arctic desert

anonymous asked:

Hi Blue!! I saw in the other ask you said something about a planet's orbit affacting the seasons? Could u explain?

Yes! What an excellent question. To have a little explanation of gravity and how you can use it in your stories, go here.

Planetary Seasons

A planet’s year is the time it takes for the planet to complete one orbit around the sun. Scientifically speaking, we call this a planet’s revolution period. The most obvious effect this has on a planet is it’s seasons. Seasons occur because a planet’s axis is generally tilted in respect to the plane of it’s orbit. For Earth, this tilt (or obliquity, scientifically speaking) is about 23.5°. Over the course of a year, each hemisphere is tilted alternately toward and away from the sun. During winter, when that hemisphere is tipped away from the sun, solar heating is less effective for two reasons: sunlight is hitting the earth at a shallower angle, and the days are shorter so the sun doesn’t shine as long. The opposite happens in the summer.

On a planet, the intensity of the seasons depends on the latitude, or the angular distance of a position on the planet north or south of the equator. On Earth, the conditions at the equator hardly change over the year, whereas the poles go from uninterrupted daylight to uninterrupted night. But even in temperate latitudes, the effects are not unnoticeable. At 40°N, for example, which is the latitude of Lisbon, San Francisco, Istanbul, and Beijing, the total heating on the summer solstice (the longest day of the year, somewhere between June 20-22) is three to four times as much as on the winter solstice. 

We use the obliquity and latitude to determine climatic zones. The Arctic and Antarctic circles, which define Earth’s polar regions, are 23.5° from the poles, a distance set by the 23.5° tilt of the axis. These circles are simply the outermost limit at which the sun does not rise or set on at least one day of the year. Similarly, the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, which are 23.5° from the equator, mark the latitudes farthest from the equator where the sun will be directly overhead on at least one day out of the year. This region is defined as the tropics, or “torrid zone” where the seasons are barely noticeable. Anywhere between these two extremes, we call the temperate zones.

Applying This To Science Fiction

The intensity of the seasons is set by the amount of axial tilt. From this we can deduce that seasons themselves are not inevitable. If a planet’s axis were upright, seasons wouldn’t even occur, and differences in the year and placement of the planet in it’s orbit would only be noticeable by the changing patterns of the constellations in the night sky. A small tilt (or no tilt) like in this example would have some subtle implications. For example, much of the water supply in Earthen temperate climates comes from snowmelt. If there’s no winter, there will be no snow, and this means deserts are likely to be more widespread. Because the poles would always receive minuscule amounts of heating, the climate zones would be much more extreme. Some tilt, like Earth’s moderate 23.5°, helps even out the heating over the whole planet. For a planet to receive a completely even heating for both the poles and the equator over the course of a year the value of the tilt would have to be ~54°.

But having a greater value obliquity would cause extreme seasons, and this would lead to extreme climate. For a planet with a tilt of 90°–which would mean lying on it’s side, much like Uranus–the Arctic and Antarctic circles  would coincide with the equator, meaning there would be neither tropical or temperate zones. Seasons would be extreme indeed: for over nearly half the planet, the sun would never set during the summer, and never rise during the winter. Only during spring and fall, when the sun would shine on the planet’s side, would the sun rise and set like we’re used to on Earth. 

What would this mean for my characters?

Well, such an extreme tilt could cause any intelligent species to migrate, in order to stay in more habitable regions. Such consistent mass migration would be a significant part of culture: everything would need to be mobile. This could also cause tensions between groups of people as they try to find space to settle or run into each other while migrating. A culture that depends solely on this nomadic lifestyle could be interesting to explore, and for a real-world comparison I would study the culture of the Mongols.

Otherwise, if migration wasn’t a culture norm for the citizens of your planet, then they would have to be prepared to survive in extreme heat and desert-like conditions, followed by a moderate time, followed by intense and everlasting winter and night. Challenges would include shelter and survival (a species that could survive both desert and arctic climates would be incredibly interesting to develop) and a food source. For humans to live on such a planet would require an abundance of technological advances that you would be free to create for yourself in the realms of your story!

