area of responsibility

Disorders & Their Respective Brain Scans

  • Schizophrenia: patients usually have less brain tissue

  • Major Depression: scans show less brain activity in depressed brain

  • Alzheimer’s: brain tissue significantly shrinks, hippocampus is usually the first region to go

  • ADHD: less brain activity in the frontal cortex (area associated with decision making) 

  • OCD: high brain activity 

  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): hippocampal volume reduction (area involved in memory) and increased activation of the amygdala (area involved in emotional responses) 

Aphasia: The disorder that makes you lose your words

It’s hard to imagine being unable to turn thoughts into words. But, if the delicate web of language networks in your brain became disrupted by stroke, illness or trauma, you could find yourself truly at a loss for words. This disorder, called “aphasia,” can impair all aspects of communication. Approximately 1 million people in the U.S. alone suffer from aphasia, with an estimated 80,000 new cases per year.  About one-third of stroke survivors suffer from aphasia, making it more prevalent than Parkinson’s disease or multiple sclerosis, yet less widely known.

There are several types of aphasia, grouped into two categories: fluent (or “receptive”) aphasia and non-fluent (or “expressive”) aphasia. 

People with fluent aphasia may have normal vocal inflection, but use words that lack meaning. They have difficulty comprehending the speech of others and are frequently unable to recognize their own speech errors. 

People with non-fluent aphasia, on the other hand, may have good comprehension, but will experience long hesitations between words and make grammatical errors. We all have that “tip-of-the-tongue” feeling from time to time when we can’t think of a word. But having aphasia can make it hard to name simple everyday objects.  Even reading and writing can be difficult and frustrating.

It’s important to remember that aphasia does not signify a loss in intelligence. People who have aphasia know what they want to say, but can’t always get their words to come out correctly. They may unintentionally use substitutions, called “paraphasias” – switching related words, like saying dog for cat, or words that sound similar, such as house for horse. Sometimes their words may even be unrecognizable.  

So, how does this language-loss happen? The human brain has two hemispheres. In most people, the left hemisphere governs language.  We know this because in 1861, the physician Paul Broca studied a patient who lost the ability to use all but a single word: “tan.” During a postmortem study of that patient’s brain, Broca discovered a large lesion in the left hemisphere, now known as “Broca’s area.” Scientists today believe that Broca’s area is responsible in part for naming objects and coordinating the muscles involved in speech. Behind Broca’s area is Wernicke’s area, near the auditory cortex. That’s where the brain attaches meaning to speech sounds. Damage to Wernicke’s area impairs the brain’s ability to comprehend language. Aphasia is caused by injury to one or both of these specialized language areas.

Fortunately, there are other areas of the brain which support these language centers and can assist with communication.  Even brain areas that control movement are connected to language. Our other hemisphere contributes to language too, enhancing the rhythm and intonation of our speech. These non-language areas sometimes assist people with aphasia when communication is difficult.

However, when aphasia is acquired from a stroke or brain trauma, language improvement may be achieved through speech therapy.  Our brain’s ability to repair itself, known as “brain plasticity,” permits areas surrounding a brain lesion to take over some functions during the recovery process. Scientists have been conducting experiments using new forms of technology, which they believe may encourage brain plasticity in people with aphasia.  

Meanwhile, many people with aphasia remain isolated, afraid that others won’t understand them or give them extra time to speak. By offering them the time and flexibility to communicate in whatever way they can, you can help open the door to language again, moving beyond the limitations of aphasia.

From the TED-Ed Lesson Aphasia: The disorder that makes you lose your words - Susan Wortman-Jutt

Animation by TED-Ed

Ships Lost at Sea

A short little piece of fluff of a moment between Betty and Jughead shared on a couch. 

This ship inspires a need to write fluff like never before, it’s too cute and completely uncharted territory for me to be writing something so fluffy.

She wasn’t sure what they were. When Veronica had asked her why he had comforted her in such an intimate way she didn’t know what to say. She told her the truth he had been comforting her and she had found comfort in the most unlikely of places. That he was helping her through what had been one of the most difficult times of her life. She hadn’t even told her that they had kissed.

