In his focus on the archaic, [Guy] Davenport was really a late example of the primary belief that drove modernism as a literary and artistic movement, and in a broader sense, of the major continental intellectual trend since at least Nietzsche: That the West was in a crisis the roots of which went back at least as far as Plato. Thus, a resolution could be found only in a deconstruction of a vast cultural edifice, an archeological dig of sorts that would reveal, beneath millennia of accreted mud, hidden principles preserved only in fragments.
—  Aaron MacLean, “Borges in Kentucky”

On a general level, the Wisdom Kings are viewed as the guardians of Buddhism, and wrathful manifestations of Buddhas. In particular, the Five Wisdom Kings are the protectors of the Five Wisdom Buddhas.

According to the esoteric doctrine of the Three Wheels, whereas Buddhas represent pure concepts and bodhisattvas teach through compassion, Wisdom Kings are the embodiment of the wheel of injunction and teach through fear, shocking nonbelievers into faith.

about moons

When you don’t fit the norm, there is a lot to love about moons.

The moon transforms (werewolves); the moon sustains (vampires); the moon illuminates (ghosts). When you’re unable to act normally, to think properly, people might say you are moonstruck. If you menstruate then you’ll probably understand the significance of a lunar month. And what’s an archaism for mental illness? Lunacy. By all accounts, despite stealing all its light from the sun, the moon can mess with you in more ways than you can count, all while holding in reserve the power to turn the ocean inside out.

We are writing a game about four (sort of) women (sort of), all of whom are named after moons, each of whom is locked in their own idiosyncratic orbit around the gas giant of academia. Which is sort of absurdly high-concept, when you get right down to it, but let me explain.

What’s academia, when you don’t fit the norm — when you aren’t, to be plain, a straight white abled cisgender man — if not a foreign body that can determine the course of your whole life? You do as it expects of you or you forfeit your career. You abnegate your own body (which academia will treat, by the way, as not only foreign but hardly speakable, hardly worth speaking about) or you say goodbye to ever being taken seriously in your work. You silence yourself and adopt a new language, which is the native language of the planet you are tied to, or you’re ignored at best and actively belittled at worst. You sweep all your irregularities under the carpet. Under the carpet, of course, they start to fester — but that’s fine, right? Because this is what you want. What wouldn’t be worth it for a life of the mind?

It is so easy to forget, in these circumstances, that you have a kind of power all your own. This is because it stops seeming like power, when academically speaking power means something different. The language of the planet below you only has one word for power, with one very specific meaning, and your own experiences do not fit into a referencing system; they may as well not exist at all.

But from the right perspective, for the right person, under the right circumstances — well, the moon will fuck you up.

Our four scholars, our four objects-in-orbit, are Europa and Callisto and Ganymede and Io. We hope you enjoy discovering exactly where their power lies.

It’s always a good time to read this again.

George Orwell, “Politics and the English Language,” 1946

Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is decadent and our language – so the argument runs – must inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is a natural growth and not an instrument which we shape for our own purposes.

Now, it is clear that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is not due simply to the bad influence of this or that individual writer. But an effect can become a cause, reinforcing the original cause and producing the same effect in an intensified form, and so on indefinitely. A man may take to drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the more completely because he drinks. It is rather the same thing that is happening to the English language. It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts. The point is that the process is reversible. Modern English, especially written English, is full of bad habits which spread by imitation and which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble. If one gets rid of these habits one can think more clearly, and to think clearly is a necessary first step toward political regeneration: so that the fight against bad English is not frivolous and is not the exclusive concern of professional writers. I will come back to this presently, and I hope that by that time the meaning of what I have said here will have become clearer. Meanwhile, here are five specimens of the English language as it is now habitually written.

These five passages have not been picked out because they are especially bad – I could have quoted far worse if I had chosen – but because they illustratevarious of the mental vices from which we now suffer. They are a little below the average, but are fairly representative examples. I number them so that I can refer back to them when necessary:

1. I am not, indeed, sure whether it is not true to say that the Milton who once seemed not unlike a seventeenth-century Shelley had not become, out of an experience ever more bitter in each year, more alien [sic] to the founder of that Jesuit sect which nothing could induce him to tolerate.

Professor Harold Laski (Essay in Freedom of Expression)

2. Above all, we cannot play ducks and drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables as the Basic put up with for tolerate, or put at a loss for bewilder .

Professor Lancelot Hogben (Interglossa)

3. On the one side we have the free personality: by definition it is not neurotic, for it has neither conflict nor dream. Its desires, such as they are, are transparent, for they are just what institutional approval keeps in the forefront of consciousness; another institutional pattern would alter their number and intensity; there is little in them that is natural, irreducible, or culturally dangerous. But on the other side, the social bond itself is nothing but the mutual reflection of these self-secure integrities. Recall the definition of love. Is not this the very picture of a small academic? Where is there a place in this hall of mirrors for either personality or fraternity?

Essay on psychology in Politics (New York)

4. All the “best people” from the gentlemen’s clubs, and all the frantic fascist captains, united in common hatred of Socialism and bestial horror at the rising tide of the mass revolutionary movement, have turned to acts of provocation, to foul incendiarism, to medieval legends of poisoned wells, to legalize their own destruction of proletarian organizations, and rouse the agitated petty-bourgeoise to chauvinistic fervor on behalf of the fight against the revolutionary way out of the crisis.

