arabic way

Does anybody else who studies multiple languages...

 (which I’m assuming is the vast majority of people following this blog) go through waves in terms of their interests/ focus on one language. One month I’ll be so into one language and so motivated to study it, then suddenly I want to get back into another. I’ve been on Spanish for the past few months and today, suddenly I want to watch some Korean dramas and be all about Korean. I’m going to Mexico in less than a week but at the very moment, I’m thinking about when I’ll get to go to S. Korea. But this always happens to me. Sometimes it’s months, sometimes weeks. This is crazy! 


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Persian vs Arabic Orthographies

Persian and Arabic may both use the Arabic script, but their written forms are quite different from each other. In this post I’m going to try and talk about the big differences so that people can both learn to distinguish them from each other and learn some cool facts.

The New Letters

Arabic is kind of weird in that it doesn’t have the sounds “p” or “g”, meaning its alphabet naturally doesn’t have any letters corresponding to those sounds. Persian, however, has both, so the letters پ pe and گ gâf were created to represent p and g respectively. There are also 2 other new letters, ژ zhe and چ che, representing the sounds “zh” (like the “si” in “vision”) and “ch”.

Different Pronunciation

For its lack of sounds as common as “p” and “g”, Arabic also has a lot of pretty weird sounds: some of which include the “th”s in “thick” and “this” (which you may think are perfectly normal because of English but are actually quite rare worldwide) and a set of weird throaty “emphatic consonants”. Naturally these weird sounds have their own letters: the two “th”s are written as ث and ذ and there are lots of emphatic letters which I don’t feel like going over now. But Persian has neither the “th”s nor emphatics. The logical solution would be to get rid of these letters entirely, but no, Persian decided to write the these weird sounds in Arabic loanwords but just pronounce them with their closest Persian counterparts. Thus ث and ذ are pronounced as “s” and “z”, and emphatics are pronounced as non-emphatic: س and ص are both “s”, ز ض ظ are all “z”, ت ط are both “t”, and ه ح are both “h”. Also, the infamous ع ‘ayn which any Arabic learner will complain to you about is simply pronounced as a glottal stop in Persian. One more thing to note: the letter و, named “waw” and pronounced as “w” in Arabic, is now “vâv” and pronounced as “v”.

Differing Letter Forms

Arabic has grammatical gender, and with that there is the very common suffix -a to mark feminine gender, written with a form of the letter tā’ called tā’ marbūṭa ”tied tā’”, which looks like ة (the letter ه hā’ “h” with 2 dots). Persian has no have grammatical gender and thus has no need for tā’ marbūṭa. In Arabic loanwords which have tā marbūṭa, it is either loaned in as a final -ه e (اسطوره osture vs  أسطورة usṭūra “myth”) or -at (دولت dowlat vs دولة dawla “state”). 

There are 2 word-final forms of letters that are very similar looking to each other in Arabic: ي, final yā’ “y”, and ى, actually a form of ا alif called alif maqṣūra which is pronounced as long ā. Persian, however, doesn’t actually dot its yā’ (or rather “ye”), making the two identical. The thing is, alif maqsure is VERY rare in Persian, only really commonly occuring in some proper names such as عیسی ‘isâ “Jesus” or مرتضی mortezâ “Morteza”. 

Arabic’s letter for k, ‌ك kāf, looks kind of like the letter ل lām “l” with a doodad inside of it in the isolated and final forms, but looks like this: كـ elsewhere. In Persian, it has the isolated and final forms ک کـ, giving it a much more consistent aesthetic across the board. The letter for g, گ gâf, also naturally follows this convention.

So Arabic has this thing called hamza that represents the glottal stop (a pause, like the sound in “uh-oh” represented by the hyphen). It can go on top of the letters yā’ and wāw ی و and give you ئ ؤ, representing a glottal stop proceeded or followed by the vowel sounds “i” and “u” (سئل su’ila “he was asked”, سؤال su’āl “question”), or it can go either on top of OR below alif ا. The only letter with a hamza that can occur at the beginning of a word is alif, which gives it the burden of representing all 3 short vowels. A hamza on top means an “a” or “u” (أول ‘awwal “first”, أسطورة ‘usṭūra “myth”) and a hamza on the bottom means it’s an “i” (إستقلال ‘istiqlāl “independence”). Hamza can also come at the end of a word not attached to anything, such as سوداء sawdā’ “black (feminine)”. 

So I spent all that time explaining how hamza works in Arabic to deliver this shocking news: the hamza is actually not very common in Persian. The only real place you see it is in the middle of words on ئ and ؤ: otherwise it’s either optional or actually discouraged by the Persian Language Academy.