The pair  found themselves on the couch of the Blue and Gold offices well after school had finished and they had continued to work on the school paper, while the case of Jason Blossom had dried up for the time being. With his head resting on her lap Betty found herself reminiscing about the little touches they shared. The way he would reach for her hand as he walked her home and how in turn she would hold  on to his arm or placing her hand on his cheek. They were such simple gestures, on the surface so insignificant and inconsequential but to her they meant everything.

She absent mindedly moved her finger tips across his forehead, brushing away the hair that had settled there as he continued to read out his latest article to her as she listened attentively.

She didn’t want to put a label on it, what was occurring between them. She felt as though they were two ships lost at sea who had found each other. They both had their own problems, both trying to survive being a teenager with their own separate challenges. Her with a mum who was protective to the degree of being psychotic and him with a dad who just couldn’t get it right. It was this that brought them together in addition to their need to find Jason Blossom’s killer. Maybe that was why they both had latched onto this case as an interest, it was something else to focus on rather than the homes that they came from and the perceptions of who they should be that they were trying so desperately to distance themselves from.

The others didn’t get it, Archie’s dad was supportive and kind, Veronica’s mum cared for her daughter in a way that Betty envied, and Kevin had his dad supporting him through his coming out and the towns reaction, he would protect his son through it all. But her and Jughead they knew what it was like when your parents didn’t quite measure up the way you hoped they would, they understood what it felt like to be disappointed by your parents again and again and needing a soft place to land. Maybe that was what they were to each other a soft place to land.

“Betts, are you listening?” The change in his voice broke her away from her thoughts and she realised that he had now finished and was looking at her expectedly for her response.

“Sorry Juggie I just drifted off.” She explained. Turning her head away from him.

“Somewhere nice?” He asked intrigued as to where her thoughts had taken her.

“Not really. Just thinking.”

“I assume about my mind altering article on why our school mascot is a mongoose. Thanks again for the plum assignment.” He stated sarcasm tingeing his voice.

“It’s been a slow news week.” She explained. “But you have done wonders with it.”

“Good.” He smiled up at her, moving aside the printed article to rest on his chest and closed his eyes, as she continued to play with his hair.

He still couldn’t believe this was happening. Betty Cooper and Jughead Jones sharing an intimate moment. He had been afraid that once their friends had found about them that she would have distanced herself, that maybe this was a phase she was going through and while it was behind closed doors it was fine but outside in the real world where everyone could see that he wouldn’t be enough.

When he had been dragged away from school in the Sherrif Keller’s car he was sure that that would be the final nail in the coffin. The gorgeous golden girl Betty Cooper would not want to be associated with a suspected murderer. The boy from the wrong side of the tracks and a criminal record. But there she had been, holding his hands, reassuring him that she knew who he was she knew the real him and there was such trust in her eyes that he had felt safer just knowing that she was on his side. That if she was there he could make it through.

He found himself reaching for her constantly needing to feel her skin, her presence near him. It calmed him knowing that she was close.

They hadn’t talked about their relationship, he didn’t want to jinx it, he couldn’t bear the thought of losing her. He knew their friends were calling them ‘boyfriend’ and ‘girlfriend’ and they hadn’t corrected them.

“Can I?” Her voice broke into his thoughts and he noticed that she was motioning to his beanie. He nodded and she removed it, delicately placing it on the armrest of the couch. Her fingers returned to move through his hair, fingertips brushing against his scalp as he moaned his approval. She continued to massage his scalp delighting in the sounds he was making, knowing that she could bring him some peace. They stayed that way for a while her fingers moving across his scalp, directed at the areas that produced the greatest response. He felt like he was dreaming, completely at rest, safe in her arms.

“Betts,” He whispered to her even though they were the only two in the room.

“Yeah.” She whispered back

“We are going to stick together aren’t we? Through this even after we find out who killed Jason, if we do?” He kept his eyes closed not sure he could look straight into her eyes while he asked her. This was the most directly they had spoken about what was going on between them.

“I would like that Juggie.” He opened his eyes to find her smiling down at him, he could lose himself in those eyes. They felt like home. He shifted his body to move up and capture her lips with his. Before resting his head again in her lap, his arm moving to around her shoulders and closing his eyes. Safe and content he felt as though his ship had finally come into port.

anonymous asked:

Is there a difference between MRI and fMRI?

