argentine history

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April 2nd 1982: Argentina invades the Falkland Islands

On this day in 1982, Argentine forces landed on the Falkland Islands and occupied the area, which marked the beginning of the Falklands War. The war was the product of long tensions over who possessed the islands, with Argentina claiming ownership and Britain seeing the islands as British territory. Argentine forces landed on the islands and fought the British Royal Marines at Government House, leading to British surrender and thus Argentina seizing control of the Falklands. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher responded by sending a naval task force to attack the Argentinians. The conflict killed 649 Argentinians, 255 Britons and three Falkland Islanders, even though it only lasted 74 days. The war ended with Argentine surrender on 14th June, thus returning the islands to Britain.

An Argentine FKM-3 (PA3-DM) SMG, with infrared sight and battery pack attached. A domestically designed 9mm firearm, they saw combat use in the Falklands, where models equipped with the infrared equipment such as seen here proved to be some of the most effective weapons against the British forces.

(IWM)

ibtimes.com
Blackout: How Argentina ‘Eliminated’ Africans From Its History And Conscience

Black Africans, who were a large portion of Argentina’s population in the early 19th century, seem to have vanished. Or have they?

According to historical accounts, Africans first arrived in Argentina in the late 16th century in the region now called the Rio de la Plata, which includes Buenos Aires, primarily to work in agriculture and as domestic servants. By the late 18th century and early 19th century, black Africans were numerous in parts of Argentina, accounting for up to half the population in some provinces, including Santiago del Estero, Catamarca, Salta and Córdoba.

Slavery was officially abolished in 1813, but the practice remained in place until about 1853. Ironically, at about this time, the black population of Argentina began to plunge.

Historians generally attribute two major factors to this sudden “mass disappearance” of black Africans from the country – the deadly war against Paraguay from 1865-1870 (in which thousands of blacks fought on the frontlines for the Argentine military) as well as various other wars; and the onset of yellow fever in Buenos Aires in 1871.

The heavy casualties suffered by black Argentines in military combat created a huge gender gap among the African population – a circumstance that appears to have led black women to mate with whites, further diluting the black population. Many other black Argentines fled to neighboring Brazil and Uruguay, which were viewed as somewhat more hospitable to them.

Others claim something more nefarious at work.

It has been alleged that the president of Argentina from 1868 to 1874, Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, sought to wipe out blacks from the country in a policy of covert genocide through extremely repressive policies (including possibly the forced recruitment of Africans into the army and by forcing blacks to remain in neighborhoods where disease would decimate them in the absence of adequate health care).

By 1895, there were reportedly so few blacks left in Argentina that the government did not even bother registering African-descended people in the national census.

The CIA World Factbook currently notes that Argentina is 97 percent white (primarily comprising people descended from Spanish and Italian immigrants), thereby making it the “whitest” nation in Latin America.

But blacks did not really vanish from Argentina – despite attempts by the government to eliminate them (partially by encouraging large-scale immigration in the late 19th and 20th century from Europe and the Near East). Rather, they remain a hidden and forgotten part of Argentine society.

“People of mixed ancestry are often not considered ‘black’ in Argentina, historically, because having black ancestry was not considered proper,” said Alejandro Frigerio, an anthropologist at the Universidad Catolica de Buenos Aires, according to Planete Afrique.

“Today the term ‘negro’ is used loosely on anyone with slightly darker skin, but they can be descendants of indigenous Indians [or] Middle Eastern immigrants.”

AfricaVive, a black empowerment group founded in Buenos Aires in the late 1990s, claimed that there are 1 million Argentines of black African descent in the country (out of a total population of about 41 million). A report in the Washington Post even suggested that 10 percent of Buenos Aires’ population may have African blood (even if they are classified as “whites” by the census).

“People for years have accepted the idea that there are no black people in Argentina,” Miriam Gomes, a professor of literature at the University of Buenos Aires, who is part black herself, told the Post.

“Even the schoolbooks here accepted this as a fact. But where did that leave me?”

She also explained that almost no one in Argentina with black blood in their veins will admit to it.

“Without a doubt, racial prejudice is great in this society, and people want to believe that they are white,” she said. “Here, if someone has one drop of white blood, they call themselves white.”

Gomes also told the San Francisco Chronicle that after many decades of white immigration into Argentina, people with African blood have been able to blend in and conceal their origins.

Ironically, Argentina’s most famous cultural gift to the world – the tango – came from the African influence.

“The first paintings of people dancing the tango are of people of African descent,” Gomes added.

On a broader scale, the “elimination” of blacks from the country’s history and consciousness reflected the long-cherished desire of successive Argentine governments to imagine the country as an “all-white” extension of Western Europe in Latin America.

“There is a silence about the participation of Afro-Argentines in the history and building of Argentina, a silence about the enslavement and poverty,” said Paula Brufman, an Argentine law student and researcher, according to Planete Afrique.

“The denial and disdain for the Afro community shows the racism of an elite that sees Africans as undeveloped and uncivilized.”

 Capt. Hunter Davidson ca 1964. Davidson, commander of Maryland’s State Fishery Force, was tasked with managing the harvest of the state’s supply of shellfish during the infamous Oyster Wars until 1872. 

