Imagine if Zionists decided on Argentina instead of Palestine (Fun fact: Argentina was actually considered by Zionists, along with Uganda.) and then expelled thousands of indigenous Argentinians when establishing the Jewish state, and then said “What the hell are you complaining about? There’s tons of other Spanish countries you can move to. Let Jews have this one country for ourselves so we can be safe.”
And that’s how stupid Zionists sound when they say that Palestinians can/should just go to “any of the many Arab countries”, because Arab countries aren’t interchangeable any more than Spanish speaking Latin American countries are. Iraqis aren’t interchangeable with Jordanians just like Peruvians aren’t interchangeable with Chileans.
Research:Large to Small Scale, Avoiding Homogenizing East Asian Cultures, & Paralleling Regions Appropriately
I’m currently working on a project set in a secondary world, but with nations that roughly correspond to major cultures in our world.
By that I mean I’m trying to create amalgamations of cultural groups. For example, one country corresponds to Germanic cultures, one to Celtic, one to Mediterranean. There are, so far, also countries that correspond to Eastern Asia - a mixture of Japanese, Chinese and Korean, mainly - South America, “Arab countries” and so on. My first question, in that regard, would be whether or not this concept - creating a “vibe” that reads Eastern Asian, for example, but is not one specific culture - is offensive and if it is, what I can do to solve it.
The project I’m working on makes use of so called FaceClaims, which means that, for example, actors are used to represent fictional characters. If I based the country on China alone, then I could only use Chinese FCs and would thus greatly limit the representation. A solution I thought of was to have each country be inofficially split up in itself, so the “East Asian” country would have a “Chinese” region, a “Korean” region and so on. Secondly, I have a desert region that I thought would be nice for an “African” (I am very much aware that there is no such thing as an “African culture”, so bear with me) cultural group. For this “country”, I thought of a loose union between different nations of people. There, I’m stuck - should I choose one region in Africa, let’s say West Africa, and base each nation on one specific peoples there? Or should I create my own “African-inspired” cultures? Or should I choose cultures from all around Africa and base a nation on each?
My third question goes along a similar line: The “cultures” I have chosen for the countries are by far not all there are in the world. There is no country for Native Americans, for example, none for South-Eastern Asians (unless I integrate them with my “India”), no Central Asian, etc. I know it is impossible to include all cultures there are in the world, but how do I choose which ones to represent in a concept like mine? I don’t want to exclude them, but I simply cannot create as many countries as there are cultural groups.
One possible solution I thought of specifically refers to Jewish people, since I feel it is important to represent them more in fantasy writing. My current idea was to have their story go similar to that of our world: Exile, long travels, and a split into groups, one of which would be the Ashkenazim, living somewhere near the Germanic country, and the other would be the Sephardim, which I imagined to live in between the “Arab” and “African” country, in a semi-autonomous city-state. But is it offensive to adapt what happened to the Jewish people in a secondary world or should I make it so that they have a more positive past and life, no exile like there was in our world? As far as I know, the exile is an important part of Jewish identity and cultural understanding, but I thought I’d ask anyway.
I’m going to preface this that some of this wording might sound very harsh, but I recognize you are genuinely asking out of a place of respect but you just aren’t sure what the best way to respect the world’s diversity is. The problem is it’s still not quite respectful enough, and shows sometimes glaring ignorance of nuances in the region.
I would also like to remind people that just because your exact question hasn’t been answered to the full scope you’re looking at, doesn’t mean you can’t get an answer as a whole. For example, we’ve discussed the concept of how and when to mix different cultures in the East Asian tag. Shira will cover your questions regarding Jewish representation below.
However, I’m going to specifically tackle this from a research and worldbuilding perspective, primarily talking about a history of forced homogenization and how to avoid recreating colonialism/imperialism.
