arab sicily

West African Mosques 

Mosques built in parts of the Muslim world where Arabs migrated or took control of through wars developed a distinct tradition of domes and minarets. In areas where Islam spread mostly by returning traders, traditions of mosque building were determined more by local skills and approaches.

According to Al Sayyad, the Arab conquest of the Middle East was motivated by three aims that conform to the notion of colonialism: a divine mission of spreading the Islamic religion, the maintenance of political power by the ruling Arab elite whilst expanding trade and finally to gain profit from resources of conquered lands. However, the Arab conquest did not always encounter confrontation. On the contrary as in the case of Damascus and Sicily, Arab dominion was preferable to Byzantine exploitation:“Appropriating and dismantling the religious and political buildings of earlier civilisations became common Arab practice. The symbolism associated with such transformations cannot be considered anything but colonial. The takeover of churches, and their later transformation into mosques, and the constructions of ruler’s palaces in the center of new or existing cities, represent colonial urbanism at work.” In contrast, Islam’s penetration of Sub-Saharan Africa dates to around the 9th century via the Saharan caravan routes. Two strands of influence shaped Islam in West Africa. One was the link between the Maghreb and the Berber-African gold-trading centres such as the pagan Soninke state of Ghana. The other was the eastern route that connected central Sudan – Kanem, Bornu and the Hausa states with Libya, Tunisia and Egypt. Although characterised by regional and ethnic variety, one unifying factor in African Islam is the predominance of the Maliki madhab – the same school of thought adhered to in the Maghreb. In addition to the commercial link between the two regions, a spiritual bond existed with North Africa. Indeed, the majority of Sufi brotherhoods in West Africa originate from the Maghreb but the spread of the so-called turuq (Arab. ‘path’ used to describe the Sufi brotherhoods) did not happen until much later in the 18th and 19th centuries.

As the equivalent of the word “masjid ” in various African languages indicates, like its Arabic root, that the mosque is nothing more than a place of prostration: massallatai in Nigeria, missidi in Futa Diallon. By contrast, diakka in Wolof literally means to face east. West African mosques vary from simple roofless enclosures serving the function of places for communal prayer, to magnificent buildings. It would be impossible to do justice to the vast array of stylistic variants of mosque architecture in West Africa alone, therefore the regions covered here are primarily Senegal and Mali.
Mali was impregnated with a tradition known by the name of its dominant group, the Mande, whence Manding. Among them, those who were islamised were known as Dyula or Wangara. This group also covered a large area during their migration, spanning part of Senegal, Northern Nigeria, the Upper Niger Bend, Guinea coast and over to Kong in the Ivory Coast. Mande style is characterised by the use of conical forms particularly found on monumental entrances of courtyard houses and mosques. Decorated with pilasters and elements in relief alternating with voids, these façades are also found in Dogon architecture. But apart from the close affinity between domestic and religious architecture, additional elements such as the phallic pylons testify as to the integration of ancestral practices with Islamic ones.Thus the Mande style – which has come to be associated with the Soudanese style – was transmitted by traders who taught mystical Islam throughout this vast region. Nowadays, however, the transmission of the djennenké style takes place with the movement of master-builders whose craftsmanship is much sought after.

The origins of the Soudanese mosque are not clear-cut: their monumental and fortress-like exteriors are reminiscent of the defensive architecture of West Africa known as tata. There may also be a relation between these mosques and domestic architecture. The Great Mosque of Djenné typifies the Soudanese mosque and furthermore it may have been the progenitor of this type of mosque architecture. Although it was rebuilt under the aegis of the French administration in 1907, the craftsmen, as along with the building technology, are more local than French. This vast mosque dominates the market place from its raised platform. Like its relatives, the mosque is characterised by its use of buttressing, pinnacles and attached pillars all of which are punctuated by the toron spikes. Unlike many other Soudanese mosques, the ceiling of Djenné’s great mosque are very high. The western side of the mosque opens onto a large courtyard at the rear of which are situated the women’s galleries, one on each side of the entrance.This mosque has become almost iconic in terms of West African mosque architecture and numerous village mosques in the surrounding area emulate the Djenné mosque albeit on a miniature scale. Dominated by their minaret tower, courtyard and the flat roof from where the adhan is made, each mosque has its own distinctive character.Relatives of the Soudanese mosques in Mali can be found in the Futa Toro in north-eastern Senegal. Here dwellings are generally preceded by a wooden veranda or mud porch typical of all Tukolor housing in the area. This structure is echoed in the sacred enclosure around Futa mosques consisting of a projecting straw roof supported by posts whose function is to accommodate the overflow of worshippers and protect them from the sun. As for the central and coastal area of Senegal, the influence of colonialism left its mark on mosque building and the mosques of Saint Louis, Gorée and Dakar (Blanchot) are all equipped with a front porch defined by arcades with pointed arches.