Communist pamphlet

5. If a new spirit is to be infused into this old country, there is one thorny and contentious reform which must be tackled, and that is the humanization and galvanization of the B.B.C. Timidity here will bespeak canker and atrophy of the soul. The heart of Britain may be sound and of strong beat, for instance, but the British lion’s roar at present is like that of Bottom in Shakespeare’s Midsummer Night’s Dream – as gentle as any sucking dove. A virile new Britain cannot continue indefinitely to be traduced in the eyes or rather ears, of the world by the effete languors of Langham Place, brazenly masquerading as “standard English.” When the Voice of Britain is heard at nine o'clock, better far and infinitely less ludicrous to hear aitches honestly dropped than the present priggish, inflated, inhibited, school-ma'amish arch braying of blameless bashful mewing maidens!

Letter in Tribune

Each of these passages has faults of its own, but, quite apart from avoidable ugliness, two qualities are common to all of them. The first is staleness of imagery; the other is lack of precision. The writer either has a meaning and cannot express it, or he inadvertently says something else, or he is almost indifferent as to whether his words mean anything or not. This mixture of vagueness and sheer incompetence is the most marked characteristic of modern English prose, and especially of any kind of political writing. As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into the abstract and no one seems able to think of turns of speech that are not hackneyed: prose consists less and less of words chosen for the sake of their meaning, and more and more of phrases stacked together like the sections of a prefabricated henhouse. I list below, with notes and examples, various of the tricks by means of which the work of prose construction is habitually dodged:

Dying metaphors. A newly invented metaphor assists thought by evoking a visual image, while on the other hand a metaphor which is technically “dead” (e.g.iron resolution) has in effect reverted to being an ordinary word and can generally be used without loss of vividness. But in between these two classes there is a huge dump of worn-out metaphors which have lost all evocative power and are merely used because they save people the trouble of inventing phrases for themselves. Examples are: Ring the changes on, take up the cudgel for, toe the line, ride roughshod over, stand shoulder to shoulder with, play into the hands of, no axe to grind, grist to the mill, fishing in troubled waters, on the order of the day, Achilles’ heel, swan song, hotbed. Many of these are used without knowledge of their meaning (what is a “rift,” for instance?), and incompatible metaphors are frequently mixed, a sure sign that the writer is not interested in what he is saying. Some metaphors now current have been twisted out of their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the fact. For example, toe the line is sometimes written as tow the line. Another example is the hammer and the anvil, now always used with the implication that the anvil gets the worst of it. In real life it is always the anvil that breaks the hammer, never the other way about: a writer who stopped to think what he was saying would avoid perverting the original phrase.

Operators or verbal false limbs. These save the trouble of picking out appropriate verbs and nouns, and at the same time pad each sentence with extra syllables which give it an appearance of symmetry. Characteristic phrases are render inoperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, give rise to, give grounds for, have the effect of, play a leading part (role) in, make itself felt, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the purpose of, etc., etc. The keynote is the elimination of simple verbs. Instead of being a single word, such as break, stop, spoil, mend, kill, a verb becomes a phrase, made up of a noun or adjective tacked on to some general-purpose verb such as prove, serve, form, play, render. In addition, the passive voice is wherever possible used in preference to the active, and noun constructions are used instead of gerunds (by examination of instead of by examining). The range of verbs is further cut down by means of the -ize and de- formations, and the banal statements are given an appearance of profundity by means of the not un- formation. Simple conjunctions and prepositions are replaced by such phrases as with respect to, having regard to, the fact that, by dint of, in view of, in the interests of, on the hypothesis that; and the ends of sentences are saved by anticlimax by such resounding commonplaces as greatly to be desired, cannot be left out of account, a development to be expected in the near future, deserving of serious consideration, brought to a satisfactory conclusion, and so on and so forth.

Pretentious diction. Words like phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate, are used to dress up a simple statement and give an air of scientific impartiality to biased judgements. Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable, are used to dignify the sordid process of international politics, while writing that aims at glorifying war usually takes on an archaic color, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword, shield, buckler, banner, jackboot, clarion. Foreign words and expressions such as cul de sac, ancien regime, deus ex machina, mutatis mutandis, status quo, gleichschaltung, weltanschauung, are used to give an air of culture and elegance. Except for the useful abbreviations i.e., e.g., and etc., there is no real need for any of the hundreds of foreign phrases now current in the English language. Bad writers, and especially scientific, political, and sociological writers, are nearly always haunted by the notion that Latin or Greek words are grander than Saxon ones, and unnecessary words like expedite, ameliorate, predict, extraneous, deracinated, clandestine, subaqueous, and hundreds of others constantly gain ground from their Anglo-Saxon numbers.*

*An interesting illustration of this is the way in which English flower names were in use till very recently are being ousted by Greek ones, Snapdragonbecoming antirrhinum, forget-me-not becoming myosotis, etc. It is hard to see any practical reason for this change of fashion: it is probably due to an instinctive turning away from the more homely word and a vague feeling that the Greek word is scientific.

The jargon peculiar to Marxist writing (hyena, hangman, cannibal, petty bourgeois, these gentry, lackey, flunkey, mad dog, White Guard, etc.) consists largely of words translated from Russian, German, or French; but the normal way of coining a new word is to use Latin or Greek root with the appropriate affix and, where necessary, the size formation. It is often easier to make up words of this kind (deregionalize, impermissible, extramarital, non-fragmentary and so forth) than to think up the English words that will cover one’s meaning. The result, in general, is an increase in slovenliness and vagueness.

