• What she says: I’m fine.
  • What she means: The fight in Heavensward against the imperial dreadnought outside Azys Lla bespeaks incredibly poor storytelling and characterization in an otherwise well-written plot. Ysayle's death received no foreshadowing, apart from the general desire for atonement that defined her character since her reintroduction in the Western Highlands; that this longstanding, crucial aspect of her development brings about her death so suddenly is jarring and lacking in any conceivable sort of emotional buildup. Why was she absent from the plot for over eight hours preceding the opening of Azys Lla? How did she go from helping to keep the peace in Ishgard's capital to suddenly feeling the need to atone in a much greater way? I love the Tales from the Calamity/Dragonsong War pieces, but Ysyale's recent story can be said to raise more questions than it answers, especially in regards to what she was doing in between Aymeric's arrest and her second meeting with Hraesvelgr. On that same note, the fact that her Tales piece was meant to be seen after the player completed the Heavensward main story contributes to a growing erasure of XIV's female characters. As of 3.0, Livia, Moenbryda, and Ysayle have all had their backstories and motivations laid out via exposition after their respective deaths. Contrast this to Haurchefant, who slowly began to reveal more about himself and his values through 2.X and 3.0 alike. His death was tragic and shocking but well-written, because we as players could understand and largely sympathize with everything he stood for as a character; the scenes of Edmont urging you to go out and do good in his son's name were superfluous, because through meaningful character development, we know exactly how much respect Haurchefant had for optimism and justice. We received no such explanation of Ysayle's feelings or even her abilities throughout 3.0. That she was suffering I have no doubt, but the pain of losing her religious convictions could easily have been made to mirror or tie into the inevitable public feelings of confusion and loss in Ishgard after the death of Thordan and the dissolution of the archbishopric. "Wasted potential" does not even begin to cover the mess that is her ending, either from a textual or metatextual standpoint. Before seeing her Tales piece, I honestly was not even certain she was dead - her character arc was wrapped up just that poorly. And don't try to tell me she wasn't as deserving of a funeral as was Haurchefant, regardless of her past misdeeds or even of whether she had a body left to bury. We got a good five minutes to mourn her loss along with two or three of the characters present in Azys Lla, then Gilly shows up and Ysayle's sacrifice is all but forgotten for the rest of the game. It's a sorry and unworthy end to one of the best-written female characters Final Fantasy has seen in years, and it's left me upsettingly wary of where the Heavensward plot will proceed from here.

January 10th 1645: William Laud executed

On this day in 1645, the Archbishop of Canterbury William Laud was executed for treason at the Tower of London. He was appointed to the archbishopric in 1633, during the reign of King Charles I. Laud worked closely with the King, and his tenure was marked by conflict with Puritans in England. The latter group felt so threatened by remaining in their home country that many set sail for the North American colonies to be free from persecution. Laud’s focus on ceremony led to rumours that he held ‘popish’ (Catholic) sympathies and his overbearing dominance of religious policy made him a target of popular hostility. King Charles had to call Parliament in 1640, and on 18th December Laud was impeached for high treason by the Commons. By the time of his execution in 1645, the English Civil War was in full swing. Laud was buried in a London church, but after the Restoration his remains were moved to the more prestigious chapel of St John’s College, Oxford.


Christian Necropolis and Christian burials in Hungary

The part of modern Hungary west of the Danube, which was first settled in the Neolithic period, came into the Roman Empire in the 1st century CE. It formed part of the Roman province of Pannonia. The town of Sopianae was founded on the southern slope of the Mecsek massif in the 2nd century by colonists coming from western Pannonia and Italy, who intermarried with the indigenous Illyrian-Celtic peoples. It became the headquarters of the civil governor (praeses) of the new province of Valeria at the end of the 3rd century. Sopianae was especially prosperous in the 4th century because of its situation at the junction of several important trading and military routes. Archaeological excavations have revealed a number of new public buildings in the forum area from this time.

The town was also probably made the seat of an archbishopric around this time. There was a cemetery to the north of the town, with many Christian burials from the 4th century; in the post-Roman period, up to the 8th century, the imposing tombs probably served as shelters for different incoming groups of Huns, Germans, and Avars. It was not until the 9th century that Christianity was re-established in the town.

