archbishops of canterbury


The second born child and only daughter of Their Royal Highnesses The Duke & Duchess of Cambridge was born on May 2, 2015 at 8:34am BST at Lindo Wing of St. Mary’s Hospital weighing 8lbs 3oz. Her Royal Highness is fourth-in-line to the throne; and on May 4, 2015, it was announced that the new Princess would be named HRH Princess Charlotte Elizabeth Diana of Cambridge. Princess Charlotte was christened at St. Mary Magdalene Church by the Archbishop of Canterbury on July 5, 2015.

Happy 2nd Birthday, HRH Princess Charlotte Elizabeth Diana of Cambridge!
ISIS Claims 2 Deadly Explosions at Egyptian Coptic Churches on Palm Sunday
The bombings, which killed at least 40 people and injured dozens of others, happened weeks before Pope Francis was to visit Egypt
By Magdy Samaan and Declan Walsh

Two explosions at Coptic churches in Egypt on Palm Sunday left at least 40 people dead and injured dozens of others as a day of worship in the besieged Christian community turned to destruction and carnage.

The first blast ripped through St. George’s Church in northern Egypt in the Nile Delta city of Tanta, 50 miles north of Cairo, during a Mass about 9:30 a.m., according to an official from the Health Ministry. The deputy minister of health put the death toll at 27.

Hours later, a suicide bomber set off an explosion outside the main Coptic church in Alexandria, St. Mark’s Cathedral, killing at least 13 — including three police officers — and injuring 21 others, the Health Ministry said.

The explosions followed a number of attacks by Islamic State militants targeting Egypt’s minority Christians. And on Sunday, the group claimed responsibilty for both bombings.

An online statement shared by sympathizers and attributed to the militants said: “A security detachment of the Islamic State carried out the attacks against the two churches in the cities of Tanta and Alexandria.”

The bombings happened weeks before Pope Francis was to visit Egypt, and a week before Easter.

The second attack took place while worshipers at St. Mark’s were leaving at the end of Palm Sunday Mass. The service had been led by the Coptic pope, Tawadros II. The pope had already left when the explosion happened.

Photos from St. George’s circulating on social media showed scenes of blood and devastation inside. Initial reports said that the explosion occurred in the pews near the front of the church, and that many of the dead were children.

A security official told the state news agency they believed the blast had been caused by an explosive device planted inside the church.

After the first blast, President Abdel-Fattah el-Sisi ordered military hospitals to treat the injured, Sky News Arabia reported.

Eyewitnesses said that an angry crowd outside the church in Tanta attacked a young man they accused of being involved in the attack.

After that explosion, the provincial governor, Ahmad Deif, told the state-run Nile News channel, “Either a bomb was planted or someone blew himself up.”

Christians, mostly Orthodox Copts, account for about 10 percent of Egypt’s population, which is predominantly Sunni Muslim.

In December, the Islamic State claimed responsibility for a suicide attack on a chapel in the grounds of St. Mark’s Cathedral, the main Coptic Church in Cairo, killing at least 28 people.

In February, hundreds of Christians fled northern Sinai, where the Egyptian Army is fighting a local Islamic State affiliate, following a targeted campaign of violence and intimidation.

In 2011, a suicide bombing ripped through a throng of worshipers outside a Coptic Christian church in the port city of Alexandria, killing at least 21 people in one of the worst attacks against Egypt’s Christian minority.

Earlier this month, an explosion near a police training center in the Nile Delta city injured 13 officers.

Francis’ planned trip to the country is seen as an opportunity to improve ties between Christians and Muslims. The pontiff is to visit with Mr. Sisi; the leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church; and the grand imam of Al Azhar, a 1,000-year-old mosque and university that is revered by Sunni Muslims.

In a news conference to provide details about the trip on Friday, the Catholic archbishop of Egypt, Bishop Emmanuel, said that the pope’s pending journey was a signal that Egypt is safe for visitors.

On Sunday, Francis said in response to the first bombing: “We pray for the victims of the attack carried out today, this morning, in Cairo, in a Coptic church.”

He called the leader of the Coptic Christians his “brother” and expressed his “deep condolences” to the church and the Egyptian nation.

The archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, also responded in a post on Twitter: “As we come to Easter, pray for victims, the justice of the cross, hope & healing of resurrection.”

In a Twitter post, a spokesman for the Egyptian Foreign Affairs Ministry, Ahmed Abu Zeid, said, “Terrorism hits Egypt again.”


Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury  

ROYAL CONNECTIONS: Born Margaret Plantagenet daughter of George, Duke of Clarence (brother to Edward IV, King of England) and Isabelle Neville (who was the elder daughter of Richard Neville, Duke of Warwick). Lived in the court of her uncle Richard III, King of England who was her father’s brother and his wife Anne Neville, Queen of England who was her mother’s sister (who suceeded her Uncle Edward IV and his wife Elizabeth Woodville as King and Queen of England). Trusted friend of  her cousin Elizabeth of York, Queen of England. Married to Richard Pole trusted friend of Henry VII, King of England who defeated her Uncle on the battlefield. Lived in Ludlow with Arthur, Prince of Wales (son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York) and his wife Katherine, Princess of Aragon and Castile. Lady in Waiting to Katherine of Aragon, Queen of England now wife of Arthur’s brother Henry VIII, King of England who succeeded his father. Governess of Mary Tudor, future Mary I of England (daughter of Henry VIII, King of England and Katherine of Aragon, Queen of England). Mother to Reginald Pole, Archbishop of Canterbury a figure of importance in Mary I’s court. 



George Alexander Louis, Prince of Cambridge, was born at 16:24 on July 22nd, 2013 at St.Mary’s Hospital in London, first son of The Duke and The Duchess of Cambridge. The little Prince was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury in the Chapel Royal at St James’s Palace on October 23rd, 2013 and since then he has been accompaining his parents in some of their Royal Tours, starting with the tour of Australia and New Zealand back in April 2014. He is now big brother of Princess Charlotte and third in line to the British Throne. 


Interiors of Knole House in Kent, partly in the care of the National Trust.

The oldest parts of Knole were built by the Archbishop of Canterbury in the 15th century, and it is a primarily furnished in the Jacobean and Stuart styles. It has been in the possession of the Sackville family since 1566, when Elizabeth’s cousin, Thomas Sackville took up residence there. It is believed to be a calendar house (containing architectural elements in quantities that represent the respective numbers of days in a year, weeks in a year, months in a year, etc.) because it had 365 rooms, 52 staircases, 12 entrances and 7 courtyards, but these numbers have fluctuated due to various renovations and changes. The house contains many important works of art and furniture pieces, including what might be the oldest playable organ in England. It is the house upon which Orlando’s ancestral home is based in Virginia Woolf’s novel of that name. The book was written partly as consolation to her lover Vita Sackville-West for being unable to inherit the property, due to being female.


the royal meme -  royal moments [1/15]

Victoria turned 18 on 24 May 1837, and a regency was avoided. Less than a month later, on 20 June 1837, William IV died at the age of 71, and Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom. In her diary she wrote, “I was awoke at 6 o'clock by Mamma, who told me the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Conyngham were here and wished to see me. I got out of bed and went into my sitting-room (only in my dressing gown) and alone, and saw them. Lord Conyngham then acquainted me that my poor Uncle, the King, was no more, and had expired at 12 minutes past 2 this morning, and consequently that I am Queen." 

Above: famous 19th century sketch of the meeting; The Young Victoria with Emily Blunt dramatising the scene


The firstborn child and only son of Their Royal Highnesses The Duke & Duchess of Cambridge was born on July 22, 2013 at 4:24pm BST at Lindo Wing of St. Mary’s Hospital weighing 8lbs 6oz. His Royal Highness is third-in-line to the throne; and on July 24, 2013, it was announced that the new Prince would be named HRH Prince George Alexander Louis of Cambridge. Prince George was christened in The Royal Chapel at St. James’ Palace by the Archbishop of Canterbury on October 23, 2013.

Happy 4th Birthday, HRH Prince George Alexander Louis of Cambridge!