Davidson, a Union Civil War hero, was in command of the Leila, an iron hull, side-wheel steamer built in Baltimore that was one of several “Oyster Navy” vessels. He fought the rampant poaching “oyster pirates” with great valor and determination despite being clearly outnumbered. 

After resigning in disgust in 1872 when the frenzy over the Maryland oysters reached a peak of killing and mayhem, Davidson moved to Argentina and joined the Argentine Navy.

I watched OLLA again tonight and do you know what bugs me?

The men create while the women consume.

I don’t why if that was a conscious choice but it’s undeniable.

Adam not only writes music, he’s written famous music. He’s not only interested in science, he’s built a car powered by… not sure, and his house is powered by his generator, which is powered by cosmic rays. His ancient TV can act as an iPhone and his phone, laptop and TV are all interconnected.

The man is a fucking genius.

As for Christopher Marlow, he not only wrote his own plays, he wrote Shakespeare’s too!

And poor old Eve, probably been alive for longer than most of them, can do nothing but consume. She hoards books, but doesn’t write them. She devours poetry, but can’t create it.

She likes books so much, she keeps them in the fridge  and we are supposed to find that funny. (why we supposed to laugh at her exhibiting behavior more akin to someone with dementia, I’m not sure, but that’s another story)

She adores dancing, but has never created a dance, never even taught anyone else to dance. Imagine if Eve had created or popularised the Argentine Tango!

She values history, yet contributes none of her valuable knowledge to the annals of history.

She appreciates nature, but not enough to study it and possible increase human understanding on the subject.

She likes kindness, but doesn’t do any charitable endeavors.

She doesn’t even get her own blood but has to take some of Marlow’s, who right from the start is the weaker of the pair.

She could paint, or sculpt, or write, she could have been the ‘real’ Mary Shelly (like Marlow is the ‘real’ Shakespeare) but instead Eve is totally fucking useless, she takes and consumes but she gives nothing back at all besides a little company. 

It would have taken so little to give Eve something real that she had contributed to the world, it doesn’t even have to be something big, just a throwaway line that she invented this or sketched that (after all, we have nothing but Marlow’ word that he created anything).

Even Bilal, Marlow’s student, is being taught to create, but not the women.

Women aren’t good for anything but consuming in this world, sometimes in a dignified way, as with Eve, sometimes is a harmful or dangerous way, as with Ava.

And it’s so fucking sexist.

Edit: I’m not trying to make non-creative people feel bad about themsleves but that is the dictinction in this film, creative people and non-creative people. 

Had Adam and Kit been politicians and the others of no profession (as they are now), I would be ranting that only men get to be politicians, while women don’t. Had they been teachers i would be arguing that only the men get to be teachers. Had Adam and Kit been lawyers… you get the idea. 

The women are there only as support for the men, that’s what is sexist. 

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Gold Inlaid Presentation Model 1891 Argentinian Mauser,

From Rock Island Auctions

This is a remarkable example of a “One Of A Kind” Model 1891 cased factory presentation Argentine Mauser rifle with gold inlaid engraving that was specially presented to “Mercedes De Iriondo”. This rifle has a hand polished rust blued finish with a deluxe special selection presentation grade walnut stock and hand guard with a hand engraved, 3 inch by 2 ½ inch oval silver presentation plate with scalloped edges, fixed to the right side of the buttock. The presentation plate reads as follows; “A la noble Senora/ Mercedes Z de Iriondo/ Dedica este fusil, especialmente fabricado/ para ella, como una prueba de su/ profundo e’ inalterable carino/ PabloRiccheri/ Berlin 25 Mayo 1894”. A loose translation is “To a noble lady, Mercedes De Iriondo, This rifle was fabricated as a special dedication to her, as token of my deep and unalterable affection, Pablo Riccheri”. Pablo Riccheri was Argentina’s Minister of War from 1900 until 1910. He modernized the Argentine army and personally ordered the adoption of the 1891 Mauser as Argentina’s service weapon. He is still revered today as one of the greatest figures in Argentine history and his tomb in the Ricoleta Cemetery is a national shrine. The principal highway linking Beunos Aires to the airport is named for him. During the time period this weapon is dated to, Riccheri was in Germany, acting as a purchasing agent for Argentina, and his exposure to the German military would later inspire his revisions to the Argentine Army. Mercedes Iriondo was one of the greatest women in Argentine history with a number of schools in Buenos Aires named in her honor. This presentation is from the father of the Argentine military to his esteemed friend and educator Mercedes Iriondo. It is one of the most important and artistic factory presentation Mauser rifles extant.

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Argentina has defaulted for the eighth time in its history.

Argentine Finance Minister Axel Kicillof delivered the news to the world from Argentina’s consulate in New York City on Wednesday.

Kicillof had just finished a meeting in which he and a delegation from The Republic failed to satisfy the demands of a group of hedge fund creditors negotiating over $1.3 billion worth of debt owed to them for over a decade.

http://finance.yahoo.com/news/live-argentina-could-minutes-away-204102833.html

Three years ago this week, Japan was ravaged by the largest earthquake on record in the country’s history. The Argentine photographer Alejandro Chaskielberg visited Otsuchi, a small beach community on Japan’s main island, earlier this year to document the wreckage that remains. A look at his photos: http://nyr.kr/1i8weBQ

Above: Mrs. Oikawa Shiyuko sits among the remains of what was once her home.