St Istvan (King Stephen I), founder of the Hungarian state, established one of his ten bishoprics there in 1009, no doubt influenced by the monumental Christian sepulchral buildings; the Cella Trichora was restored to its original use as a chapel. The fortified episcopal complex was to be expanded and reconstructed in the succeeding centuries, and it was within this enceinte that the Angevin King Laszlo I the Great established the first university in Hungary (1367). The medieval town grew outside the walls of the episcopal castle complex, and it was in turn fortified in the 15th century as protection against the growing Turkish threat.Pecs was freed from Ottoman rule in 1686, becoming part of the Habsburg lands. The bishopric was re-established and the town was repopulated with Hungarians and German colonists. The mosques and other Moslem buildings were converted for Christian purposes, although the baths (hammams) continued in use for a considerable time. The fortifications around the castle were demolished and the town began to take on a Baroque appearance. It was designated the administrative centre of a county and fine public buildings were added.

Pecs secured its independence from episcopal rule in 1780. During the 19th century it witnessed a spectacular development as a commercial centre, and was graced with many buildings in the architectural styles of the period - classical, romantic, historicizing, and eventually Art Nouveau.
Fortunately, it was spared from inappropriate insertions during the second half of the 20th century.

Halle (Saale) in Sachsen-Anhalt, Eastern Germany. Its university is one of the oldest in Germany. The city is situated along the river Saale; Leipzig is only 35 km away. Halle’s early history is connected with harvesting of salt. The name reflects early Celtic settlement given that ‘halen’ is the Brythonic (Welsh/Breton) word for salt (cf. 'salann’ in Irish). The name of the river Saale also contains the Germanic root for salt. Salt-harvesting has taken place here at least since the Bronze Age (2300-600 BC). The town was first mentioned in AD 806. It became a part of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg in the 10th century and remained so until 1680, when Brandenburg-Prussia annexed it together with Magdeburg as the Duchy of Magdeburg, while it was also an important location for Martin Luther’s Reformation. According to historic documents, the city of Halle has been a member of the Hanseatic League at least since 1281.


Born on this day: January 27, 1756 - Classical composer and musician Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) in the Archbishopric Of Salzburg. Happy Birthday to one of the greatest and most prolific composers of all time, on the 261st anniversary of his birth!!


Sverre Fehn, Hamar. Hedmark Museum, Archbishopric Museum, Hamar, Norway 1967-1979

The main architectural concept has been to create a museum which preserves the existing remains of Hamar Bispegard and orhamar barn and makes it possible for the archaeological excavations to function as an important part of the actual museum, in line with the exhibits. The construction in connection with the building of the new museum does not at any point touch the medieval walls and ruins. A “suspended museum” has been created, and this makes it possible to be in a position to understand history—not with the aid of pages of a book—but as it appears in the world of archaeology.

But the very nature of its transitormess, the tree belongs to eternity—walls belong to history.
The inclusion of the ruins entails an irregularity which at once attracts attention in that it is in contradictory relation to the “precision” of our day.
But gradually this picture changes and you acknowledge that this art of building has a precision dictated by the rhythm of human beings, the formation of the landscape and the movement of the sun, wind, and rain.


highlights of working in a rare books library (aka I keep forgetting to download my snapchats, oops)

1. the title says it all, really

2. English Cheeses of the North was in a box with a whole bunch of very specific books about England, including English Gardens by the Hon. Vita Sackville-West (who was, among other things, Virginia Woolf’s lover)

3. INCUNABULAAAAA (printed books from before 1500, usually lovely, how am I allowed to touch these, hhhhhh)

4. speaking of. a 1660 map of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, which after a lot of hunting revealed both Salzburg the city and my grandpa’s birthplace, a tiny town in the Tennengau.

5. well, this is awkward

6. unsure whether Miss Smith is Ms. Penwyche’s cat or lover. could be either, really

7. life goals: publish a book with a “threatening letters” section (from the Poll Book of 1818)