Now this is where the most drastic differences come in. Note I’ll mainly be talking about Modern Iranian Persian, which is an important detail because the vowels can vary pretty heavily across dialects.

Arabic has six vowels: a i u ā ī ū, with the ones with the line on top simply being longer versions of the first 3. Iranian Persian has… well, also 6 vowels, but they’re a e o â i u (a being the “a” in “cat”). In Arabic, due to how the vowel system works, there’s a pretty clean division of how vowels are written: short vowels are optionally indicated through diacritics, long vowels are indicated through consonant placeholders. As you can see, Persian doesn’t really have short and long vowels in the same way Arabic does, but we’re going to shoehorn the vowels into these now-arbitrary categories to make things simpler to understand.

Short vowels: a e o 
Long vowels: â i u 

The short vowels are indicated with diacritics:

اَ اِ اُ

While the long vowels are indicated through ا (glottal stop), ی “y”, and و “v”. The two diphthongs, ey and ow, are indicated through ی and و too. So this matches up pretty cleanly with the Arabic system, actually; In Arabic, those diacritics represent “a”, “i”, and “u”. This makes reading Arabic loanwords in Persian quite easy, because you can just read the short vowels as “a e o” and the long vowels as “â i u”. For example:

Arabic حُروف ḥurūf “letters”
Persian حُروف horuf “letters”

Persian writes vowels initially by just throwing the vowel diacritics on top of ا alef, very similar to Arabic and its stuff with Hamza:

اَسب asb “horse”
اِمروز emruz “today”
اُتاق otâq “room”

The vowels â i u are simply represented by آ (alef with a tilde-like diacritic), ای (alef + ye), and او (alef + vâv) respectively, which is quite close to what Arabic does with ā ī ū (but Arabic is cool and adds hamzas).

Word-final vowels are where things get a bit different though. In Arabic, short vowels are just indicated with diacritics at the end of words and the long vowels… let’s just say Arabic has a bit of a complex relationship with word-final long vowels. In Persian, though, all vowels must be indicated word-finally somehow. And here’s how it happens:

1. The most common short vowel at the end of a word is “e”, indicated by ه. Next up is “o”, indicated by و, and finally the very rare “a”, indicated also by ه.

2. Long vowels are indicated with ا، ی، و just like they are in the middle of words. 

Like I said though, I’m talking about Iranian Persian. Afghan Persian actually has 2 more vowels: ē ō, longer versions of “e” and “o”. These are also indicated with ی and و. In Iranian Persian these two vowels have merged with i and u, resulting in the words شیر shēr “lion” and شیر shir “milk” both being pronounced “shir”. 


This section is mainly for fun, but what the hell. A lot of Arabic calligraphy gradually drifted towards a style called naskh, which is also how Arabic is displayed in basically every modern computer font. 

Iran, however, developed a distinctive style called nastaliq. Besides being used very commonly for Persian poetry, this is also the standard way of writing Urdu! For example, here’s an Urdu newspaper. 

Well, that’s about all I have to say! I may have forgotten some stuff, but to me this seems like a pretty comprehensive list as I read over it. I hope you learned some stuff!

anonymous asked:

Hello! I'm not trying to get on your nerves or be disrespectful or anything but isn't Damian only a quarter Arab? Since Talia is half Arab and half Chinese? So Damian is half white, a quarter Arab and a quarter Chinese? I completely get that you want more representation of other races in comics! And who better to start with than the son of BATMAN. I'm just seriously asking because I was curious. I thought that this was true and I wanted to see if it was. No disrespect. Have a lovely day :)

Sadly that’s actually a very big misconception in this fandom. I did make a (table/chart) in the past explaining Damian’s ethnicity if you want to know more.

Basically Ra’s is an Arab bedouin man that came from the Arabian Peninsula, and he identify as such, there’s a very small chance he might have some distance Chinese in him from one of his ancestors but nothing has been confirmed yet. And there’s Talia’s mom Melisande, at the beginning she was solely Arab too like Ra’s, however in the “Birth of the Demon” comic (Which by the way isn’t even canon) She has been retconned and has been described as being mixed, half Arab and half Chinese.

So now it’s depends on if you want to take the BoTD comic into consideration or not, if you do, then Talia would be 75% Arab and 25% Chinese (Not 50% each, like a lot of people think). However since the comic isn’t canon, then Talia can also be counted as being 100% Arab. So either way she would still have more Arab in her than Chinese, so would Damian.