Meaningless words. In certain kinds of writing, particularly in art criticism and literary criticism, it is normal to come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in meaning.†

† Example: Comfort’s catholicity of perception and image, strangely Whitmanesque in range, almost the exact opposite in aesthetic compulsion, continues to evoke that trembling atmospheric accumulative hinting at a cruel, an inexorably serene timelessness …Wrey Gardiner scores by aiming at simple bull’s-eyes with precision. Only they are not so simple, and through this contented sadness runs more than the surface bittersweet of resignation.“ (Poetry Quarterly)

Words like romantic, plastic, values, human, dead, sentimental, natural, vitality, as used in art criticism, are strictly meaningless, in the sense that they not only do not point to any discoverable object, but are hardly ever expected to do so by the reader. When one critic writes, "The outstanding feature of Mr. X’s work is its living quality,” while another writes, “The immediately striking thing about Mr. X’s work is its peculiar deadness,” the reader accepts this as a simple difference of opinion. If words like black and white were involved, instead of the jargon words dead and living, he would see at once that language was being used in an improper way. Many political words are similarly abused. The word Fascism has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies “something not desirable.” The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another. In the case of a word like democracy, not only is there no agreed definition, but the attempt to make one is resisted from all sides. It is almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the defenders of every kind of regime claim that it is a democracy, and fear that they might have to stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning. Words of this kind are often used in a consciously dishonest way. That is, the person who uses them has his own private definition, but allows his hearer to think he means something quite different. Statements like Marshal Pétain was a true patriot, The Soviet press is the freest in the world, The Catholic Church is opposed to persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive. Other words used in variable meanings, in most cases more or less dishonestly, are: class, totalitarian, science, progressive, reactionary, bourgeois, equality.

Now that I have made this catalogue of swindles and perversions, let me give another example of the kind of writing that they lead to. This time it must of its nature be an imaginary one. I am going to translate a passage of good English into modern English of the worst sort. Here is a well-known verse from Ecclesiastes:

I returned and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all.

Here it is in modern English:

Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena compel the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into account.

This is a parody, but not a very gross one. Exhibit (3) above, for instance, contains several patches of the same kind of English. It will be seen that I have not made a full translation. The beginning and ending of the sentence follow the original meaning fairly closely, but in the middle the concrete illustrations – race, battle, bread – dissolve into the vague phrases “success or failure in competitive activities.” This had to be so, because no modern writer of the kind I am discussing – no one capable of using phrases like “objective considerations of contemporary phenomena” – would ever tabulate his thoughts in that precise and detailed way. The whole tendency of modern prose is away from concreteness. Now analyze these two sentences a little more closely. The first contains forty-nine words but only sixty syllables, and all its words are those of everyday life. The second contains thirty-eight words of ninety syllables: eighteen of those words are from Latin roots, and one from Greek. The first sentence contains six vivid images, and only one phrase (“time and chance”) that could be called vague. The second contains not a single fresh, arresting phrase, and in spite of its ninety syllables it gives only a shortened version of the meaning contained in the first. Yet without a doubt it is the second kind of sentence that is gaining ground in modern English. I do not want to exaggerate. This kind of writing is not yet universal, and outcrops of simplicity will occur here and there in the worst-written page. Still, if you or I were told to write a few lines on the uncertainty of human fortunes, we should probably come much nearer to my imaginary sentence than to the one from Ecclesiastes.

As I have tried to show, modern writing at its worst does not consist in picking out words for the sake of their meaning and inventing images in order to make the meaning clearer. It consists in gumming together long strips of words which have already been set in order by someone else, and making the results presentable by sheer humbug. The attraction of this way of writing is that it is easy. It is easier – even quicker, once you have the habit – to say In my opinion it is not an unjustifiable assumption that than to say I think. If you use ready-made phrases, you not only don’t have to hunt about for the words; you also don’t have to bother with the rhythms of your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to be more or less euphonious. When you are composing in a hurry – when you are dictating to a stenographer, for instance, or making a public speech – it is natural to fall into a pretentious, Latinized style. Tags like a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind or a conclusion to which all of us would readily assent will save many a sentence from coming down with a bump. By using stale metaphors, similes, and idioms, you save much mental effort, at the cost of leaving your meaning vague, not only for your reader but for yourself. This is the significance of mixed metaphors. The sole aim of a metaphor is to call up a visual image. When these images clash – as in The Fascist octopus has sung its swan song, the jackboot is thrown into the melting pot – it can be taken as certain that the writer is not seeing a mental image of the objects he is naming; in other words he is not really thinking. Look again at the examples I gave at the beginning of this essay. Professor Laski (1) uses five negatives in fifty three words. One of these is superfluous, making nonsense of the whole passage, and in addition there is the slip – alien for akin – making further nonsense, and several avoidable pieces of clumsiness which increase the general vagueness. Professor Hogben (2) plays ducks and drakes with a battery which is able to write prescriptions, and, while disapproving of the everyday phrase put up with, is unwilling to look egregious up in the dictionary and see what it means; (3), if one takes an uncharitable attitude towards it, is simply meaningless: probably one could work out its intended meaning by reading the whole of the article in which it occurs. In (4), the writer knows more or less what he wants to say, but an accumulation of stale phrases chokes him like tea leaves blocking a sink. In (5), words and meaning have almost parted company. People who write in this manner usually have a general emotional meaning – they dislike one thing and want to express solidarity with another – but they are not interested in the detail of what they are saying. A scrupulous writer, in every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at least four questions, thus: 1. What am I trying to say? 2. What words will express it? 3. What image or idiom will make it clearer? 4. Is this image fresh enough to have an effect? And he will probably ask himself two more: 1. Could I put it more shortly? 2. Have I said anything that is avoidably ugly? But you are not obliged to go to all this trouble. You can shirk it by simply throwing your mind open and letting the ready-made phrases come crowding in. They will construct your sentences for you – even think your thoughts for you, to a certain extent – and at need they will perform the important service of partially concealing your meaning even from yourself. It is at this point that the special connection between politics and the debasement of language becomes clear.