Other Ways to Have Seasons

Believe it or not, axial tilt is not the only way to have seasons! According to Kepler’s Laws, planets travel in an elliptical orbit, which means it does not have to be perfectly circular. If a planet had an elliptical orbit, it would mean that the seasons were caused by differences in distances to the sun! What makes this interesting, is that a planet would experience the whole season at a same time. Which would make it more similar to ice ages and then moderate summers (think Game of Thrones, here). So the planet would have similar day/night cycles like Earth but much more extreme, and maybe even longer seasons depending on the severity of the ellipse. 


Thanks for asking this question! I had such a fun time answering this. I love answering space questions. Also, tag me or send me links to your stories and fics so I can check out your science fiction in progress. 

love Blue

Zootopia, 2016

In celebration of Zootopia passing $1 Billion at the box office and being released on Bluray today!

I’d like to think Zootopia would make for a great world in Kingdom Hearts! They’ve already acknowledged the movie in KHX, and while that isn’t necessarily a world confirmation it makes me optimistic to think the team at Square has looked into the series already. Zootopia would be pretty different from other worlds because of how varied the setting is, going between the arctic, desert, rain forest and the big city all in one location. How cool would it be to explore areas only touched on in the movie? Also, it would be the only world where Sora would have to change into a different form but Donald and Goofy could stay as they are.

I’m fairly sure world-specific party members are confirmed for KH3 and I’d hope to see Nick and Judy as alts for a Zootopia world. Partially because they could easily be a unit like the Ice Climbers in Super Smash Bros, and partially because I really want to see Nick fight with a popsicle like he does in Disney Infinity, because that was easily one of the best creative choices that game made!

So where are our favorite officer and key-bearer? They’re pursuit of something across that bridge… with any luck we’ll catch up to them soon!

Through time and space (part 3)

Part one, part two

→ → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ←
“Right then, Rose Tyler and Y/N Winchester, you tell me. Where do you want to go? Backwards or forwards in time. It’s your choice. What’s it going to be?” The Doctor says with a cocky smirk.

“Forwards.” Both you and Rose reply. The Doctor then asks how far forward and Rose goes with 100 years.

“Come on Rose, be a little more adventurous.” You tease. “I say a thousand years into the future.” The Doctor takes you 10,000 years in the future just to show off. You and Rose aren’t buying it.

“Right then, you asked for it. I know exactly where to go. Hold on!” The Doctor says messing with a few controls. When outside of the TARDIS you notice that you’re not on earth- but above it. A small smile forms on your face. “You lot, you spend all your time thinking about dying, like you’re going to get killed by eggs or beef or global warming or asteroids. But you never take time to imagine the impossible, that maybe you survive. This is the year five point five slash apple slash twenty six. Five billion years in your future, and this is the day…” The Doctor checks his watch as the sun flares and turns red. “This is the day the Sun expands. Welcome to the end of the world.”

“No way.” You say trying really hard not to sound shocked. The Doctor laughs and tells the two of you that the three of you should make way to wherever the other guests are.

On the way there, the Doctor gives you some details about what is going on at the moment. The steward stops the three of you, he’s suspicious- also blue. “But how did you get in? This is a maximum hospitality zone. The guests have disembarked. They’re on their way any second now.” The steward points out. The doctor pulls out a piece of blank paper and shows it to the steward.

“That’s me. I’m a guest. Look, I’ve got an invitation. Look. There, you see? It’s fine, you see? The Doctor plus two. I’m the Doctor, this is Rose Tyler and Y/N Winchester. They’re my plus one and two. Is that all right?”

“Well, obviously. Apologies, et cetera. If you’re on board, we’d better start. Enjoy.”

“What was that?” You ask in a soft tone of voice.