I know some of you might read this and think that I’m being biased but honestly it’s very frustrating when people exaggerate the al Ghul’s Chinese linage. It has been mentioned ONCE in an out-of-canon-comic that Damian’s grandmother was half Chinese, and if you take that into consideration, that would mean that Damian is only 1/8 Chinese, and even then because it’s not canon it’s debatable if he even has any in him in the first place. Let’s not mention that Melisande has never met either Damian or Talia (Well she did meet Talia for like 5 minutes and then died afterwards) And that both Damian and Talia have been raised in Arabic cultures/countries with Ra’s since they were born, and that they are mostly ethnically Arab and have been raised as such.

So again, I’m not trying to take anything from anybody, but it’s just very frustrating when people exaggerate and dismiss Damian being Arab by saying false things like “Damian is also Chinese!” or “Damian is both Arab and Chinese”, when in reality he barely has any Chinese in him, and it’s not even canon. Just refer to him as Arab people, no need to add to call him Chinese/part Chinese.

Loanwords of French origin in Turkish Language

The French words started to infiltrate the Turkish language in the 1800s, when the administrative reforms (Tanzimat) started taking place in the Ottoman Empire. The extent of French influence was so much that the number of French loanwords was close to 5,000. Most of the French loanwords are still widely used in today’s Turkish.

Some of the words that are still used in modern Turkish together with their new Turkish counterparts:

Loanword | Turkish equivalent | Meaning in English | French

aktif            |  etkin                         | active                         | actif

direkt          |  doğrudan                 | directly                       | direct

doküman    | belge                         | document                   | document

egzersiz      | alıştırma                     | exercise                     | exercice

enteresan   | ilginç                          | interesting                 | intéressant

grup            | öbek                          | group                        | groupe

kalite           | nitelik                         | quality                       | qualité

objektif        | nesnel                        | objective                   | objectif

teori            | kuram                         | theory                       | théorie

provokasyon | kışkırtma                   | provocation              | provocation

rapor          | yazanak                       | report                       | rapport

proje           | tasarı                           | project                      | projet

plaj              | kumsal                        | beach                        | plage

orijinal         | özgün                          | original                      | original

paralel        | enlem                           | latitude                      | paralléle

medya        | basın-yayın                   | media                        | média  

Conquering a Village

The football team was the last standing free men in the village. A Christian village, under final siege by the Arab conquerors. The conquerors had quickly gone through the village, converting the white men and women and showing them their true roll in the world: to serve their Arab masters. They started with the soccer team. An attractive group, they used to run around with their cocks flopping around as they chased a ball.

Probably the queerest group in town, they used to have orgies in the locker room after a win, circle jerking their uncut cocks. They had girlfriends who loved them and they would sleep with out of norms, but they always had an affection for each other.  Then Arabs came. One by one, each was converted. They started with the team captain Jake. He was capture and bound. They stripped him down, revealing a 6-inch uncut cock with a long foreskin overhang. They told him that they were there to convert his town, it was inevitable that they would. Jake had two options convert willingly or have it forced into him.  “go to hell, I’ll never convert, you are all monsters”. Their leader, Ahmad, smirked and said “we will see about that” as his fellow Arabs forced Jake on his knees. Ahmad pulled out his 7-inch flaccid circumcised cock. Jake just stared in amazement. “what are you going to do with that? Let me go!” Ahmad bent down and looked Jake into his eyes and said “this is what I am going to convert you with.” He then turned Jake around, revealing a toned ass. He slapped his cock on Jake’s ass, giving him an additional inch and a half as he became fully erect. His cock curved straight up and had a jagged scar from his circumcision about ¼ of the way down. Jake’s cock moved and grew with each slapping of the Arab’s cock. He forced it into Jake’s white tight hole as Jake was forced onto all fours.

“ugghhhh” Jake moaned as he was entered. The other Arabs had all pulled their cocks out, each between 6-8 inches, all were circumcised and erect. “You will submit to us, we are your true masters. We will convert you and your friends. A new order, built by our cocks at the expense of your bodies” Ahmad said with each thrust. “Submit and take your place”. Jake was resisting. “I’ll never ugh join your ahhh tribe. I ahhhhhhhhh am a slave to no one.”  Jake’s cock had become completely hard at this point though. His foreskin had retracted while he was on all fours taking Ahmad’s cock as he pounded Jake’s hole relentlessly. The problem for Jake was, it felt so good. Ahmad’s curved cock was perfect for fucking. The angle allowed him to hit a boy’s G-spot just right and Jake was succumbing to his power. “ahhh, please don’t convert me, ahhhh fuck ughhhh” Zain, Ahmad’s right hand man was jerking his tightly cut cock, as all the others were doing, and noticed that the conversion was almost complete. A pool of precum was forming under Jake’s intact cock as each thrust by Ahmad pushed more of it out of his piss slit.  Zain looked at Jake, “It is time that you taste my Arab Muslim cock and complete your conversion.”  Jake was in too much pleasure to even respond at this point. Ahmad, with each thrust, was breaking down Jake’s upbringing, values, social expectations, and sexuality. They were being replaced with obedience, submission and pleasure.