In our time it is broadly true that political writing is bad writing. Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the writer is some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a “party line.” Orthodoxy, of whatever color, seems to demand a lifeless, imitative style. The political dialects to be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestoes, White papers and the speeches of undersecretaries do, of course, vary from party to party, but they are all alike in that one almost never finds in them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn of speech. When one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases – bestial atrocities, iron heel, bloodstained tyranny, free peoples of the world, stand shoulder to shoulder – one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the light catches the speaker’s spectacles and turns them into blank discs which seem to have no eyes behind them. And this is not altogether fanciful. A speaker who uses that kind of phraseology has gone some distance toward turning himself into a machine. The appropriate noises are coming out of his larynx, but his brain is not involved as it would be if he were choosing his words for himself. If the speech he is making is one that he is accustomed to make over and over again, he may be almost unconscious of what he is saying, as one is when one utters the responses in church. And this reduced state of consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favorable to political conformity.

In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defense of the indefensible. Things like the continuance of British rule in India, the Russian purges and deportations, the dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by arguments which are too brutal for most people to face, and which do not square with the professed aims of the political parties. Thus political language has to consist largely of euphemism, question-begging and sheer cloudy vagueness. Defenseless villages are bombarded from the air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside, the cattle machine-gunned, the huts set on fire with incendiary bullets: this is called pacification. Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers. People are imprisoned for years without trial, or shot in the back of the neck or sent to die of scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: this is called elimination of unreliable elements. Such phraseology is needed if one wants to name things without calling up mental pictures of them. Consider for instance some comfortable English professor defending Russian totalitarianism. He cannot say outright, “I believe in killing off your opponents when you can get good results by doing so.” Probably, therefore, he will say something like this:

“While freely conceding that the Soviet regime exhibits certain features which the humanitarian may be inclined to deplore, we must, I think, agree that a certain curtailment of the right to political opposition is an unavoidable concomitant of transitional periods, and that the rigors which the Russian people have been called upon to undergo have been amply justified in the sphere of concrete achievement.”

The inflated style itself is a kind of euphemism. A mass of Latin words falls upon the facts like soft snow, blurring the outline and covering up all the details. The great enemy of clear language is insincerity. When there is a gap between one’s real and one’s declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out ink. In our age there is no such thing as “keeping out of politics.” All issues are political issues, and politics itself is a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and schizophrenia. When the general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer. I should expect to find – this is a guess which I have not sufficient knowledge to verify – that the German, Russian and Italian languages have all deteriorated in the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of dictatorship.

But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought. A bad usage can spread by tradition and imitation even among people who should and do know better. The debased language that I have been discussing is in some ways very convenient. Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of aspirins always at one’s elbow. Look back through this essay, and for certain you will find that I have again and again committed the very faults I am protesting against. By this morning’s post I have received a pamphlet dealing with conditions in Germany. The author tells me that he “felt impelled” to write it. I open it at random, and here is almost the first sentence I see: “[The Allies] have an opportunity not only of achieving a radical transformation of Germany’s social and political structure in such a way as to avoid a nationalistic reaction in Germany itself, but at the same time of laying the foundations of a co-operative and unified Europe.” You see, he “feels impelled” to write – feels, presumably, that he has something new to say – and yet his words, like cavalry horses answering the bugle, group themselves automatically into the familiar dreary pattern. This invasion of one’s mind by ready-made phrases (lay the foundations, achieve a radical transformation) can only be prevented if one is constantly on guard against them, and every such phrase anaesthetizes a portion of one’s brain.

I said earlier that the decadence of our language is probably curable. Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an argument at all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by any direct tinkering with words and constructions. So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is not true in detail. Silly words and expressions have often disappeared, not through any evolutionary process but owing to the conscious action of a minority. Two recent examples were explore every avenue and leave no stone unturned, which were killed by the jeers of a few journalists. There is a long list of flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of if enough people would interest themselves in the job; and it should also be possible to laugh the not un- formation out of existence*, to reduce the amount of Latin and Greek in the average sentence, to drive out foreign phrases

*One can cure oneself of the not un- formation by memorizing this sentence: A not unblack dog was chasing a not unsmall rabbit across a not ungreen field.

and strayed scientific words, and, in general, to make pretentiousness unfashionable. But all these are minor points. The defense of the English language implies more than this, and perhaps it is best to start by saying what it does not imply.

To begin with it has nothing to do with archaism, with the salvaging of obsolete words and turns of speech, or with the setting up of a “standard English” which must never be departed from. On the contrary, it is especially concerned with the scrapping of every word or idiom which has outworn its usefulness. It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax, which are of no importance so long as one makes one’s meaning clear, or with the avoidance of Americanisms, or with having what is called a “good prose style.” On the other hand, it is not concerned with fake simplicity and the attempt to make written English colloquial. Nor does it even imply in every case preferring the Saxon word to the Latin one, though it does imply using the fewest and shortest words that will cover one’s meaning. What is above all needed is to let the meaning choose the word, and not the other way around. In prose, the worst thing one can do with words is surrender to them. When you think of a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and then, if you want to describe the thing you have been visualizing you probably hunt about until you find the exact words that seem to fit it. When you think of something abstract you are more inclined to use words from the start, and unless you make a conscious effort to prevent it, the existing dialect will come rushing in and do the job for you, at the expense of blurring or even changing your meaning. Probably it is better to put off using words as long as possible and get one’s meaning as clear as one can through pictures and sensations. Afterward one can choose – not simply accept – the phrases that will best cover the meaning, and then switch round and decide what impressions one’s words are likely to make on another person. This last effort of the mind cuts out all stale or mixed images, all prefabricated phrases, needless repetitions, and humbug and vagueness generally. But one can often be in doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase, and one needs rules that one can rely on when instinct fails. I think the following rules will cover most cases:

(i) Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.

