) who takes over when the casualties become so great that nobody cares who’s fighting because they just need able bodies? does she, like Joan, claim divine inspiration and holy purpose? how do her race, ethnicity, and social standing come into play? know how people would react to this in your chosen setting; what logic they might use to justify or condemn her actions

historical women often were subject to strict rules designed to limit the scope of their lives. but they equally often found ways around those rules or managed to wield power within societal confines in ways the powers-that-were never thought of. the only way to write women well in historical fiction is through a nuanced understanding of their worlds and the forces that shaped them

Wait what!?

Summary: Your boyfriend,Matt Murdock tells you that he is the Devil of Hell’s Kitchen. Things escalate from there.

Words: 1081

Warnings: language light smut sexual stuffs mentions of violence

A/N: okay so I don’t exactly know how this happened but I mean I like it I guess hopefully you guys do too. Also first time writing smut type stuff so hopefully it’s not too bad but I know it’s not great

Originally posted by nikolajwaldau

“Wait what?” you say in complete shock. You just woke up to your boyfriend Matt Murdock who just told you he was the Devil of Hell’s Kitchen.

“I’m the Daredevil. The man in black. Responsible for taking down Wilson Fisk.” He stood in front of you in full costume minus the mask.

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