Thomas Becket, born in 1119, was Archbishop of Canterbury for eight years, from 1162 until his murder in 1170. In june of 1170 a few of his rivals in the church decided to crown the heir apparent, Henry the Young King. As their actions were a direct breach of Canterbury’s privilege of coronation, Becket excommunicated them as well as all his opponents, including those who had nothing to do with the unsanctioned crowning. The Young King Henry learned of Beckets actions and said something which was taken by his men as he wanted Becket dead. Four Knights took the King at his word and headed to Canterbury. They arrived on December 29, 1170, and covered up their armour with heavy cloaks. They informed Becket that he had to give an explanation of his actions in Winchester, to which he refused. The Knights, taking this as a brush off, retrieved their weapons and found Becket again in the main hall of the cathedral. There are many accounts as to what occurred next, most notably that of Edward Grim, who was in on the attack:
“ …The wicked knight leapt suddenly upon him, cutting off the top of the crown which the unction of sacred chrism had dedicated to God. Next he received a second blow on the head, but still he stood firm and immovable. At the third blow he fell on his knees and elbows, offering himself a living sacrifice, and saying in a low voice, ‘For the name of Jesus and the protection of the Church, I am ready to embrace death.’ But the third knight inflicted a terrible wound as he lay prostrate. By this stroke, the crown of his head was separated from the head in such a way that the blood white with the brain, and the brain no less red from the blood, dyed the floor of the cathedral. The same clerk who had entered with the knights placed his foot on the neck of the holy priest and precious martyr, and, horrible to relate, scattered the brains and blood about the pavements, crying to the others, ‘Let us away, knights; this fellow will arise no more.” Source: Wiki
After his death the faithful of Europe began seeing him as a martyr. He was canonised (made a saint) in 1173, only 3 years after his brutal death. The murderers fled to Knaresborough Castle and lived out their lives until they were excommunicated. In order to gain forgiveness the knights were ordered by the Pope to serve in the Holy Lands for fourteen years. Pictured above: A stained glass window likeness of Saint Thomas Becket, an ancient Chasse depicting his brutal murder, the inside of Canterbury Cathedral where Becket was murdered, the outside view of the beautiful cathedral and lastly the remains of Knaresborough Castle.

anonymous asked:

How does tax works in westeros? Lets say im a Beesbury. How much do i pay for the Hightowers? Do i pay in coins or in honey? Then how much do the Hightowers pay for the Tyrells? Money or goods? Finally how much do the Tyrells pay for the King? Again, money or goods?

Typically taxes work both through goods in kind and coin, and like everything, depends on the time period. There are always exceptions that prove rules, but typically, the further back you go, the more taxes were paid in kind rather than in coin. The typical rate was 10% for the lord and 10% for the Church and based on property holdings, this was established as early as the 8th century. There was a poll tax of one shilling per head proposed in 1380 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, but poll taxes formed the Islamic jizya tax levied on Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians in the caliphates. Swedish taxes were assessed in equivalencies, such as coins or 16 kg of butter.

Medieval peasants often paid taxes as percentages of goods in kind, unfree labor, and coin which again, depended on the era and where you were. You would pay for using the lord’s mill to mill the grain with a percentage of the take, similarly you would press wine at the lord’s wine press and pay a percentage of the wine. There were certain amounts of days that peasants had to labor in the lord’s fields (24 in Sweden during the Late Middle Ages). You would also have your holdings assessed to see what the value was, and then contract out to tax farmers who would raise that amount of money via tax collection, and whether it was the Byzantine pronoia, the Muslim iqta, or the Western European fee-farm, the process was the same. The farmer would pay the crown (typically competing for the privilege similar to an auction) for the right to raise taxes from a particular area. The incentive was, once the farmer reached the desired amount, any extra was his to keep, which encouraged tax farmers to squeeze taxes out of the peasantry, first to make up the bribes and fees he paid to gain the revenue farm and then to profit. Kings in the 14th century, with the growth of centralized bureaucracy, came to rely more upon direct taxation.