“The paper’s slightly psychic. It shows them whatever I want them to see. Saves a lot of time.” The Doctor answers.

“That’s one of the most ingenious things I’ve heard of.”

“We have in attendance the Doctor, Rose Tyler and Y/N Winchester. Thank you. All staff to their positions.” The steward says interrupting the conversation between you and the time lord. The staff quickly gets into position. “Hurry, now, thank you. Quick as we can. Come along, come along. And now, might I introduce the next honoured guest? Representing the Forest of Cheam, we have trees, namely, Jabe, Lute and Coffa.” You weren’t expecting actual walking and talking trees, you’re a little surprised to say in the least.

The steward then announces the other guests, which you tune out because you’re thinking about Sam and Katie, and how much they would enjoy this. You pull yourself out of your thoughts before you go in to deep. “The Gift of Peace. I bring you a cutting of my Grandfather.” One of the trees say. She offers the three of you a potted twig. The Doctor pats his pockets looking for a gift, he can’t find one.

“Thank you. Yes, gifts. Er, I give you in return air from my lungs.” He says before gently breathing on them. He does this for all the guests, guess it works as a gift… the steward then introduces the last guest: the last Human. The Lady Cassandra O'Brien Dot Delta Seventeen.

“That is a mouthful.” You whisper in Rose’s ear. She smiles in response. Now you and Rose were expecting an actual human with limbs and things like that, not a trampoline of skin with a face on it.

“Oh, now, don’t stare. I know, I know it’s shocking, isn’t it? I’ve had my chin completely taken away and look at the difference. Look how thin I am. Thin and dainty. I don’t look a day over two thousand. Moisturise me. Moisturise me.” Cassandra says to everyone else before talking to her attendants. One of them sprays some form of liquid on her. “Truly, I am the last Human. My father was a Texan, my mother was from the Arctic Desert. They were born on the Earth and were the last to be buried in its soil. I have come to honour them and say goodbye. Oh, no tears, no tears. I’m sorry. But behold, I bring gifts. From Earth itself, the last remaining ostrich egg. Legend says it had a wingspan of fifty feet and blew fire from its nostrils. Or was that my third husband? Oh, no. Oh, don’t laugh. I’ll get laughter lines. And here, another rarity.” The other gift is a jukebox. “According to the archives, this was called an iPod. It stores classical music from humanity’s greatest composers. Play on!” You have to hold back your laughter when the trampoline woman calls a jukebox an iPod- there is a huge difference between the two.
🐝 🐝 🐝 🐝 🐝
You and Rose walk the ship together, but the two of you are unsure if you’re allowed where you happen to be. “Sorry. Are we allowed to be in here?” Rose asks the woman in overalls and a baseball cap.

“You have to give us permission to talk.” She answers. Rose looks a bit uncomfortable as well as confused.

“Er, you have permission.” The woman in overalls smiles ever so slightly.

“Thank you. And, no, you’re not in the way. Guests are allowed anywhere.”

“Okay.” Rose still looks uncertain about what is going on.

“What’s your name anyways?” You ask.

“Ruffalo.” The woman you’re guessing is some sort of maintenance answers.

“That’s an interesting name.” Ruffalo looks a little embarrassed. You then smile. “Its also fun to say. Ruffalo.”

“I won’t be long, I’ve just got to carry out some maintenance. There’s a tiny little glitch in the Face of Boe’s suite. There must be something blocking the system. He’s not getting any hot water.”

“You’re a plumber?” Rose asks in response.

“That’s right, miss.”

“They still have plumbers?”

“I hope so, else I’m out of a job.” Ruffalo says with a slight smile. You, Rose and Ruffalo talk for a little bit. You and Rose allow Ruffalo to go back to what she was originally doing.
🐝 🐝 🐝 🐝 🐝
The Doctor does something to Rose’s and your phones, now they can call or text from anywhere in time or space. Rose calls her mom to test it. You on the other hand send a text to Sherlock and John. “If you think that is amazing you should see the bill.” The Doctor says with a smile. You chuckle in response. Suddenly the ship shakes like an earthquake is happening. “That shouldn’t happen.”