Yep there is! The two techniques produce two different kinds of images, so they have different uses in both the research and clinical world:



As you can see, MRI focusses on the anatomy, so can therefore be useful in clinical settings to diagnose brain injury, or general structural abnormalities. 

On the other hand, the f in fMRI stands for functional, so it shows how the brain is used.fMRI measures blood flow around the brain. During a given task, areas of tissue which are more active are respiring more, so require more oxygen and therefore an increased blood flow. This distribution can then be mapped out on a computer to distinguish areas of  a brain responsible for a particular behaviour or task. For this reason, fMRI is mostly used in research. 

anonymous asked:

The of the things the batclan hates, is when they have to work a mission during the day -- in the sunlight. Because when they finally take off their masks, there is a defined tan or sunburn. Bruce and Duke (sometimes Tim, depends on which suit) only have to worrying about the area around their mouth. Jason and Cass have eliminated the probably by having fully covering masks/helmet. But Dick, Damian, Steph, and Barb...? They have more to worry about. Including laughter from Cass and Jay.


The only plus side of living in Gotham is that it’s not the sunniest place in the world… which most people would not consider to be a positive, but the batclan definitely does. But sometimes… when they’re very unlucky… they have to venture out into the hot, blinding heat and light of the summer sun. 

(Prime example: that one summer the Joker thought it would be funny to flood the whole of Gotham with his laughing gas-spiked sewer water, in what he called “Joker’s Pool Party Extravaganza.” And of course this just so happened to occur on a day when Gotham experienced record highs in temperature). 

  • You’re absolutely right, Cass and Jay’s costumes mean they are well protected… but the downside is that they are also very hot and grumpy and sweaty on these days. Alfred makes sure to stress to everyone the importance of staying hydrated on these rare days after Cass forgets to drink enough water (claims it was a bother) and ends up fainting from heat stroke. But only after she’d kicked everyone’s ass, as Steph pointed out in her defence.  
  • Damian is safe from sunburns for the most part. He grew up in the desert for part of his childhood and his DNA means that he tans naturally. But the tan lines are…. very defined. Especially since he often denies the need for protection against “this sad excuse of a sun” when Alfred offers him sun tan lotion. He regrets it later. Scowling at the mask-shaped tan-lines around his eyes in the mirror.
  • As Batgirl, Barbara religiously BATHED in suntan lotion because she’s so fair. Sunburns can be really dangerous for people with her complexion, and her father taught her to always wear sun lotion after that one summer day when she was six and went to preschool without it. He’s never forgiven himself for forgetting. But it’s a special memory for both of them, those few nights the sunburn hurt too much for her to sleep, and they sat together on Daddy’s bed as he gently rubbed cool aloe vera onto her face. Oracle is more than happy to stay inside all day and listen to the other complain about the heat. (But she absolutely will sternly remind everyone to wear lotion. And has threatened to dump Dick if he didn’t put it on before going out… more than once.)
  • Everyone hates Dick because, like Damian, he usually tans more than he burns. He grew up wintering in Florida and running around outside, taking care of animals and doing chores while travelling with circus. But he can still burn and if he does, risks the wrath of his fair-skinned girlfriend giving him another long lecture about the danger of UV rays and cancer. 
  • Duke is generally safe too, and usually just forgoes the lotion (“my beautiful melanin will protect me”, “black don’t crack”, “as the infamous and controversial bard Kanye West has been quoted as saying: ‘I’m way too black to burn from sunrays’”). But after Babs sends him a series of articles about how the risk of skin cancer is still high for black people, he caves and starts wearing a light layering of SPF 15.
  • Steph is pretty at risk, but it’s actually one of the areas she is surprisingly responsible? On sunny days, sometimes she’ll go back to her old Spoiler costume to protect her skin, even if it’s hotter. Once, she and Jason both decided to use the day as an opportunity to “get that nice, tanned bikini bod” and went on patrol wearing a swimsuit and trunks with flip flops. When Bruce got mad, they pointed out they were still protecting their secret identities by still wearing their mask and helmet… but he didn’t seem convinced. 
  • According to Stephanie…………… Bruce and Tim “get burnt, not turnt.” 
  • There are many reasons why Batman operates at night… and one of the lesser known reasons is that Bruce Wayne burns veeeeeeeery easily. He learned this lesson the hard way training in the Himalayas without sun protection. Because white, rich-boy, smarty-pants, 22 year-old Brucie Wayne assumed that sun + snow ≠ increased probability of getting burnt, and thought that skiers and snowboarders wore their goggles just to keep snow out of their eyes and as a fashion statement. And yet he knew chemical formulae of common plutonium compounds by heart….
  • Tim Drake has it the worst though. By far. Something that is most definitely not helped by the fact that Tim usually lives by the philosophy of: Hack GCPD Databases While Snacking On Cheetos All Night, Sleep All Day. The boy is a vampire. Pale as a ghost. And somehow it seems, no matter how many layers he’s wearing, Tim still manages to get sunburnt???? Through layers of kevlar??? The boy is a living, breathing, walking, sunburnt enigma. 
Imagine #17 Peter Maximoff (Request)

