Sauria is the crown-group of Diapsida and is subdivided into Lepidosauromorpha and Archosauromorpha, comprising a high percentage of the diversity of living and fossil tetrapods. The split between lepidosauromorphs and archosauromorphs (the crocodile-lizard, or bird-lizard, divergence) is considered one of the key calibration points for molecular analyses of tetrapod phylogeny. Saurians have a very rich Mesozoic and Cenozoic fossil record, but their late Paleozoic (Permian) record is problematic. Several Permian specimens have been referred to Sauria, but the phylogenetic affinity of some of these records remains questionable. We reexamine and review all of these specimens here, providing new data on early saurian evolution including osteohistology, and present a new morphological phylogenetic dataset. We support previous studies that find that no valid Permian record for Lepidosauromorpha, and we also reject some of the previous referrals of Permian specimens to Archosauromorpha. The most informative Permian archosauromorph is Protorosaurus speneri from the middle Late Permian of Western Europe. A historically problematic specimen from the Late Permian of Tanzania is redescribed and reidentified as a new genus and species of basal archosauromorph: Aenigmastropheus parringtoni. The supposed protorosaur Eorasaurus olsonifrom the Late Permian of Russia is recovered among Archosauriformes and may be the oldest known member of the group but the phylogenetic support for this position is low. The assignment of Archosaurus rossicus from the latest Permian of Russia to the archosauromorph clade Proterosuchidae is supported. Our revision suggests a minimum fossil calibration date for the crocodile-lizard split of 254.7 Ma. The occurrences of basal archosauromorphs in the northern (30°N) and southern (55°S) parts of Pangea imply a wider paleobiogeographic distribution for the group during the Late Permian than previously appreciated. Early archosauromorph growth strategies appear to be more diverse than previously suggested based on new data on the osteohistology of Aenigmastropheus.

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tag: karengillian - I am not your bitch - I am your mother, dawnsblade, vivalawinchester, dearclarence, radioactinc, imbeingfollowedactnormal, thatjjbrony, archosauromorph

The Agua de la Peña Group of the Ischigualasto−Villa Unión Basin (northwestern Argentina) documents the evolution of archosauromorph assemblages in western Gondwana during the late Middle and Late Triassic. However, the South American archosauromorph record in the aftermath of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction (Early−early Middle Triassic) is remarkably scarce and restricted to isolated bones. Here, we describe a recently collected isolated second sacral vertebra and rib that represents one of the few fossils known from the Lower−Middle Triassic Tarjados Formation, the unit that underlies the Agua de la Peña Group. This specimen is identified as an archosauromorph because of the presence of a non-notochordal vertebra and a bifurcated distal end of the second sacral rib. A quantitative phylogenetic analysis places the new specimen as an archosauromorph more derived than protorosaurs. In particular, this specimen resembles Pamelaria, Prolacerta and early rhynchosaurs in the presence of a squared posterior projection of the bifurcated second sacral rib. The new specimen represents the first body fossil of a diapsid formally described in the Tarjados Formation and the oldest member of the group in the Ischigualasto−Villa Unión Basin. As a result, this specimen increases the high-level taxonomic richness of Archosauromorpha in South America in the aftermath of the Permo−Triassic mass extinction.

An unusual tetrapod tooth was discovered in the Late Triassic Chinle Formation of southeastern Utah. The tooth was originally thought to belong to Revueltosaurus but further investigations have rejected that hypothesis. In this paper we compare MNA V10668 to other known fossil teeth found in the Chinle Formation and identify the least inclusive clade it may belongs to. Using data found in other publications and pictures of other teeth, we compare this specimen to other Triassic dental taxa. MNA V10668 shares some similarities with Crosbysaurus, Tecovasaurus, and several other named taxa but possesses unique characteristics not found in other diapsid teeth. We conclude that it is most likely an archosauromorph and probably an archosauriform. This increases the known diversity of tetrapods from the Chinle Formation and represents the first tooth morphotype completely unique to Utah in the Late Triassic Period.