Text by: Kafia Cantone


Catania, Sicily - June 2017

Few in the United States know that the United States possesses some 1,000 military bases and installations outside the fifty states and Washington, DC, on the sovereign land of other nations. Let me repeat that number again because it’s hard to take in: 1,000 bases. On other people’s sovereign territory. 1,000 bases.  More than half a century after the end of World War II and the Korean War, the United States retains 287 bases in Germany, 130 in Japan, and 106 in South Korea. There are some 89 in Italy, 57 in the British Isles, 21 in Portugal, and nineteen in Turkey. Other bases are scattered around the globe in places like Aruba and Australia, Djibouti, Egypt, and Israel, Singapore and Thailand, Kyrgyzstan and Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates, Crete, Sicily, and Iceland, Romania and Bulgaria, Honduras, Colombia, and Guantánamo Bay, Cuba—just to name a few. Some can still be found in Saudi Arabia and others have re- cently returned to the Philippines and Uzbekistan, where locals previously forced the closure of U.S. bases. In total, the U.S. military has troops in some 150 foreign nations. Around the world the Defense Department re- ports having more than 577,519 separate buildings, structures, and utilities at its bases, conservatively valuing its facilities at more than $712 billion.
—  David Vine, Island of Shame: The Secret History of the U.S. Military Base on Diego Garcia

anonymous asked:

Hi, different anon. Why do you say that you have more in common with a Lebanese or a Moroccan than with a German or a Dutch? Because I'm from Southern Italy too, and this is the first time I've ever heard something like that. Thanks!

well, first of all: Southern Italy was conquered by Arabs. In Sicily there are remnants of Islamic architecture for example, and some words in Southern Italian languages such as Neapolitan and Sicilian have Arabic roots, like tamarro. We also look similar to them in terms of facial features and physical appearance, even though we have our unique Southern Italian traits. 

The flatbread for pizza was brought to Napoli, a Greek colony, by Greeks, whom they got it from the Persians (modern Iran, but flatbread is quite common in the Middle East). Cannoli are also Arab-inspired. That being said, Mediterranean countries all have something in common.

In general, we both value hospitality and the guest is sacred, we are both short-tempered and impatient, we are both addicted to food, we are both family-oriented people, WE BOTH USE THE BIDET, we are both chaotic and we live in chaotic places. 

What do I have in common with a German or a Dutch? They are very different people and the opposite of us. By the way, these cultural differences are a big problem in the EU when it comes to make decisions and find solutions to problems.

Sicilian cake La Cassata.

By Silvia Crucitti

“Cassata is another famous Sicilian cake with Arab heritage.  :Cassata” comes from the Arabic word qa'sat, a kind of large baking pan.  Sicilian folklore dates cassata to the fourteeth century.  But the very first mention of it is in the Paris manuscript  of the Riyad an-Nufus, a tenth-century chronicle attributed to al Malike.  He reports that Abu a-Fadl, an orthodox jurist from the Aghlabid capital in Tunisia, refused to eat a sweet cake call a ka'k because it was made with sugar from Sicily, then ruled by unorthodox Shiites.

Comparison of Spanish and Maltese vocabulary

Spanish - Maltese - English

Azahar - Zahar - Blossom (Orange blossom in Spanish)

Aceite - Żejt - Oil

Camisa - Qmis - Shirt

Azúcar - Zokkor - Sugar

Almohada - Imħadda - Pillow

Ojalá - Jalla - Spanish: “Hopefully”/”May…” ; Maltese: “May…” 