Requested by @fragcc: Could you do a Peter x human reader? Like, they’d meet at library and become good friends bc they like the same stuff and then after some time they’d start dating and he’d confess to her that he’s a mutant but she doesn’t care bc it’s her love… =]

Originally posted by ahs-imagines

Not my gif

Words: 2263

Warnings: typos, fem!reader (though not necessarily, I think, I’m just not sure), SWEARS

A/N: So, I was in a really no-cheesy mood when I wrote this, I hope, y’all like it anyway! xoxo

“You’ve got to be kidding me.”, you muttered under your breath as your eyes fell on the empty space in the shelf, where your favourite book was supposed to be. Some idiot had been hogging it for the past two months and you had been counting the days until you would finally be able to read it again – for about the 56th time. And now here you were, on the day it was supposed to be back, in front of the shelf where it was supposed to be, and yet… Right at that moment, your glare could have killed a man.

And yes, you could have just bought a copy of your own, but that wasn’t, what this was about, you insisted. This was about order, structure. You wanted this copy and you wanted it now.

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I wish I could be at peace. I’m either disassociated and numb, or trying to crawl out of my own skin. Grey is a hard area for me.
—  Response to a loving friend who believes in me

Short: A Case of Spring Fever

MST3K featured a number of movies, such as The Starfighters and last week’s Squirm, that were simply not memorable.  They also did a number of movies and shorts that were deeply memorable, but for all the wrongest possible reasons.  Mr. B Natural was one of those, and A Case of Spring Fever is another.  Both were intended to be whimsical and each, in its own way, ended up being fucking terrifying instead.

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Forbidden Love (M) // Kim Taehyung (AU!)

Originally posted by mayfifolle

Pairing: Taehyung x Reader

Genre: Smut // Angst // Fluff

Summary//Request: Set in the 1500′s in old British style culture, Taehyung is King and you are his secret mistress.

A/N: This gets straight into the smut and more storyline later ^^ I hope you enjoy it!

Please also note that this scenario is rated M for Mature as it contains smut and sex in a church (sacrilege??).

Panting and moans bursting with desire and lust filled the air and rang out like Sunday church bells in the castle’s cathedral as you lay on your back in one of the many pews that lay before God himself. It was an act most unholy, most unforgiveable; but one that you couldn’t help yourself give into the temptation. For not only were you being fucked in a house of God – the person who was administering godly amounts of pleasure on to you was the King himself – His Highness, Kim Taehyung.

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Academic word list

The Academic Word List (AWL) contains 570 word families which were selected because they appear with great frequency in a broad range of academic texts. The list does not include words that are in the most frequent 2000 words of English (the General Service List), thus making it specific to academic contexts. 

Group 1

sector • available • financial • process • individual • specific • principle • estimate • variables • method • data • research • contract • environment • export • source • assessment • policy • identified • create • derived • factors • procedure • definition • assume • theory • benefit • evidence • established • authority • major • issues • labour • occur • economic • involved • percent • interpretation • consistent • income • structure • legal • concept • formula • section • required • constitutional • analysis • distribution • function • area • approach • role • legislation • indicate • response • period • context • significant • similar •

Group 2

community • resident • range • construction • strategies • elements • previous • conclusion • security • aspects • acquisition • features • text • commission • regulations • computer • items • consumer • achieve • final • positive • evaluation • assistance • normal • relevant • distinction • region • traditional • impact • consequences • chapter • equation • appropriate • resources • participation • survey • potential • cultural • transfer • select • credit • affect • categories • perceived • sought • focus • purchase • injury • site • journal • primary • complex • institute • investment • administration • maintenance • design • obtained • restricted • conduct •