Nobles typically had their obligations set out by the feudal contract and royal writ. In early feudalism, the tax was not monetary, but military service, just as the peasantry owed service to their lords. The vassalage contract stipulated what was owed on behalf of the vassal, and kings might forego the traditional feudal service of levies for a scutage, set by the king, this became true in the later Middle Ages. Emergencies would cause for additional taxes, such as the Saladin tax that King Richard the Lionheart levied for the Third Crusade.

@racefortheironthrone, anything to add?

Thanks for the question, Anon.

SomethingLikeALawyer, Hand of the King


On this day in history, 12th October 1537, Henry VIII’s third wife, Jane Seymour, gave birth to the future Edward VI of England. 

The young prince was born after a long and difficult labour. Queen Jane went into labour on the 9th October and finally gave birth after two days and three nights on the 12th. He was christened on the 15th of October at Hampton Court Palace and his godparents were the Princess Mary, the Duke of Norfolk and the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Edward’s father, King Henry VIII, died on 28th January 1547 making Edward King Edward VI of England. However, Henry’s death was not announced to Parliament until 31st January as arrangements needed to be made by Council. Edward was only nine years old and far too young to rule over the country himself so a Council of Regency was set up, according to Henry VIII’s will.Sixteen executors had been named by Henry to act as a regency council until Edward came of age at 18 and this council was led by Edward’s uncle, Edward Seymour, who became Lord Protector of the Realm.

By the winter of 1552/1553, it was obvious that Edward VI was seriously ill and by May the Council were panicking about the problem of the succession to the throne. Henry VIII had restored his daughters’ succession to the throne, meaning that on Edward’s death the Princess Mary should become Queen, but Dudley and his council had other ideas. Fearing the succession of a Catholic monarch who would undo all of the religious reforms of Edward’s reign, Edward was persuaded to write a document called  “My devise for the succession” which made it plain that he wished the protestant Lady Jane Grey, his first cousin once removed, to become Queen.

On 6th July 1553 Edward VI died at Greenwich Palace, aged only 15. The exact cause of his death is unknown, although theories include consumption (tuberculosis) and bronchopneumonia which led to septicaemia and other problems.

Some say the Tudors transcend this history, bloody and demonic as it is: that they descend from Brutus through the line of Constantine, son of St Helena, who was a Briton. Arthur, High King of Britain, was Constantine’s grandson. He married up to three women, all called Guinevere, and his tomb is at Glastonbury, but you must understand that he is not really dead, only waiting his time to come again.

His blessed descendant, Prince Arthur of England, was born in the year 1486, eldest son of Henry, the first Tudor king. This Arthur married Katharine the princess of Aragon, died at fifteen and was buried in Worcester Cathedral. If he were alive now, he would be King of England. His younger brother Henry would likely be Archbishop of Canterbury, and would not (at least, we devoutly hope not) be in pursuit of a woman of whom the cardinal hears nothing good: a woman to whom, several years before the dukes walk in to despoil him, he will need to turn his attention; whose history, before ruin seizes him, he will need to comprehend.

Beneath every history, another history.

—  Wolf Hall, Hilary Mantel

The Patronage of the Cult of St Thomas Becket by Henry II’s Daughters | Matilda of Saxony, Leonor of England, Joan of England 

«The Anglo-Castilian connection in this period is also represented by the queen’s efforts to  cleanse  her father’s  memory  after the murder of Thomas Becket. Leonor had  married  Alfonso [VIII of Castile] only a few months before the murder of the archbishop of Canterbury in his own cathedral, events that left Christian Europe in shock. News of his brutal assassination caused immediate reaction all over  Europe and must  have  soon reached  the  Castilian court  and Leonor’s ears.  Her  father was  blamed  for the  prelate’s  murder and the mighty king  of  the  English  was brought  to  his knees  through  public repentance  and  expiation. But  soon  after Becket’s horrid death, Henry II’s expiation turned into veneration and so the martyr of Canterbury – canonised in 1173 – having been a victim of Plantagenet wrath was then becoming an object of Plantagenet piety and devotion.