Albaricoque - Berquq - Apricot

Ajonjolí (also: sésamo) - Ġunġlien - Sesame

Azafrán - Żaffran - Saffron 

Alcachofa - Qaqoċċ - Artichoke

Tapiz - Tapit - Carpet

Algarrobo (from Arabic: al-kharrouba) - Ħarrub - Carob tree

Algodón - Qoton - Cotton

Almanaque - Almanakk - Almanac

Arroz - Ross - Rice

Atún - Tonn - Tuna

Dado - Dadi - Dice

Taza - Tazza - Cup

Zagal (synonym for “chico”) - Raġel - Man

Zanahoria - Zunnarija - Carrot

Zoco (synonym for “mercado”) - Suq - Market

As you can see the words I have picked in Spanish are very similar to those in Maltese, this is due to the fact that all the Spanish words I have chosen (some of them less common in use than others) are of Arabic origin, from Andalusi Arabic, to be precise. Andalusi Arabic was the Arabic dialect spoken in Spain during the Arabs’ rule in Spain. Andalusi Arabic was very similar to Moroccan Arabic, Moroccan Arabic itself being a Maghrebi dialect. However, Andalusi Arabic is cassified as Iberian Arabic, nevertheless it has evolved from Maghrebi Arabic.

Maltese has a similar history to that of Andalusi Arabic. Maltese is the descendant of Siculo-Arabic, the Arabic spoken on Sicily during Arab rule. Siculo-Arabic, like Andalusi Arabic, is also a descendant of Maghrebi Arabic. While Andalusi Arabic died out after the Reconquista by the Catholic Monarchs Isabella I. of Castile and Ferdinand II. of Aragon, Siculo-Arabic managed to survive and develop into modern Maltese, however only on Malta; while dying out in Sicily. 

I do not guarantee, that the Maltese translations are the most used ones, as each of the Maltese terms can have a more commonly used synonym. If you want to know anything further about Maltese I would kindly like to redirect you to @malteseboy ‘s blog, he is a native speaker of Maltese and and really sweet because he is always ready to help you all out. I really recommend following him!

Speaking of which, if there is anything to correct, @malteseboy, let me know :)

So tired of the 'southern italians are pocs' bullshit going around tumblr.

I can’t anymore with the bullshit tumblr decided is going on in my country. no. no single italian believes sicilians are black. or of color. not a single everfucking one. not even the most hateful of them all at north. the north/south debate is not relative to race or skin color, it’s not even specifically about sicily.

If we want to be more accurate neapolitans are hated much more than sicilians, like MUCH more. (I actually think sicilians are among the most loved in all the southern regions but I’m not that sure) hell consider that scene in the movie ‘Benvenuti al Sud’ that’s a comedy about southern stereotypes seen from northern italians: the northern man who’s forced to move south for a job and is all like “I need to move to south? you mean bologna?” “no more south” “roma?” “nono, southerner” and with a hopeful expression “well….sicilia?” “worse: Napoli” “NOOOOOO” which should make you think about the target of the joke: no northern italian would see sicily as even remotely the worst place to be sent, not compared to Campania (the region where Neaples is).  

what the south/north debate is:

is purely a socio-economic situation born after the risorgimento and that escalated in the 60es during the ‘miracolo economico’. it is purely based on economic factors and migration patterns and while often italians refers to the hatred as ‘racism’ the term is wrongly used as race have no factor whatsoever in this situation. At most it stems from language and culture, that are profoundly different from region to region in here, and the fact that many people at north feels they are the only one working while people from tuscany in south only “steal and slacks”. (Something that’s not true in the least of course.) It’s due to the fact that most of the industries are in the north and in the last 40 years there’s been a steady influx of immigration from southern regions in areas such as Pianura Padana and Piemonte, from people who speaks 'differently’ (because our accents are almost unintelligible for people from other regions) who have been “stealing their jobs”. 

It should be an evidence of how not race related but socially and economically and class related all this is just by regarding the main slur used in this situation: “terrone” that now just mean 'southerner’ in a hateful way but the term in origin meant only 'villein’, 'serfs’, 'laborer’ or in general those who worked the earth. 

Other things factors in of course because it’s a really difficult situation to explain, included the presence of the various mafia organizations ('Ndrangheta, Camorra, Cosa nostra and La Sacra corona unita) that outside may be something romantic (thanks Hollywood for that) and look cool and noble and/or something invented that doesn’t exist anymore, for us italians is a very dangerous reality that is ruining our country, that runs deep in the government making it one of the most corrupt countries in europe, that kills hundreds and hundreds of people each year. And it’s seen as a fault of 'the south’.