Group 3

comments • convention • published • framework • implies • negative • dominant • illustrated • outcomes • constant • shift • deduction • ensure • specified • justification • funds • reliance • physical • partnership • location • link • coordination • alternative • initial • validity • task • techniques • excluded • consent • proportion • demonstrate • reaction • criteria • minorities • technology • philosophy • removed • sex • compensation • sequence • corresponding • maximum • circumstances • instance • considerable • sufficient • corporate • interaction • contribution • immigration • component • constraints • technical • emphasis • scheme • layer • volume • document • registered • core •

Group 4

overall • emerged • regime • implementation • project • hence • occupational • internal • goals • retained • sum • integration • mechanism • parallel • imposed • despite • job • parameters • approximate • label • concentration • principal • series • predicted • summary • attitudes • undertaken • cycle • communication • ethnic • hypothesis • professional • status • conference • attributed • annual • obvious • error • implications • apparent • commitment • subsequent • debate • dimensions • promote • statistics • option • domestic • output • access • code • investigation • phase • prior • granted • stress • civil • contrast • resolution • adequate

Group 5

alter • stability • energy • aware • licence • enforcement • draft • styles • precise • medical • pursue • symbolic • marginal • capacity • generation • exposure • decline • academic • modified • external • psychology • fundamental • adjustment • ratio • whereas • enable • version • perspective • contact • network • facilitate • welfare • transition • amendment • logic • rejected • expansion • clause • prime • target • objective • sustainable • equivalent • liberal • notion • substitution • generated • trend • revenue • compounds • evolution • conflict • image • discretion • entities • orientation • consultation • mental • monitoring • challenge •

Group 6

intelligence • transformation • presumption • acknowledged • utility • furthermore • accurate • diversity • attached • recovery • assigned • tapes • motivation • bond • edition • nevertheless • transport • cited • fees • scope • enhanced • incorporated • instructions • subsidiary • input • abstract • ministry • capable • expert • preceding • display • incentive • inhibition • trace • ignored • incidence • estate • cooperative • revealed • index • lecture • discrimination • overseas • explicit • aggregate • gender • underlying • brief • domain • rational • minimum • interval • neutral • migration • flexibility • federal • author • initiatives • allocation • exceed •

Group 7

intervention • confirmed • definite • classical • chemical • voluntary • release • visible • finite • publication • channel • file • thesis • equipment • disposal • solely • deny • identical • submitted • grade • phenomenon • paradigm • ultimately • extract • survive • converted • transmission • global • inferred • guarantee • advocate • dynamic • simulation • topic • insert • reverse • decades • comprise • hierarchical • unique • comprehensive • couple • mode • differentiation • eliminate • priority • empirical • ideology • somewhat • aid • foundation • adults • adaptation • quotation • contrary • media • successive • innovation • prohibited • isolated •

Group 8

highlighted • eventually • inspection • termination • displacement • arbitrary • reinforced • denote • offset • exploitation • detected • abandon • random • revision • virtually • uniform • predominantly • thereby • implicit • tension • ambiguous • vehicle • clarity • conformity • contemporary • automatically • accumulation • appendix • widespread • infrastructure • deviation • fluctuations • restore • guidelines • commodity • minimises • practitioners • radical • plus • visual • chart • appreciation • prospect • dramatic • contradiction • currency • inevitably • complement • accompany • paragraph • induced • schedule • intensity • crucial • via • exhibit • bias • manipulation • theme • nuclear •

Group 9

bulk • behalf • unified • commenced • erosion • anticipated • minimal • ceases • vision • mutual • norms • intermediate • manual • supplementary • incompatible • concurrent • ethical • preliminary • integral • conversely • relaxed • confined • accommodation • temporary • distorted • passive • subordinate • analogous • military • scenario • revolution • diminished • coherence • suspended • mature • assurance • rigid • controversy • sphere • mediation • format • trigger • qualitative • portion • medium • coincide • violation • device • insights • refine • devoted • team • overlap • attained • restraints • inherent • route • protocol • founded • duration •