Notes on Language and False Equivalences
For starters, basically all of these groups are too broad. By a long shot. Either they flatten sometimes dozens to thousands of cultures (“Native American country” is in the thousands, “West Africa” is in the hundreds, “China, Japan, Korea” is in the dozens, if not hundreds, same deal with India). This language use makes people pretty uncomfortable, because it implies that the basis is stereotypes. It implies you haven’t done research, or, at least, haven’t done enough. When discussing nuance, it’s best to imply you understand there is nuance— like you did with Africa and Jewish culture, but neglected to do everywhere else.
You also go very broad with all non-European cultures, but narrow down a general homogeneous part for your European analogues, by picking Germanic and Celtic.
This double standard is something that is exactly what we try to draw attention to at WWC: to our ears, it sounds like “I’m taking Germanic peoples for Europe, but I’m going to mix three East Asian countries because those two regions have the equivalent amount of sameness that I can pass it off.”
While that sounds specific to just you, it’s not. We’ve received this type of question dozens of times in the past and it’s a general cultural attitude we’ve faced lots and lots and lots of times. Western society makes you think the equivalence is equal, because they’ve flattened all non-European countries with the single broadest brush, but it’s not.
I would also caution you on relying on media images for face claims, because media images only represent the idealized version of beauty. We’ve written multiple description guides that point out how much variety exists within all ethnic groups and how people seeing us as all the same is a microaggression.
You are right that you can’t tackle all of the world’s diversity into your worldbuilding, because, well, there is so much. The core of your question is basically how to narrow it down, which is what I’m going to tackle.
My suggestion is twofold:
Research big, top level things, over a few centuries— namely, keep track of empires that have tried to take over places and look at what groups Western society lumps together when it spreads multiple regions.
Build small with a focus on a very specific place and group— namely, pick the smallest possible region you can and see what you have to build from there.
Researching big helps you catch what not to flatten, or at least, where flattening might be reinforcing situations that a government perpetuated. I’m going to focus on East Asia since that’s the bulk of your question, and it’s also where I’ve spent some time worldbuilding. The principles apply to all groups you’re trying to research.
East Asia— namely Japan, Korea, and China, although that is an oversimplification itself— is composed of two empires: China and Japan. This makes homogenization extremely risky because you’re touching two nerves of countries trying to take over in very recent history.
China has taken over a very large swath of land over centuries, and still has independence fights to this day from their recent history. As a result, they have both a roughly overreaching culture because the empire is so old, and a very fractured culture with over 50 recognized ethnic groups. When you think of “Chinese” you usually think of the dominant Han Chinese, but because of its old empire roots you can get a giant variety. In modern day, some provinces have kept their individual culture, while others have been part of China for so long there is a general “sameness” to them that can capture the flare you want.
Japan’s imperialism is similarly recent, only ending in 1947, and it left wounds across the Pacific (including Korea, China, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Malaysia). Many of their actions are classified as war crimes. They’ve also erased their own Indigenous population by insisting only one ethnicity lived in the country. Both of these factors make mixing Japan into an “East Asian” mix tricky. Japan’s culture, while heavily impacted by China and Korea, is pretty distinct because of its island status.
Big research also lets you see the neighbouring areas at a time borders might not have been the same. For example, in the 1600s, China was much smaller because the Manchu External Expansion hadn’t happened yet. As a result, places we now think of as “Chinese” actually weren’t, and you’ll have to account for these differences in your worldbuilding. You can determine this by looking up historical maps/empires, which might require book research (libraries are wonderful).
This does not mean you can ignore recent history, however. Because the story is set in modern day, people will be viewing it through a modern lens. You need to research both the modern and the historical context in order to understand how to go about crafting a respectful world.
So that’s stuff you would’ve discovered by big research. By tracking empire movements, you can see where old wounds are and what historical contexts exist within whatever region you’re pulling from. If you take North America, you can see how each individual tribe is cast aside in favour of settler stories; in Africa, you can see how multiple empires wanted to plunder the land and didn’t care who it was; in the Middle East, you can see both the recent military involvement, the historical Ottomans, and the historical Persians.