Kay Brainerd Slocum has studied the spread of the cult in Europe due to the patronage of Henry’s daughters and  has  suggested that  the  queen of Castile «departing from  the  usual  practice, wished to establish her own very close connection, and that of her natal family, to the Canterbury martyr». The wonderfully coloured prayerbook of Henry of Saxony and Bavaria, married to Matilda of England, and the stunning mosaics of Monreale in Sicily, commissioned during the  queenship of her youngest sister, Joan, bear witness to  the agency  of  Henry II’s daughters in the promotion of Becket’s cult across the continent.

Leonor paid her dues in Castile and her contribution to the cult was manifest and resolute. The queen joined her father’s cry for divine forgiveness in the dedication of altars at the cathedrals of Sigüenza and Toledo and perhaps in the commission of wall paintings at a church in Soria».

Cerda, José Manuel: The Marriage of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonor Plantagenet: the first bond between Spain and England in the Middle Ages, in: Aurell, Martin (ed.): Les Stratégies matrimoniales (IXe-XIIIe siècle), Turnhout, Brepols, 2013, pp. 143-153, pp. 146-147.

Or: my favourite sisterly alliance.

Richard Dawkins doesn’t really know any religious people, because he is from England. There are hardly any traditional religious believers. In England, it’s the Archbishop of Canterbury and 3 priests. If he wants to study religion in England, he should look to soccer.
—  Philosophy of Religion Professor 

‘Gracious lord,
Stand for your own; unwind your bloody flag;
Look back into your mighty ancestors:
Go, my dread lord, to your great-grandsire’s tomb,
From whom you claim; invoke his warlike spirit,
And your great-uncle’s, Edward the Black Prince,
Who on the French ground play’d a tragedy.’

Archbishop of Canterbury, Henry V Act 1 Scene II; W. Shakespeare

Images: The Hollow Crown, ep. 4 ~ Henry V

William, Kate and Harry will attend a private service to re-dedicate the grave of Diana, Princess of Wales at Althorp House on Saturday. The service, which will fall on what would have been the Princess’s birthday, will be conducted by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Prince George and Princess Charlotte will join their parents along with members of Diana’s family including Earl Spencer and her sisters.
—  Duchess Kate Blog on Twitter
JUNE 15: Mary Benson (1841-1918)

Once dubbed “the cleverest woman in all of Europe,” the eccentric British hostess Mary Benson passed away on this day in 1918.

A 19-year-old Mary Benson is photographed in the early days of her marriage to the Archbishop of Canterbury, Edward White Benson (x).

Born in 1841 at Skipton, Yorkshire, her original name was Mary Sidgwick. Her father was the Rev. William Sidgwick, who instilled a deep understanding of the Church in her early on. In 1859, Mary married Edward White Benson who would go on to become the widely popular Archbishop of Canterbury. Although Mary had officially become Mrs. Benson and was married to one of the most powerful men in the Anglican Church, she insisted on being called simply “Ben” or “Minnie,” and although this scandalized many Brits of the Victorian Age, it was the least of Mary’s eccentricities.

In spite of having six children with her husband Edward, Mary hated having sex with him and wrote often of the “stain” of the sexual attraction she felt for the women in her life. She had several one-off affairs with women during the time she was married to Edward, but her main partner was Lucy Tait. Lucy was the daughter of the previous Archbishop of Canterbury and many speculate that her relationship with Mary began when the Tait family moved in with the Bensons in 1889. Regardless, the two women would live together for the rest of their lives from that moment on.

Mary is perhaps more famous for her litter of infamous children rather than her time spent at the Archbishop’s wife, out of which consisted an academic prodigy, two popular novelists, and an Egyptologist who would later be convicted for “homicidal mania.” Historians also find it interesting that the majority of Mary’s children took after their lesbian mother in terms of favoring the same-gender.  After her husband Edward died in 1896, Mary set up a new household with Lucy, this time in earnest and making no secret of the fact that they shared a bed together. Despite the pubic scandals and emotional upheavals that her children would inflict on the family throughout the years, Mary and Lucy remained intact at their home in the Sussex Downs called Tremens until Mary’s death on June 15, 1918. You can read As Good as God, as Clever as the Devil: The Impossible Life of Mary Benson by Rodney Bolt for a more in-depth look at the reputation and the realities of the Benson family.