Group 10

whereby • inclination • encountered • convinced • assembly • albeit • enormous • reluctant • posed • persistent • undergo • notwithstanding • straightforward • panel • odd • intrinsic • compiled • adjacent • integrity • forthcoming • conceived • ongoing • so-called • likewise • nonetheless • levy • invoked • colleagues • depression • collapse •

u-know-yunhos  asked:

i remember you said quite some time ago that you started liking homin before the split... why??:D

ajhdf jess hi! yes, i did! i was one of the very very very few ones that shipped homin (& jaemin) lmao

honestly speaking, no one paid homin attention (as a pairing) in the early days. i don’t mean in the shipping/romantic sense, but just, in general yknow? they had a rocky start - changmin, like a grandmother, has repeated his story of his first meeting with yunho 1000 times.

but let’s just think of them when they were all cute and young. yeah, they were both the oldest siblings. they knew how to take care of themselves. but yunho was always losing his closest friends, and changmin, with his shyness and all, was just a lost and confused kid trying to do his best in an industry. which was what made them a lovely pair, despite their little screen time due to their… boringness?? (for a lack of a better word).

despite yunho’s harshness, he was practically changmin’s role model. changmin, a kid, had no one to really look up to except his 4 hyungs, right? and out of that it was obvious he idolised yunho the most. i mean, cmon, he respected him so much (and therefore, was just as scared of him) that he didn’t tell yunho he ruined his stupid phone game until years later, on a tv show.

changmin, though he’s an equal now, was always a follower of yunho in the past - when he hadn’t grown into his own skin. and that’s where yunho became so significant in changmin’s life since the start. but honestly?? changmin was just as important to yunho. changmin allowed yunho to be assured that he was there to stay (not during the split, but when he first joined the company). despite his strict treatment towards changmin, changmin quietly worked hard to prove himself to yunho. i think, in a sense, he assured yunho that he was there for him yknow? that though many people left, he wasn’t going to.

in the past, i think, yunho was the first one to treat him as an equal. while jaejoong, junsu and yoochun all treated changmin like a maknae, yunho understood that changmin was the responsible one at home. he was the one to take changmin’s ideas and thoughts seriously, which in turn also made changmin more comfortable. i think changmin helped yunho a lot in the responsibility area when he was leading all 5, especially when he reached his twenties.

homin had a lot of quiet moments in the past. softly talking in the background, or laughing over small matters. if you watch their couple talk, they have a very sensible talk laughing over small matters. i think they were the calm pairing yknow? the kind of pairing where one party wants to listen to all the boring ass details of the other’s life because they love them (once again, not necessarily in a romantic sense).

The Centenary of the Apparitions of Our Lady of Fatima – Our Lady of the Holy Rosary – 13 May 2017

Our Lady of Fátima (Portuguese: Nossa Senhora de Fátima, formally known as Our Lady of the Holy Rosary of Fátima Nossa Senhora do Rosário de Fátima European Portuguese of the famed Marian apparitions reported in 1917 by three shepherd children at the Cova da Iria, in Fátima, Portugal.    The three children were Lúcia Santos and her cousins Jacinta and Francisco Marto.

Beginning in the spring of 1917, the children reported apparitions of an Angel and starting in May of 1917, apparitions of the Virgin Mary.    The children reported a prophecy that prayer would lead to an end to the Great War and a prophecy that a miracle would occur on 13 October  of that year.    Many pilgrims began visiting the area in response to the prophecies.    The events of 13 October became known as the Miracle of the Sun.

On 13 May 1946, Pope Pius XII granted a canonical coronation to the venerated image enshrined at the Chapel of the Apparitions of Fátima via his apostolic legate, Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella.    On 11 November 1954, the same Pontiff later raised the Sanctuary of Fátima to the status of Minor Basilica by his Papal brief Luce Superna.

The reported apparitions at Fátima were officially declared worthy of belief by the Catholic Church, which commemorates the event on the same date.    The published memoirs of Lúcia Santos’ in the 1930s revealed two secrets that she claimed came from the Virgin while the third secret was to be revealed by the Catholic Church in 1960.    The controversial events at Fátima gained fame due partly to elements of the secrets, prophecy and eschatological revelations allegedly related to the Second World War and possibly more global wars in the future, particularly the Virgin’s alleged request for the Consecration of Russia to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

Our Lady of Fatima
The famous apparitions of the Virgin Mary to the children of Fatima took place during the First World War, in the summer of 1917.    The inhabitants of this tiny village in the diocese of Leiria (Portugal) were mostly poor people, many of them small farmers who went out by day to tend their fields and animals.    Children traditionally were assigned the task of herding the sheep.