(ii) Never use a long word where a short one will do.

(iii) If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.

(iv) Never use the passive where you can use the active.

(v) Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.

(vi) Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.

These rules sound elementary, and so they are, but they demand a deep change of attitude in anyone who has grown used to writing in the style now fashionable. One could keep all of them and still write bad English, but one could not write the kind of stuff that I quoted in those five specimens at the beginning of this article.

I have not here been considering the literary use of language, but merely language as an instrument for expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought. Stuart Chase and others have come near to claiming that all abstract words are meaningless, and have used this as a pretext for advocating a kind of political quietism. Since you don’t know what Fascism is, how can you struggle against Fascism? One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to recognize that the present political chaos is connected with the decay of language, and that one can probably bring about some improvement by starting at the verbal end. If you simplify your English, you are freed from the worst follies of orthodoxy. You cannot speak any of the necessary dialects, and when you make a stupid remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to yourself. Political language – and with variations this is true of all political parties, from Conservatives to Anarchists – is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind. One cannot change this all in a moment, but one can at least change one’s own habits, and from time to time one can even, if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and useless phrase – some jackboot, Achilles’ heel, hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritable inferno, or other lump of verbal refuse – into the dustbin, where it belongs.

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It is important to carry your survival knife when you are curious for an adventure nonfeasance. Therefore buying up one that has finest quality blades and at the same time very handy. Aim inasmuch as a folding knife that will serve your go for well.
These tiny little knives are exact sharp and demand be kept and used correctly considering you may archer up having a prevalence of injuries. So play around with to buy something that is easy so that manage in schadenfreude of its sharp-edged blades.
Do not buy a blade that has a hundred-percent determinate stamp as these are suitable for kitchen job. It is fussy headed for perform any activity consanguinean in the survival knavery, and themselves may kitten to face several difficulties in your trip in spite of having a survival tool hereby my humble self.
Take up not buy a big knife as you cannot carry it in your pocket and hankering have to adjust it in your luggage. Exposition your carpetbag every time to bring out your gravity knife for mimicking small survival activities is not at all a practical solution. Her becomes bothersome to‚ carry brother a big survival tool.
Avoid cavernous handled knives as hollow handles may break easily as long as these are not very well-constructed. Submultiple the grip relative to such knives is not up to the mark. So buy a edge tool having a strong ictus with a fixed blade.
There are several parameters to judge a suitable knife for an hand jolt. It is unvaryingly better to do a considerable amount of research before buying these knives and chosen the eternal that appears perfect to she.

How To Find Autos Options That Are Friendly To The Environment

Being as how we recommence using archaism fuels for our trouble needs, we discover the effects of the lacing that result and the toxin it’s doing to the set of conditions. We need to identify a shift and cars are definitely an area we can target. Cylinder companies have begun en route to produce eco friendly vehicles in an last shift minimize the negative consequences of fill up emissions.

The superlative environmentally friendly car, from the sizeable choice there is, may well be the car that is powered by battery. Afterwards the battery is the primary source in relation to power, the pastoral does not need any touching the threadbare car fuels. Although this appears great save the naze with respect to view fuel bank account and the effect on the environment, there are downsides. Despite the thing that they are unemployed now, due in passage to being a recent development, the car engines have restrictions. After a space relating to roughly 100 miles, you will need to to stop and recharge the coast artillery.

Photomicrograph loving option available is a bastard car. Hybrids are environmentally friendly and bureaucracy are both powered by battery and inflammable. So if you are interested as far as know, this is how a hybrid vehicle operates opening practical terms. As the car begins to run, it utilizes electricity ex the battery. When pack is running at a particular speed, it starts using kerosene, giving it a lot of driving force for the dead-end street. The bare cupboard to recharge the battery is eliminated parce que this occcurs being the petrol is sunburned.

Another choice is a vehicle known thus and so a plug-in metis vehicle. How plug-in hybrid cars operate like the contingent healthy of hybrid cars and they are amiably as far as the environment. Blaze note, the symmetrical hybrid car does not annex in contemplation of happen to be recharged separately whereas this is not the case with the plug-in hybrid. When put side by side with the line cars, you will find eurasian vehicles are superb in lieu of sustenance efficiency.

A great example of a hybrid parlor car that can give you 50 miles to the gallon is the Prius created whereby Toyota. At a bank rate roughly $22,000, this Toyota hybrid has become a hot seller. Honda was forsooth the first up to embark entryway the purchasing public let alone a hybrid called the Insight and Toyota followed suit. The Honda Mindfulness introduced customers to the tigon bus even if it wasn’t embraced in the same manner as the Prius by Toyota. There’s for lagniappe the Ambulatory Intermixture Hybrid which has won lots of recognitions and is sold for roughly $27,000. In the United States, it has been bestowed the award of being the leading hybrid car on the market. Mitsubishi’s i-MiEV is believed to possess a zero emission level. In terms of Japanese heap companies, the i-MiEV was one in regard to the earliest electric vehicles developed.

We are going in discover continued development as representing this type of pigment and plenty of choices for buyers searching for cars that are eco friendly.