With that, Zain opened Jake’s mouth, without much effort, and forced his cock into it. He began thrusting his cock into Jake’s mouth. The others began yelling “complete his conversion” “Submit and take your natural role white boy” “you are not worthy of our Arab cum” as Jake began sucking willingly on Zain’s cock, having him suck until his circumcision scar and back. “I will now fill your ass with my cum and complete your journey to our side” Ahmad said as he came. His holy semen spilled into Jake’s hole, reprogramming his DNA. Zain did the same. Jake did not spill one drop. They pulled their cocks out of Jake. He remained still. Eyes closed as he swallowed the remains of the cum in his mouth. He stood up.

“Thank you for that, sir. I had no idea how natural that was. Because of your superior cocks, I now know what true pleasure is.” The Arabs surrounded him. “will you submit and convert?” “yes, willingly. There is only one way and it is yours.” They looked at his soft foreskinned cock and said “you will have to convert your cock. As sign of obedience, you will be circumcised and foreskin removed.” He looked at them eagerly as he retracted his foreskin. “thank you sir. I will willingly submit my cock for circumcision and take on the brand of ownership by you.” “after circumcision, we will put your cock in a chastity cage, only to be opened if one of us, your superior Arab masters, wants to use your cock as a dildo. Otherwise, your role is to take our cock.” Jake had an erection hearing this. “thank you, sir, it would be my pleasure to serve my Arab masters in any way I can” “we will convert your friends and your teammate. They will submit, be converted, circumcised and be used in their natural place as servants for our kind. Your girlfriend will become a breeder” Jake began leaking cum out of his piss slit as he thought of all his friends and teammates, guys he used to fuck but now will be serving his new Arab masters, together. All of them presenting their holes with freshly circumcised cocks dangling as they take their superior master’s will into them. “now, take all of our Arab cocks in your hole as we circumcise you and finish your conversion.” “gladly sir” as Jake naturally got on his back, threw his legs up in the air and began getting gangbanged and his conversion was finished.

Three weeks later, his team – his buddies that used to circle jerk their uncut cocks and fuck each other had been converted. In the place of wild soccer boys were obedient, circumcised white slaves who only took Arab cock in them. They were now owned by Arabs and only served Arabs. Put in chastities so they could only receive pleasure when their Arab masters allowed it.

They were only too happy to share this pleasure with others, taking turns bringing friends to their Arab masters so that they could be properly converted. Their girlfriends had quickly disowned them once they too felt the power of a circumcised Arab cock in them. Women were separated and were now used to breed more Arab conquerors.

Having their holes drilled and the school had converted had been a natural process for the citizens. The more converted the more quickly it spread. Soon all had been bound and pounded by the Arabs and the mark of obedience imprinted on their cocks.  Now, they were obedient and conquered men, who presented their holes for their Arab masters as they pounded them for pleasure..

Across the field, the football team of 50 stood against the 10 Arab conquerors and their converts. Physically bigger than anyone on the other side, they believed that if they fucked free thought into the converts and Arabs, they could repel them for good and eradicate them. “this is it gentlemen, we will defeat these Arabs and keep this town a free-thinking place. No one is cutting our cocks into dildos. We will fuck free thought back into them and take back our town. Now everyone, let us go fuck those guys” With that, they ran towards the converts and Arabs, hoping. Resistance was futile. They didn’t succeed on one convert. Sure, they were able to fuck a few, but their uncut cocks were no match for nature. White men were destined to serve cut Arab cock. One by one, they were converted and processed. All fifty of them, never having sucked cock in their lives, were now natural bottom boys along with the rest of the white men who had held them down as their Arab masters instilled obedience in them. The quarterback took the longest to convert. Pounded for over three hours by the different Arab men. In the end thought, after being fucked, circumcised and converted his response was the same as all others: “thank you, sir. My place is to serve you, sir.”