You can also see what empires influenced their regions for long enough to create a similar-ish culture throughout multiple regions, which can help you extract the essence you’re looking for. I would add a very large caution to only do this for historical empires where those who suffered under the regime are not fighting in present day/ have living memory of it (such as incorporating too much of England, France, or Spain in the Americas, along with the two examples above).
Now you can build small. If you wanted to give a sense of, say, coastal China with a heavy amount of trade, you can pick a major port city in China and figure out the pluralism in relation to that city. What parts identify it as Chinese (architecture, governance, food, general religious practices— folklore changes by region, but the general gist of practices can remain similar enough to get a vibe), and what parts are borrowed from a distinct enough culture they’re noticeably different?
By going from a city level, you can imply pluralism by throwing in asides of differences “out there” that shows you’ve thought about it, without cramming your world full of cultures you can’t fit in the plot. You can then also narrow down what to include based on map proximity:
if there’s an easy sea or land path to an Egyptian analogue, you’re probably going to at least hint at it. This is a known historical trade, btw. Egyptian blue and Han purple are made of similar substances, pointing to an ancient cultural link.
You can research this by simply googling the country and looking under its history in Wikipedia. If you look up “China”, you can see “Imperial Unification” as one of its history points. “Japan” similarly gets you the Meiji period. Turkey shows the Ottoman empire. You can also look up “empires in [region]” that will give you a similar overview. This even works for places you don’t think have historical empires, such as North America (the pre-colonization section notes several).
This also is a starting place for what the borders would’ve been during any given time period, and gives you places to potentially factor in military involvement and recent strife. This is where modern research comes in handy, because you can get an idea of what that strife looked like.
Hope this gives you an idea how to go about worldbuilding a diverse population, and how to avoid paralleling recent wounds.
~ Mod Lesya
Regarding Your Jewish Characters
I think it’s valid to reflect our real history in fantasy although if you dwell too much on the suffering aspects and not the “richly varied cultural traditions” aspects you’ll probably lose some of us because suffering-porn written from the outside gets old fast (if you’re Jewish yourself you 200% have the right to write this, of course.) Human Jewish characters living in pockets in fake-northern-Europe and fake-Mediterranea and fake-North-Africa (or even Fake China and Fake India; we’re there, too) is actually injecting some well-needed historical accuracy back into a genre that’s been badly whitewashed, gentilewashed, etc by imagining a Europe where nobody but white gentiles existed until they conveniently popped into existence during whatever era the writer thinks is appropriate.
In other words, if your fake Germany has a Jewish neighborhood in its largest city, that’s a way of making pseudo-European fantasy more realistic and less -washy, and is overall a good move, despite the fact that the destruction of the temple is the reason we were in Germany in the first place. (I mean… it’s not like you’re planning on sitting there writing about Tisha b'Av itself, right? You don’t have to say “And the reason there are Jews here is because a bazillion years ago, we wound up getting scattered” just to have Jews.)
By the way, having myself written secondary-world fantasy where entire countries, plural, get to be majority-Jewish, and 100% free of on-screen antisemitism, I think both ways are valid.
Contrary to popular belief, many Latin Americans do not have surnames that are of Castilian (Spanish) or Portuguese origin, just as many people from the United States do not posses surnames that are of English origin. [Part l]
Above: Celebrities from Latin America with surnames that are not of Castilian or Portuguese origin [from left to right]:
1. Salma Hayek, Mexican with a Lebanese surname;
2. Keiko Sofía Fujimori Higuchi, Peruvian with two Japanese surnames;
3. Norfalia Carabalí, Colombian with a surname that originates with the Kalabari people of Nigeria;
4.Ezequiel Lavezzi, Argentine with an Italian surname;