The three children who received the apparitions had been brought up in an atmosphere of genuine piety:   Lucia dos Santos (ten years old) and her two younger cousins, Francisco and Jacinta.    Together they tended the sheep and, with Lucy in charge, would often pray the Rosary kneeling in the open.    In the summer of 1916 an Angel appeared to them several times and taught them a prayer to the Blessed Trinity.

On Sunday, May 13, 1917, toward noon, a flash of lightning drew the attention of the children and they saw a brilliant figure appearing over the trees of the Cova da Iria.    The “Lady” asked them to pray for the conversion of sinners and an end to the war, and to come back every month, on the 13th.

Further apparitions took place on June 13 and July 13.    On August 13 the children were prevented by local authorities from going to the Cova da Iria but they saw the apparition on the 19th.    On September 13 the Lady requested recitation of the Rosary for an end to the war.    Finally, on October 13, the “Lady” identified herself as “Our Lady of the Rosary” and again called for prayer and penitence.

On that day a celestial phenomenon also took place: the sun seemed to tumble from the sky and crash toward earth.    The children had been forewarned of it as early as May 13, the first apparition.   The large crowd (estimated at 70,000 by reporters) that had gathered around the children saw the phenomenon and came away astounded.

Official recognition of the “visions” which the children had at the Cova da Iria came on October 13, 1930, when the bishop of Leiria – after long inquiry – authorized the cult of Our Lady of the Rosary at the site.    The two younger children had died:   Francisco (who saw the apparition but did not hear the words) on April 4, 1919, and his sister Jacinta on February 20, 1920. Sister Lucia died on February 13, 2005, at her Carmelite convent in Coimbra, Portugal, after a long illness.

Today 13 May 2017 – the two – Francisco and Jacinta become Saints!

ELI5: why do you see weird patterns when you close your eyes and apply pressure onto them?

This phenomenon is called phosphene.

When light hits the cells in the eye, these cells send a signal to the brain to give an image of what is seen. These cells are called photoreceptor cells, and their main means of activation is when a photon of light hits them. Another way to activate them is via mechanical stimulation (aka applying pressure to they eyes). When you apply mechanical stimulation, the subsequent activation of the cells will be random (not patterned), and when this signal is transmitted to the brain areas that are responsible for generating an image, you will see weird patterns instead of the normal images that would be generated by photon-induced stimulation.

Explain Like I`m Five: good questions, best answers.

Warrior Wednesday: Lance Cpl. Andrew Englund, a radio operator from Kilo Company, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment, patrols through the Nawa District bazaar after conducting a security sweep at Khalaj High School in Nawa, Afghanistan, Sept. 7, 2010. The school year began Sept. 5, and the Marines and their Afghan counterparts throughout 3rd Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment’s tactical area of responsibility have provided security in Nawa District’s schools each day.

Last week, the so-called Metropolitan Bill passed the Polish parliament enabling municipalities in Upper Silesian conurbation to create a body that would help to govern this extensive area, inhabited by 2.3 million people. The new, official Metropolitan Area will be responsible for organising public transit, developing zoning regulations and other, inter-city tasks. 

I have created a map showing this area, that along with other maps on demographics and economy will create an article on 

The Fear of Forgetting - Chapter 2

The task of cleaning the mess completed downstairs, it was time to get the once derailed morning underway. A very focused Faith stood facing her open armoire in a clean shift rhythmically tapping her feet on the wooden floor. She ran her hands over the folded fabrics, concentrating on selecting the right one. Her deft fingers searched the necklines for the stitched letters her mother and aunt had meticulously sewn into them to spell out the color for her. The texture of the cloth was also an invaluable clue to her - if it was smooth, light, and delicate it was silk, good for Lallybroch’s formal occasions. Prickly, rough, and weighted meant wool - her beloved forbidden Fraser arisaid with stag brooch that kept out the cold, or her favorite autumnal skirt with rose applique. What she needed now, though, was one of her simple linen dresses, an apron, as well as her shawl for the busy day ahead. The one marked blue would be the right choice, she surmised considering what lay before her. Mam had promised, after their earlier argument, to take some time out of her schedule for a long overdue discussion.