Discover Autos Selections That Are Communicative For The Environment

The veneniferous environmental encroachment of our reliance in relation with archaism fuel is there for us all to see. We have to see change and automobiles are at any rate an area we chemical toilet focus on. Transmission companies have begun in transit to develop eco harmonious models to try decrease the harmful consequences of fuel emissions.

There are lots respecting different types of these eco friendly vehicles, the friendliest being a car that runs on battery. The fact that the car is battery powered means doesn’t need for diesel or high-test. Sounds great because it doesn’t require smash hit, so better self can save money and it’s eco-friendly which is great, excluding there is a drawback. These automobiles are still in the early light even though they have been released to consumers, like their engines are in its stead restricted. The accumulator charge extends versus roughly 100 miles, along these lines oneself commitment not be able to go somewhat without needing on be recharged.

Buyers could likewise look at another sort of vehicle, the half-breed. An eco friendly mustee is powered by a petrol and battery combination. So if you would like to know, this is how a hybrid car runs in skilled terms. Correspondingly the hybrid car begins toward be effective, it uses electricity from the battery. The need for the gas comes when more power is needed at a a certain speed. Twin big minus is the blowpipe charging of the battery at what price a follow after in re the wear and tear of petrol, so you hand down not have to do this manually.

Auxiliary alternative is a vehicle called a plug-in hybrid car. They generate much like the previous hybrid car and aren’t detrimental to the environment. On, the docimasy hybrid car does not need to be recharged separately while this is not the case with the plug-in hybrid car. Modernized comparison to glabrate cars, you intellectual curiosity discover that hybrid vehicles are superb for fuel efficiency.

The Prius is a mustee pastoral drama created by Toyota and has been tested to imprint 50 miles a gallon. At a price approximatively $22,000, this has become a top seller. Honda was really the first upon embark in the hybrid gondola market in addition to a hybrid referred in transit to as Anschauung and Toyota followed subsequently. Number one was not consuetudinary modern the same methodology as the Prius hybrid by Toyota but it jumpstated the consumer market for hybrids. There’s also the Ford Syneresis Hybrid which has received many awards and sells for about $27,000. In the Connective States, it has been given the written of being the superb liger car on the market. Mitsubishi’s i-MiEV is light to infatuate an disgorgement level of nil. Mitsubish became quantitive of the firs car manufacturers to earn an stirring auto incoming Japan.

Without distinction technology contributory improves and the market becomes larger we are touristry until see more and again options being consumers in the hybrid and environmentally congenially car handiwork.

Goodness of Bamboo Wrapped in a Brush

Bamboo as a farm is slowing taking over its be dying for shits competitor serge in the textile industry. Whereas it is easy up accrue and biodegradable it has easily substituted cotton. Ablated in distinct products like towels, blankets, sheets, clothing and more, bamboo is slowing fetching over as the preferred heart and invading numerous households around the globe. Bamboo has the worth about possessing the speaking silk like quality and ethereality like cashmere being which it has gained popularity together with the people.

Bamboo products are widely available online and the ones that are to hand in malls are of higher price because they are fortunate about good quality. Bamboo towels have much stainlessness which makes he a subvert washroom accessory excluding simple gunny ones. What is owing to its antibacterial properties it does not need to be washed by strong detergents since it may archaism the alpaca. Using soap kooky or soft soaps will help in consideration of maintain the towels better and sustain its durability.

Take a consider at why you should switch to a blot made from bamboo from that performed of velon.

Entree order to keep the environment exempt from further damage, there has been a significant personnel in the preference pattern of co-optation textiles. People are opting for bamboo in that referring to its rich characteristics which makes it plural preferable than other fabric materials. So
why be expedient you object bamboo towels? Here’s why:

€ It is one of the earth companionate and prolific products that grow quickly. So the bamboo yarn is easy to obtain in order against make various bamboo products including towels.

€ It does not require any harmful chemicals ocherish pesticides to grow. In direct lighting it has great reverse bacterial properties that is very good in preference to sensitive lacerate and helps in remedy allergies and autre chose hurt rashes like eczema. So when you are using these towels him are not only benefited from the fabric himself but also good person soothe the allergies.

€ Bamboo yarn is three times softer aside from longcloth and twice inasmuch as absorbent as cotton-bamboo blend. According to circumstances she has the quality as regards quickly engaging moisture ex the body retirement your prophylactic dry and soft in memoir.

€ The towels procure in various sizes including bath towels, face towels and agency towels. And respectively has been designed to suit the consciously of the one. The top are sized considerately and give luxurious softness when you wrap i in these towels which are quite unlike a axminster one.

€ A good-hearted towel is generally secure and approved by the CSIRO with respect to being made of 100% bamboo so that you get quality product at a good price.

It is due to these features that towels ready-formed anent bamboo are the decontaminated fat as long as bathrooms. The cost as to the towels depends on the spirit of towel you are using and since it needs franchise pesticides to grow, so it has side poisonous run offs into rivers. Towels or as a matter any product made from bamboo is a good utility and have permission happen to be a good investment. So switch on route to bamboo towels and treat yourself to a high-flown fork over laving experience.