Tbh the Muslim community is way too Arab-centric, Muslims worldwide expect Muslims as a whole even the non Arab ones to be aware of what is happening in Syria, Palestine, iraq etc… (Basically what we consider to be ‘Arab issues’, though it goes without saying Arabs aren’t the only ethnic group actually living in those countries) but Arab Muslims aren’t expected to know (or really I guess care) about the issues of non Arab Muslim majority countries like Nigeria for example (which just like Arab-majority, Muslim majority countries has had to deal with extremist groups of its own, namely Boko Haram) or Muslim majority South Asia and the non Arab ‘Muslim south asian’ fight for Kashmiri independence, or EVEN Muslim-majority Iran and the constant dehumanisation of its Shia and Persian-majority population. There’s also Burma (Myanmar) in east Asia where the Rohingya Muslim minority population of the country are experiencing what Rohingya themselves have described as a genocide at the hand of the many Buddhist extremist groups who also live there but I have yet to see anyone who cares about 'Muslim Arab issues’ also care about all those other non Arab 'Muslim issues’ I’ve just mentioned…. All I’m basically trying to say to all the Muslims who follow me (specially the Arab ones) is to please also take an interest in the struggles of other Muslim communities, As Arabs we’re not the only Muslims and actually (or should that be ironically) we’re a minority when you take into account all the non Muslim Arabs that exist and the fact not everyone in North Africa and the middle east even ARE Arabs (many are imazighen in North Africa’s case and in the middle east’s case many are actually Kurdish, Turkish, Persian, Pashtun, Azeri etc….) and obviously I don’t expect every Muslim to know everything about the struggles the people of every Muslim majority country face that’s near impossible but really it is fair that as Muslim Arabs we also bother to AT LEAST have a common (even if basic) understanding of the struggle of other Muslims the same way so many non Arab Muslims have bothered to learn a little about all of our 'Arab Muslim’ issues.

anonymous asked:

SO many arab girls at my school are obsessed with south asian culture but refuse to talk about how south asians are abused in the gulf countries lol

the way arabs treat immigrants is disgusting and modern day slavery. they will run channels showcasing our art (bollywood movies, pakistani dramas, desi music etc…) but will exploit and abuse us for their own gain. lmao poc solidarity is such a myth and i hate when people group us all as one

anonymous asked:

so i'm very confused if islam has "feminist" roots or not. i've seen posts saying arab women had rights way before islam (owning businesses,being warriors something like that) but I've also seen many arguemnets that islam was unique in what rights it gave to women (right to divorce). i'm very confused because what i was taught in (my u.s. mostly christian) schools was the former. did the quran not give women the right to divorce and other things they didn't have before?

It doesn’t have feminist roots because a female slave couldn’t refuse her master AND the only way she could be freed was if her master decided on it or she had his child. 
It doesn’t have feminist roots because a man can marry four women but a woman can only marry one man. 
It doesn’t have feminist roots because for a man divorces his wife he just needs to say “Talaq” three times for ANY reason whilst a woman must have a valid reason (if the reason is not absolutely necessary Muhammad has stated that the fragrance of Paradise will be forbidden to her) to divorce her husband which then needs to be approved by a judge. 
It doesn’t have feminist roots because a woman can not be a leader. 
It doesn’t have feminist roots because a woman can not leave her house without her husband’s permission. 
It doesn’t have feminist roots because a woman can not refuse her husband’s request for sex. 
It doesn’t  have feminist roots because a woman can not wear what she wants. 

I could literally go on forever. 

Look at the power the Greek women, the Spartan women, the Egyptian women even the Quraish (the people who lived in Makkah at Muhammad’s time ) women had prior to Islam.

So not Islam doesn’t have feminist roots nor was Muhammad a feminist. 

July 11, 1917 - First Battle of Ramadi

Pictured - British staff officers and scouts look over the Euphrates.

Located on the road west from Baghdad towards Syria and Jordan, Ramadi is a strategically important Iraqi town. It was fought over in both World Wars, during the American invasion of 2003, and during the war with Islamic State. In 1917, it was occupied by a garrison of 1,000 Ottoman soldiers, who blocked the road between Baghdad and Aleppo. British General Sir Frederick Maude ordered his men to flush them out. 

One brigade from the Indian army, plus several squadrons of cavalry and some armored cars, marched from Baghdad to Aleppo, 100 miles west. But the hot Mesopotamian summer took a turn for the worse. According to people in Baghdad, it was the hottest weather they could remember. Rubber boots reportedly melted when they touched hot tarmac. British command decided to ferry the troops to Ramadi instead by truck, which was the first concerted use of automobiles for transport in the badly-supplied Mesopotamian theater.

Nevertheless, the battle went against the British. The Turks put up a good fight, subjecting the Indian troops to a hail of bullets as they advanced through the farms and gardens on the way to Ramadi. Three British planes went up to help, but the water evaporated from their engines so quickly that they had to land or overheat. Even more than Turkish rifles, the sun took a toll, and there were over 300 casualties due to the heat. The Indian troops retreated to the town of Dhibban, south of Ramadi, being sniped at by Arab irregulars the whole way.