5. Fernando Aristeguieta, Venezuelan with a Basque surname;
6. Francisco Lachowski, Brazilian with a Polish surname;
7. Ollanta Humala, Peruvian with an Indigenous Quechua surname;
8. William Levy, Cuban with a Hebrew surname;
9. Carla Constanza Peterson, Argentine with a Swedish surname;
10. Scharllette Allen, Nicaraguan with a Scottish surname.
When the Iberians colonized Latin America, they began to force conversion to Catholicism onto the Indigenous populations of the areas they conquered. After an Indigenous person was baptized, they were assigned a Castilian or Portuguese surname, to signify a new life distanced from their pagan roots. The same fate befell the enslaved Africans that were brought to the Americas by the Spaniards and Portuguese. After the colonial era many Latin American countries started to receive a myriad of immigrants; mostly from Europe, but also from Asia, the West Indies, and the United States. Countless of these immigrants would Iberianize their surnames in order to assimilate smoothly, examples of this can be seen with the German immigrants who came to Brazil; names such as Birnbaum, Löwe, Zimmermann, Frazen were changed to Pereira, Leão, Simão, and França. For all the reasons mentioned above, the majority of Latin Americans (not including the Francophone regions) these days have Castilian or Portuguese surnames.
However, a significant number of Latin Americans have managed to resist the adoption of Portuguese and Castilian surnames.
Indigenous surnames can be frequently found in countries with large unmixed Amerindian populations, an example of this is Peru where surnames such as Quispe, Huamán, Mamani are some of the most frequent. In southern Mexico and Guatemala names of Mayan origin such as: Tecú, Tuyub, Zum, Xuluc, Tun, Canché, Tuyuc, Curruchich, Choc, and Xicara; are also commonly found.
West and Central African originated surnames can be found in areas of the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador where the African-descended populations have been historically isolated. They can also be found in the Caribbean regions of Colombia, Venezuela, and the Caribbean islands. Cuba is an example of this as it was the last nation in the Caribbean region to abolish slavery, and many of the enslaved Africans brought in the latter parts of the colonial era were not strictly enforced to accept their Christian surnames, so they would adopt ones that signified the tribe or region they descended from such as Boni, Carabalí, Biafara, and Cumbá.
Nonetheless, the most common surnames that aren’t Castilian or Portuguese in origin, are those belonging to the descendants of post colonial immigrants. Although many immigrants Iberianized their surnames, others chose not to. The first wave of immigrants came from regions of Spain that weren’t traditionally part of the colonizing Castilian-speaking areas (which includes Castile/Andalusia/Extramdura) such as the Basque, Catalan, and Galician lands. Surnames from these sub-ethnic groups can be found throughout Latin America in abundance, but especially in Cuba, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Venezuela, Mexico, Colombia and even Brazil the countries which received the most post-colonial immigrants from Spain. Furthermore, immigrants from outside of Spain(and Portugual) began to migrate to Latin America in latter waves, most coming from Europe: mainly Italy, Germany, France, and Eastern Europe and most settling in the countries mentioned previously. In Argentina, Southern Brazil, and Uruguay; Italian, German, and Slavic surnames are almost as common as Iberian ones and in some areas even more common. Immigrants also came from Western and East Asia, namely Christian Arabs from Lebanon/Syria and Japanese people. Indentured laborers were brought to places like Peru and Cuba, most of them being of Chinese background. West Indian migrants to Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala (when these nations Caribbean coasts were British protectorate’s) and Panama (during the building of the Panama Canal) brought with them a multitude of British and Irish surnames as well. For this reason, many of the descendants of all these migrants mentioned above, still bear the surnames of their ancestors, despite historical pressures to assimilate/change them.
For years I thought that when Muslims and Arabs said ‘Death to America’ they meant it literally.
But apparently in Muslim and Arab cultures, saying ‘Death to’ something is like saying that it ‘sucks’ in the west. You don’t literally mean that something sucks, and they don’t literally wish death to something.