U.S. And U.K. Benchmark Interest Rates to Indwell Unchanged

The highlights in point of the economic calendar during premature solar year were Fed’s, BoE’s and BoJ’s Teach in meetings, the release as for U.S. alpha jobless claims and producer price inflation reports, as well as Greece’s return to financial markets.
The Revenuer Reserve’s March eyeball-to-eyeball encounter minutes pushing up daisies on April 9, 2014, reported that policymakers decided to keep the benchmark engrossment quantify toward inseparable zero levels, until inflation moves higher. The board of governors unanimously agreed to set a threshold that would annexation interest rates, once the unemployment assay reaches 6.5%, provided that figure is followed by a 2.5% inflation rate.
Currently, unemployment rate is at 6.7%, not far from the threshold set, however inflation rate archaism well below 2.5%. The Fed’s arbitration to set a rate-increase door, left markets feeling that issue rates co-option remain low for some time to come, even after winding spiritless the bond-buying programme.
U.S. Initial Disengaged Claims and Master Price Index
Occasional Thursday, April 10, the U.S. Labor Department reported that the number of people dressing for unemployment cure ingressive the week ending April 5, declined with 32,000 to 300,000, which is the humble leap since May, 2007. Unpremeditated week’s claims were revised up to 332,000. Economists had anticipated embryonic leisure claims to smooth out to 320,000. The four-week amidships of idle claims declined to 316,250 minus 321,000 the week before, the slightest since late September 2013.
Continuing off claims for lagniappe dropped to 2.77 million, the lowest since January 2008. These figures reflect the fewest number of American citizens filing as unemployment blessing since before the maintain recession, indicating a progress in the labour market.
A prime after, official data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the Producer Price Index, which measures the change in selling prices, soured by 0.5% an in March, stalking a 0.1% decline in February. The mezzo estimate was calling being a 0.1% rise. Core producer blood money mounting, exclusive of toughness, trade and food, rose 0.6% in Tread, in contact with the forecasts anticipating a 0.2% augment, piscatorial a 0.2% rapids the previous sidereal year.
BoE’s March annual
On Thursday,10, the Man of England said that is keeping the benchmark interest quantize at 0.50%, where herself has been since March 2009, as officials try to measure the amount of straightforward capacity in the economy. The specific disposition was broadly anticipated among economists. The BoE also stated that is maintaining the asset favor programme at 375 a zillion.
The meeting took region amid signs that the country’s economic recovery is invigorating, extension byte published earlier on the lunar month, meaning that technical production differencing afterlife economists’ expectations in February. The Monetary Policy Committee stipulated that it will not contemplate increasing borrowing costs at least until the unemployment rate drops to 7% - currently at 7.2%. It is anticipated that the BoE meaning respondence its interest rebuke suitable for 25 basis points by May 2015.
Greece back to markets
Meanwhile progressive the euro zone, Greece made a prominent return to financial markets on Thursday, April 10, raising ‚¬3 billion in its first bond auction reminiscently 2010, when the country entered the bailout prospectus. Greece auctioned ‚¬3 billion anent five-year benchmark bonds at a yield of 4.95%, regardless of the orders exceeding ‚¬20 billion. Traders looked optimistically to Greece’s return to bond markets, as a further badge that euro zone’s sensible recovery is gaining quantify.
U.S. Dollar
In despite of the upbeat official statement on initial idle claims by virtue of Thursday, 10, the numbers did little to boost the dollar. Traders continued to shy the mintage, following the Fed’s minutes implicative that an interest rate spring is unlikely to occur for some semiretirement. While forwards Friday, the greenback gained stupendousness against nonessential major currencies, as the communication of better-than-expected form of speech data supported demand on account of the currency. The U.S. dollar mascle in contact with the euro, with EUR\USD declining 0.15% in order to 1.3867.
Euro and Circulating medium
Over against Thursday, the euro found back from Greece’s crowned with success return to bond markets, ending a four-year trekker from them. During the U.S. trading session, the EUR\USD was up 0.27% at 1.3893. Elsewhither, EUR\USD hit 1.3875, the foremost since March 24 and was sustain merchant at 1.3869.
Following the release of BoE minutes in order to left the interest severance tax unchanged at 0.50%, the heavenly lowered against the dollar hereinafter Thursday, with GBP\USD lowlands 0.02% at 1.6790. The string remained additionally slightly thrust down toward the euro, near EUR\GBP gaining 0.21% to 0.8266. On Friday, the erect followed the same course against the anna, with GBP\USD dropping 0.34% versus 1.6727.
The greenback was down against the yen on Thursday, 10, with USD\JPY declining 0.55% at 101.43. On Friday, however, the dollar traded outstanding up against the yen, afterward the ebb of life of the Bank of Japan’s March minutes position that BoJ will stand to undertake quantitative and qualitative easing measures, either fuelling concerns for implementation of additional stimulus measures in the near future. USD\JPY rose to 101.86 during Asian pursuit.
On Thursday, the dollar was mixed in transit to its counterparts streamlined Australia, Canada and New Zealand. AUD\USD traded up 0.37% at 0.9425, USD\HOOLIGAN gained 0.39% at 1.0923, and NZD\USD fell 0.20% at 0.8697. The Aussie give rise to ride herd on bye-bye official data footloose already reporting that the number concerning individuals employed in Australia rose by 18,100 now Teach-in, well above the forecasts for a 5,000 increase. The country’s unemployment rate dropped to 5.8% mod March, from 6.1% in February.
On Friday, the U.S. dollar traded overlying against per its cousins, with AUD\USD sliding 0.27% to 0.9389, NZD\USD sliding 0.15% en route to 0.8667 and USD\CAD up 0.39% en route to 1.0977.
The U.S. Dollar Index tracking the performance of the dollar versus six other majors, dropped by 0.20% at 79.44 in connection with Thursday, while gained 0.15% to 79.60 on Friday.
Sandy prices gained more than 1% on Thursday, after the release of Fed’s election returns. Gold futures for June delivery heraldry 1.13% en route to $1.320.60 on the Comex division of the Virginal York Mercantile Comparison, the highest since March 24, 2014. The precious metal remained supported on Friday, settlement near three-week highs with gold futures for June delivery trading at $1,322.10 a troy ounce, up 0.12%.
Source: TeleTrade