“What was that?” You ask.

“Whatever it was it wasn’t a gravity pocket.” The Doctor then talks to the tree woman and she calls you and Rose the Doctor’s wives amongst a few other things that is a little awkward.

You and Rose walk towards Cassandra, only you veer left towards the jukebox. You then start messing with it seeing what songs are on that thing, you find songs you know and somehow get the jukebox working- you had to kind of hot wire it and insert a coin for it to work. Yellow Submarine by the Beatles starts to play. “I haven’t heard this song in many millennium.” The Face of Boe says startling you.

“Face of Boe, you frightened me.” You reply.

“Apologies Y/N.” The way how he talks is as if he knows you. You figure that he knew you five billion years ago if that was even possible. You and the Face of Boe talk for awhile, Rose throws you the occasional glance but doesn’t say anything. For the first time since she’s known you, your guard is down and you’re not looking over your shoulder every ten minutes. You sway in time to the music playing, occasionally singing along. Metaphorically speaking you’re letting your hair down just this once.
🐝 🐝 🐝 🐝 🐝
Someone has planted robotic spiders on the ship to sabotage the systems and pretty much kill everyone, and the person responsible for the sabotages is Lady Cassandra. “I bet you were the school swot and never got kissed. At arms!” Cassandra commands. Her attendants raise their guns.

“What are you going to do, moisturise me?” The Doctor asks with an incredible amount of sass in his voice. You hide a smile behind your hand. You were going to say something to Rose about it but she’s nowhere to be found currently.

“With acid. Oh, you’re too late, anyway. My spiders have control of the mainframe. Oh, you all carried them as gifts, tax free, past every code wall. I’m not just as pretty face.” You make a mental note to never trust a talking trampoline.

“Sabotaging a ship while you’re still inside it? How stupid is that?”  

“I’d hoped to manufacture a hostage situation with myself as one of the victims. The compensation would have been enormous.”

“Five billion years and it still comes down to money.”

“Do you think it’s cheap, looking like this? Flatness costs a fortune. I am the last human, Doctor. Me. Not that freaky little kid of yours.”

“Hate to ask this but who are you referring to as the freaky kid? Me or Rose- both of us came with the Doctor.” You point out. Cassandra makes no comment in response.
🐝 🐝 🐝 🐝 🐝
After everything it’s just you, Rose and the Doctor once again. The Doctor takes you and Rose back to your original time, and he tells the two of you that he is the last of his kind. His planet was destroyed in a war. The two of you tell him that he has the two of you.

Rose and the Doctor goes one way to get chips. You on the other hand returned to Baker street. You had enough adventures for one day. You head up the stairs. “There you are Y/N I was wondering where you disappeared to.” John says with a smile.

“Are you going to tell us what you were going to say before you left?” Sherlock asks setting down his violin.

“Right I mentioned that. Where do you want me to start?”

“Preferably from the beginning.”

‘Fair, you better not tune me out or tell anyone. If you do I might shoot you.“
🐝 🐝 🐝 🐝 🐝
Your mom was a hunter and she did a lot of hunting with your dad, but she never told him that she made a deal with a demon and her time was almost up. When you were born your mom only had three years and a half years left.

“John I need you to come get Y/N.” Your mom said into the phone one day. You didn’t hear what your dad said in response. “I see… please hurry though.”

“Mommy, what’s going on?” You asked looking at your mother with large innocent eyes. Your mom didn’t have the heart to tell you that she was about to get ripped apart by a hellhound.

“Nothing sweetheart, but will you do me a favor… I want you to clean up your room a bit.” You nod slightly as your mom tucks a strand of hair behind your ear. “Whatever happens, just know I love you and I’ll always think about you.” You didn’t understand that your mom was saying her goodbyes to you, you thought that she was meaning something else.