It is an extremely stupid attitude from some northern people that stems almost entirely from economic factors: they feel they are the only one working and sacrificing while the 'southerners’ enjoy their lives and are mafiosi stealing everything they have, including their jobs. 

I’ve seen people bringing to the plate the arab domination in sicily in the situation and… Oh god if you lived here you couldn’t understand how WRONG you’re being,I mean…. most of the people needs to be reminded that there’s been an arab domination in sicily? We’ve had SO MANY FUCKING DOMINATIONS in the centuries? I mean, no one call neapolitans 'french’ only because they had french domination for a long time, nor calabreses are called 'greeks’ because of the magna graecia… like everyone and their mothers tried to conquer us or parts of us, I don’t even remember them all, you expect people with those stupid 'padania unita’ ideals to actually know that? it’s so fucking ridiculous I can’t even find words for it. 

It’s not even like they are the darkest of us all (if any, it’s the sardinians, but it’s not really that true either) because we are so mixed from north to south that you totally CAN’T recognize where someone’s from based on their looks. But if you hear them talking… well, that’s another thing altogether.

Let’s repeat it: Sicilians are not the ‘most discriminated against’ whatever tumblr might want you to believe. The north-south hate in italy is not due to race but economic situation.

All this stuff is embodied in the political party that’s called “Lega Nord”, that’s a party that THANKFULLY in the last elections took 4,09% of votes. You can understand how widespread this situation is just by that. Because most of the people (actually even a lot of right-winged people) thinks of 'leghisti’ (that’s how they are called) pretty much the same way americans think of the Westboro baptist church: idiots, who talk too much loud and who are ruining everything for everyone else. 

Leghisti need to be stopped because in addition to this internal situation they are absolutely terrible and hateful with any real person of color (not tumblr-appointed-POCs, like sicilians) and immigrant as well. 


what hateful northern italians see when they look at a southern italian: a job-stealer, a slacker, a criminal, someone who speaks a totally different language, someone not educated enough

what hateful northern italians DO NOT see when they look at a southern italian: a person of color

For the record, I’m neither, I stay in that limbo called 'centro italia’, which is seen as 'north’ from people in the south and 'south’ from people in the north. I’ve been called slurs from northerners.

I’ve wrote this in a haste there might be errors please correct me if I’m wrong I know several people who follow me have a lot of cool things to say about this.

I know doing the tumblr equivalent of a subtweet isn’t the best but I don’t want to stir up shit knowing this website - but I’ve seen yet another post by a Sicilian-American claiming Sicilians are considered something “other” than mainland Italians citing the long standing Arab rule of Sicily in the Middle Ages other than the influx of various other people/ethnicities who invaded or traded with Sicily. And I’m always super puzzled at this kind of thing because this otherizing of Sicily as “not Italian” is something I’ve never heard of in Italy, not even by staunch Northern League supporters (if anything they see Sicilians/Southern Italians as “too Italian” in a way; it’s complicated). Like really, if there is an oddball island that is seen as doing its own thing culturally and historically it’s Sardinia, not Sicily. And even then, it doesn’t happen in the terms I see some tumblrites apply to Sicily.

But the point is… pretty much all of Italy has been invaded by or has traded with half of the world through the centuries. It’s one of the reasons why we have such distinctively different regional cultures and languages (or vernaculars, though personally I tend to ascribe to the notion that they are more like dialects of vulgar Latin than of standard Italian which is more of a recent construct - anyway: if people from my neighboring regions speak their vernacular I can’t fucking understand a word, and vice versa I guess. It’s that different - multiply that for 20 regions). There is no such thing as a definite “Italian” ethnicity. Even something like an Italian identity is kind of volatile. Again: it’s complicated.

(I have a map under the cut for those who are interested)

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Oh wind! when you blow the rain clouds
to water the parched fields

send me the dry clouds
so that I may wet them with my tears.

Oh sea! beyond there is my paradise
where I wore joy, not sadness.

When I tried to find there a dawn
you interposed a sunset.

If I could have got what I desired,
when the sea prevented me from meeting it,

I would have crossed it, riding the crescent moon as if it
were I could embrace there the sun.

—  Abd Gabbar ibn Mohamed ibn Hamdis