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anonymous asked:

Dude, I'm in this field too and come on, don't pretend like someone needs a degree to check off boxes on a symptoms list and add them up to see if it meets the DSM's minimum to be diagnosed. I mean hell, we're millennials. We have grown up in hell being raised by broken, miserable people. Mental illness is at an all time high. How likely do you really think it is that they're wrong? Your optimism is gonna get people killed. If they think they're mentally ill they probably are.

I strongly disagree. To me, that is like saying someone who is intelligent is also wise - wisdom requires experience. Most people’s level of self-awareness is extremely jaded and influenced by their desire (and not always accurate attempt) to understand themselves, which means it’s subject to personal bias. It’s easy to say ‘I feel sad’, ‘I’m anxious’, ‘I don’t relate to other people’, but everyone feels that way sometimes. Does it mean that your feelings don’t matter? No. That you aren’t important or unique? No. It just means that you don’t necessarily have a mental illness, and that’s totally cool. In fact, it’s preferable (imo - given that I have a diagnosis of a mental illness based in genetics and it sucks?)

It’s all on a scale of what is considered deviant from the norm. Personality disorders are just amplified and exaggerated characteristics of a ‘normal’ personality, so it is not at all uncommon for people to exhibit one or more of the symptoms of a personality disorder and be completely fully functional and not actually have a personality disorder. Does that mean every single person that thinks they might have a personality disorder prior to diagnosis absolutely doesn’t have one? Obviously not, but it also does not mean that your personal perception of who you are correlates directly to whatever you’re reading in the DSM (or less reliable sources). You might think you’re acting irrationally, but if you can recognize and acknowledge it, you’re probably doing better than many people who actually have been diagnosed.

People are even misdiagnosed by medical professionals? It’s not a simple as a checklist, and it shouldn’t be, that’s my point. I’m not buying into the idea that there’s something wrong with every single person that was born after 1980 and they should all be on medicine and see a therapist? We’ve “grown up in hell, raised by broken and miserable people”? Do you think people weren’t broken and miserable before now? You realize that being raised in hell by broken and miserable people doesn’t necessarily mean you have a mental illness, any more than being raised in heaven, by rich and happy people (although, they certainly have more access to treatment, for sure) means that you won’t? Mental illness can come from anywhere, it does not have a preference, it does not just single out the ‘weak’.

If you think kids should be allowed to diagnose themselves, you better find a new line of work because they’ll put you out of a job quickly. Being a teenager is about finding yourself, exploring options and emotions, finding things that you feel passionate about. They don’t diagnose teenagers with mental illnesses very often (as they shouldn’t) because it is ‘normal’ for them to be emotionally turbulent, to change interests and friends often, to feel anxious and even obsessive about their relationships with their peers. They’ve got to figure out who they are before a doctor can tell them that it’s ‘abnormal’ to be whatever they’ve become.

I have to say that my only exceptions to this would be if somebody has extreme difficulty with socialisation or anything like that, preventing them from functioning on a daily basis with the rest of society, or if mental illness is a prominent part of that person’s genetic code and may be a precursor to a mental illness, then of course, be mindful of the signs. If you’re on the outside - that means pay attention, be engaging. That doesn’t mean slap a label on them?

Otherwise, I don’t really care if you don’t agree with my opinion on self-diagnosis. It is just an opinion, but it is something I feel strongly about and it is based heavily on the fact that the prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain responsible for long-term planning, reasoning, and personality development, is not fully developed in most people until the age of 25. Teenagers tend to rely on their amygdala, powered by aggression, emotion, and instincts rather than rational, logical, well-developed thought. I very rarely see adults self-diagnose, probably for this reason, and that is why I’ve singled out younger people.

Tour Diary: The 1975 in Allen (15.4.17)

A ridiculously long post documenting my experience seeing this band again. It took place at the Allen Event Center, with the openers Colouring and Pale Waves. This is the first show on their last US tour before breaking for album three, and I think it was the best show I’ve been to yet. 

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