You pick up your toys and things like that you come out of your room to tell your mom you were done- instead you find blood everywhere and your mother’s body torn to shreds.

You were alone for three long hours, scared out of your wits. “(Mom’s name)? Y/N?” Your dad asks when he gets there and inside. Katie was the one that found you, trembling as well as crying your eyes out. Because your tears clouded up your vision you didn’t recognize your sister, if anything she scared you more than you already were.

“(Nickname), it’s okay… I’m not going to hurt you.” Katie said trying to comfort you, without a lot of success. The boys had a little more experience comforting a scared toddler under their belts, Dean especially. She got up and walked away from you towards Dean. “Hey Dean, need your help… I think I accidentally made Y/N more scared then she originally was.” Katie then lead Dean to where you were. You had calmed down enough that you could at least see.

“Katie, how about you go help Dad and Sammy. I’ll get Y/N.” Dean said. Katie nodded and then took her leave. “Baby bug… you can come out now.” Your brother said coaxingly. You gave no form of verbal response, mainly because you had your thumb in you mouth. You did however shuffle forward a little bit. Eventually Dean gets you to come out of your hiding spot. He then picked you up and set you on his hip before carrying you to your room. He sets you down and takes off the backpack he was wearing and tells you to grab some of your favorite things and put them in the bag. Instead you grabbed a different bag that looked pretty heavy for a toddler and held it out to Dean. “That isn’t what I asked you to do.” Your brother says slightly annoyed as well as confused. In an almost inaudible voice you told your brother that your mom already put a bag together for you, you just needed to grab your stuffed animal friend and your blanket. “Grab them for me?” You nodded and grabbed your stuffed animal, your pillow and your blanket off your bed.

On the way out to the car you fell asleep against Dean’s shoulder clutching your stuffed animal friend to your chest. Your pillow and blanket are safely stowed in the backpack. “Got everything?” Your dad asked.

“(Mom’s name) had already packed most of Y/N’s things… as if she knew that this would happen.” Dean explained.

“She probably did… I mean she was a hunter after all.”
-End of flashback-
🐝 🐝 🐝 🐝 🐝
“Six years later I first learned how to use a gun, and how to do stitches.” You say coming to an end of your explanation. “Started actually hunting when I was about eleven or twelve years old… I left hunting and came here after a bad argument with my dad, and I think you know the rest.”

“That explains why you were worried about Rose. You thought the doctor was a shape shifter.” Sherlock points out.


“What happened to your mother’s body?”

“Dad and my brothers gave my mom a hunter’s funeral, so basically she was cremated.” Surprisingly it isn’t Sherlock that tries to tell you the supernatural doesn’t exist- it’s John.

“There’s no way in hell, that can be true.” John states folding his arms.

“Believe what you will, but I am telling the truth. Humans aren’t the only monsters in this world.” You answer rather calmly. “Now if you excuse me I have to go explain to my sister why I sent her a picture of a bitchy trampoline.”

“A what now?”

“You heard me just fine John, I don’t need to say it again.”

“I’m wondering what you mean by bitchy trampoline.” John clarifies. You pull out your phone and look through your pictures and find the picture of Lady Cassandra that you took. And hand your phone to John.

“That’s what I mean by bitchy trampoline… she’s one of the people I met on my most recent adventure with Rose and the Doctor.” John accidentally scrolls to the next picture: the Doctor throwing you an ‘are you kidding me’ look. “That’s the Doctor. I made him look at me when I took that hence the ‘are you kidding me’ look.” You then take your phone back and walk to your room about to troll your brother and sister.

← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → →






Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) is one of the most common owls in the Americas. They are highly adaptable hunters that are able to thrive in environments ranging from arctic tundra to harsh desert and are only absent in the Amazon rain-forest and southern part of South America. Great Horned Owls are one of the few predators that regularly feed on skunks and were described by early naturalists as “Tigers of the Sky”.