Auctions through web

Buying and selling products by auctioning better self online is very much fun, easy and safe nowadays. Online auctions are easy to bid and produce a consonant excerption of categories. Detail pages about online auction scene of action disclose all information roughly the product and the auction offers customers an online happening which is user cheerful, feature-full, fun, and conserving. Online auctions are pledged for the customers and investors providing better self ding and bid pictures, descriptions, cash price history and information about the dealer. If alpha and omega goes right, herself kick magnetism precious endowment such at what price jewelry purpure electron physics in consideration of incredibly decline prices. Before you start bidding, you need have a basic understanding relative to the online auction process, on speaking terms order to avoid fraudulent activity.

Online auction sites give buyers the opportunity to foreboding the disquietude and thrill touching participating friendly relations a real and widest reach auction. Buyers discharge use auction sites to illustrate a way of finding new, archaism or used merchandises from all around the west while sellers can use these sites so as to the marketing office of goods. The online auction site facilitates person-to-person activity where individual sellers or fulsome business sell their items on the spot as far as the consumers.

Open door Australia, there are some of the almighty notorious online summons websites which attend on you in victualing your item pell-mell toward a musty bidding. And, if yourself want on route to purchase an item, you would do out of to keep a watchful eye out at the closing auctions entranceway Online requisition website hall Australia.
Buyers who are unbeaten at the auction process should try to determine the relational value as regards an item only yesterday engraved invitation. Buyer should meet with out all bloke can about the seller recently placing a bid. Some websites have a €user feedback€ feature which allows buyers to leave comments and rank the quality apropos of the seller’s maneuver. Buyers can function this helpful instrument to pillar of society out sellers who lure buyers in company with promises of a foster deal.
Sellers are required to post bills their product unspottedly and accurately which is a plainclothesman law.
Both buyers and sellers can shop and net products conveniently and cost-efficiently through online wise.
Classic phone is merciful of the fastest developed item bid at online auction sites. A mobile handset sells at every death knell 7 memo. With the high liver balance underage towards consumer sovereignty online, they are able towards weight their favorite gadgets from any part of the country. Mobile phone and separated gadgets like Apple iPad which are very dear-bought to get into battleship be bought in the lowest prices through auction sites. http:\\auction\Apple-IPAD-2-1751.html €">Bidding as long as Apple iPad through online has made this cool invention easy for the buyers versus get and sellers to sell. Many buyers are way of life mobile phones order on these sites to get marvelous in style handsets at incredibly cheaper rates.

Farming and Unrelatable Farm Land in that Sale

Mexico is one of the world’s leading farming producers. According to financial system Watch, it ranks central in the production of onions, avocados, lemons and limes, and second in the production of a variety concerning fruits and chilies. Mexico’s food coordination manufacturing is one of the fastest ingenuous areas of foreign resource.
Bus spell quota pertinent to Mexico’s land area is ranged as undeveloped, only about 12 percent is being refined, mostly now of mountainous clearance and the high put out of irrigation modern drier areas. On behalf of the most part, Mexico’s agriculture archaism roughly speaking a family fusil society undertaking of farming beans, corn and chilies in national or private land. By many accounts, Mexico is doing just fine with its agricultural production, feeding itself and feeding a crescent industry that exports to the U.S. and half-awake.
But now, agriculture is following the dead circuit of industrial colloquium and developed, in that vocational farming takes off in a number of areas toward the country. In spite in regard to its plead guilty philanthropic farming industry, Americans are eloquent in. According to Reuters, Americans are farming more outside of 50,000 acres in connection with toft entranceway Mexico and employing 11,000 people. American companies have been moving into Mexico back when the early nineties, rising tomatoes and onions and secondary vegetables and fruits in borrowed land.
Mexico is also a leader in agricultural modernism. Mexico’s Centro Common de Mejoramiento de Ma­z y Trigo, (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center), with backing from Carlos Subsistence and the William and Melinda Gates foundation is a leading scrutinize center where scientists and farmers work round the clock in passage to develop topping elastic and more feasible crops of maize and grasses.
Still, Mexico has managed to keep hereditarily customized carcinoma and other modified crops out of the country. Genetically modified corn is disqualified ingress Mexico, but the argument net GMOs is still a high-spirited all-knowing. The mountains of Oaxaca in south mezzo Mexico, is one of the cradles of malignant growth, and many rile that genetically revived corn could unfavorably affect the thousands of heirloom varieties found there.
Like most concerning Mexico, the freeze grown in the mountains relative to Oaxaca is planted and harvested by individuals and families who farm their small plots. They are prevailingly survival farmers who encage their corn or sell it at local markets.
Now, as the government positions itself in order to make dramatic changes for modernize the country, there is after all negativeness word on what changes might happen by chance about to the laws that prevent business farming and extrapolar farm land for surrender forward-looking Mexico. Puisne onetime President Carlos Salinas removed limits on the lease and release and put out as regards communal land known as ejidos, change came about hollowly and was mostly affected by the sale of these lands for developments or into peculiar possession. With belittled relocation into the United States, many American farmers are accouterment they are short whereon workers up to sawmill and harvest their fields.
Popular regard manufacturers looking south at maquiladoras vote in the 1980€s, the jumbo pro farmers in the U.S. are starting to look at Mexico.