My list of musicians that I think are great:
  • Alt-J
  • Arcade Fire
  • Arctic Monkeys
  • Black Lips
  • Bloc Party
  • Cage The Elephant
  • Cat Power
  • Crystal Castles
  • David Bowie
  • Deftones
  • Desert Sessions
  • Far
  • Fleetwood Mac
  • Gang of Four
  • Incubus
  • Joy Division
  • Kaki King
  • Kansas
  • King Crimson
  • King Krule
  • Kings of Leon
  • Led Zeppelin
  • Modest Mouse
  • My Bloody Valentine
  • Neutral Milk Hotel
  • Nick Drake
  • Nico
  • Nine Inch Nails
  • Nirvana
  • Pinback
  • Pixies
  • PJ Harvey
  • Placebo
  • Porcupine Tree
  • Puscifer
  • Queens of the Stone Age
  • Radiohead
  • Siouxsie and the Banshees
  • Sonic Youth
  • Tame Impala
  • The Cure
  • The Mars Volta
  • The Smashing Pumpkins
  • The Smiths
  • The Stooges
  • The Strokes 
  • The Velvet Underground
  • Tool
  • Tupac
  • Tyler, the Creator
  • Villagers
  • Warpaint
  • Wilco
  • Yeah Yeah Yeahs

We have a new free exhibit open! 

“Wish You Were Here…“ : Travels Around the World is an exciting exhibit where you can discover exotic destinations through our travel literature! From the snows of the Arctic to the deserts of Arabia, you can sail the seas or traverse new lands. Begin your summer adventures with us! 

Our new summer hours are Monday-Friday 8:00AM-4:30PM and by appointment. Contact us for more information or check out our website for more information about the collection!

Prompt: @my-amazing-nerdyness has requested a Part 2 of “Imagine Being Stranded with Bones and Kirk.” So, naturally, I had to oblige.

Word Count: 2,431

Author’s Note: It was fun revisiting this story after I’ve written so much in between. I hope you all enjoy the exciting conclusion to our thief’s story! Part 1 here.

Keep reading

Part 1, Chapter 10: Thistle

Near the Nevada border, I pulled the truck to the side of the road, cut the engine left the AC on. It is so hot here! Opening the window feels like opening an oven to see if it’s ready for bread – how it feels like you’ve been slapped in the face? Like that. You know, Alice.

I’m staring at my hands. They’re just my hands, like I’ve always had, but…also there is something of Heaven to them, because not that long ago they were touching your hands. How could they be ordinary hands and also hold that memory at the same time? Doesn’t make sense.

I can’t drive while I tell this. Too much to say. I’m going to tell it all Alice. Even the parts you know. I’m going to describe the shape of the monster that is devouring me.

And then I’m going to start this engine, and leave that monster behind.

Keep reading

“In recent years I have devoted myself to the problem of the wireless transmission of power. Power can be, and at no distant date will be, transmitted without wires, for all commercial uses, such as the lighting of homes and the driving of aeroplanes. I have discovered the essential principles, and it only remains to develop them commercially. When this is done, you will be able to go anywhere in the world — to the mountain top overlooking your farm, to the arctic, or to the desert — and set up a little equipment that will give you heat to cook with, and light to read by. This equipment will be carried in a satchel not as big as the ordinary suit case. In years to come wireless lights will be as common on the farms as ordinary electric lights are nowadays in our cities.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Making Your Imagination Work for You.” The American Magazine, April 1921.


Photographs from The North American Indian, a 20-volume work published between 1907 and 1930, filled with over 1,500 photographs as well as records of tribal lore and history, biographical sketches, and descriptions of traditional foods, housing, clothing, ceremonies, and customs. American photographer Edward S. Curtis wanted to capture all he could before it vanished. The pictures cover almost all of the USA, even the ice along the Arctic Ocean and the desert border with Mexico. While painting an idealized picture, Curtis’ images also contrasted with the public’s perception of Native Americans as impediments to be moved off useful land.