april 19

April 19 marks the 20th anniversary of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, an act of domestic terrorism that killed 168 people. A memorial and museum were erected in Oklahoma’s capital city in their honor.

“We mourn with you. We thank all those who have worked so heroically to save lives and to solve crime – those here in Oklahoma and those who are all across this great land, and many who left their own lives to come here to work hand in hand with you. We pledge to do all we can to help you heal the injured, to rebuild this city, and to bring to justice those who did this evil.” - President Bill Clinton, days after the April 19, 1995, Oklahoma City bombing

…on the Evening of the Eighteenth of April Instant being on the Road between Concord & Lexington and All of us mounted on Horses we were about ten of the Clock suddenly surprized by Nine Persons whom we took to be Regular Officers who Rode up to us Mounted and Armed each having a Pistol in His Hand, and after Putting, Pistols to our Breasts and seizing the Bridles of Our Horses, they swore that if we Stirred another Step We should be all Dead Men…
— 

Deposition #1 of Solomon Brown, Jonathan Loring and Elijah Saunderson of Lexington, Massachusetts Regarding the Events of April 18 and 19, 1775 at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts Bay Colony, 4/25/1775

Immediately after the incidents at Lexington and Concord, MA, of April 19th, 1775, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress lead by Dr. Joseph Warren, ordered that depositions be collected from eyewitnesses to the battles. These would be sent to Colony Agent Benjamin Franklin in England in order to garner popular support for the colonials, and they were also sent to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. These are preserved today among the Papers of the Continental Congress at the National Archives.  

This and other accounts of the battles at Lexington and Concord are available and transcribed in the National Archives Catalog.

Watch for more eyewitness accounts on the 240th Anniversary of the Battle of Lexington and Concord!

We John Hoar, John Whithead, Abrah. Garfield, Benjamin Munroe Isaac Parks, William Hosmer, John Adams, Gregory Stone, all of Lincoln in the County of Middlesex Mass Bay, all of lawfull age, do testify and say, that on Wednesday last, we were assembled at Concord in the morning of said Day in Consequence of information received, that a Brigade of Regular Troops, were on their march to the said Town of Concord, who had killed six men at the Town of Lexington;  About an hour afterward we saw them approaching to the number as we apprehended of about Twelve hundred on which we retreated to a hill about Eighty Rods back and the said Troops then took Possession of the Hill where we were first Posted, presently after this we saw the Troops moving towards the North Bridge, about one mile from the said Concord Meeting House, we then immediately went before them and passed the Bridge just before a party of them, to the number of about two hundred arived [sic]; they there left about one half of their two hundred at the Bridge and proceeded with the rest towards Col. Barretts about two miles from the said Bridge;  we then seeing several fires in the Town, thought the Houses in Concord were in danger & Marched towards the said Bridge, and the Troops that were stationed there observing our approach marched back over the Bridge & then took up some of the Plank, we then hastened our March towards the Bridge, and when we had got over the Bridge they fired on our men, first three Guns one after the other, & then a Considerable Number more, and then & not before, (having orders from our Commanding Officer not to fire till we were fired upon) we fired upon the Regulars and they Retreated on their Retreat through the Town Lexington to Charlestown they ravaged & destroyed private property burnt three Houses, one Barn & one Shop.
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Deposition #14 by John Hoar et al. Regarding the Events of April 18 and 19, 1775 at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts Bay Colony, 4/23/1775

Immediately after the incidents at Lexington and Concord, MA, of April 19th, 1775, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress lead by Dr. Joseph Warren, ordered that depositions be collected from eyewitnesses to the battles. These would be sent to Colony Agent Benjamin Franklin in England in order to garner popular support for the colonials, and they were also sent to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. These are preserved today among the Papers of the Continental Congress at the National Archives.  

This and other accounts of the battles at Lexington and Concord are available and transcribed in the National Archives Catalog.

More eyewitness accounts for the 240th Anniversary of the Battle of Lexington and Concord!

A Day In The Life - 19th April 1965: US single release of Ticket to Ride.

Ticket To Ride, The Beatles’ ninth Capitol Records single, is the first release from the Help! album sessions. It is issued as Capitol 5407, with Yes It Is on the b-side.

The single spends a week at number one in the Hot 100. The label states that it is from the forthcoming United Artists release Eight Arms To Hold You, which had until early April 1965 been the working title for the Help! film.
In the United Kingdom the single is released by Parlophone ten days earlier on 9 April 1965.

In provincial Congress, WaterTown April 26th 1775.  
To the Inhabitants of Great Britain.
Friends & Fellow Subjects,

Hostilities are at length commenced in this Colony by the Troops under Command of General Gage, & It being of the greatest Importance, that an early, true, & authentic account of this inhuman proceeding Should be known to you…

Nevertheless to the perfection of Tyranny of this cruel ministry we will not tamely submit. Appealing to Heaven for the justice of our cause, we determine to die or be free…

— 

Address from Joseph Warren to the Inhabitants of Great Britain Regarding the Hostilities of April 19, 1775, 4/26/1775.

Dr. Joseph Warren succeeded John Hancock as president of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress when Hancock went to Philadelphia to preside over the Continental Congress. The fall and winter of 1774 and spring of 1775 were a time of increasing outrages and hostilities. After the violent incidents in Lexington, Concord, and Menotomy (Arlington), Dr. Warren would order that eyewitness accounts be gathered and sent to Britain to garner popular support. In this written address, Dr. Warren reports that “Hostilities are at length commenced…We determine to die or be free…

Dr. Warren, an activist, intellectual, and patriot, would die at the Battle of Bunker Hill just two months later in June 1775.  Abigail Adams would mourn the death of this great man and family friend in a letter to her husband; a British report from Boston would proclaim that his death was better than that of 500 soldiers.  (via the U.S. National Archives at Boston)

This and other accounts of the battles at Lexington and Concord are available and transcribed in the National Archives Catalog.

More eyewitness accounts from the 240th Anniversary of the Battle of Lexington and Concord.

Bicentennial Beginnings

As part of the inauguration of American’s Bicentennial celebration President Ford visited two Revolutionary War sites in Massachusetts on April 19, 1975.

He first attended the 200th commemorative ceremony for the Minute Men’s battle at the North Bridge in Concord. Afterwards he spoke at a Patriot’s Day ceremony on Lexington Green, where the first shots of the Revolutionary War were fired in April 1775.

“I thank all of you in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for inaugurating our Bicentennial in such a wonderful way,” President Ford said at Lexington. “We have inherited a great tradition, but it is our job – older and younger people joining together – to see to it that when our ancestors meet here 100 years from now, they can say that what was done here on this date was the kick-off for a new century of unity, and progress, at home as well as abroad.“

Read President Ford’s full remarks delivered at Concord and Lexington.

Image: President Ford delivers remarks in front of the Minute Man Statue on Lexington Green,  Lexington, Massachusetts, 4/19/1975.

The Day After the Doolittle Raid

Generalissimo and Madame Chiang Kai Shek and Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell pose together the day after the Doolittle Raid on Japan.  This raid also known as the Tokyo Raid was the first time American forces attacked Japan at home.

Generalissimo and Madame Chiang Kai Shek and Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell, Commanding General, China Expeditionary Forces, on the day following Japanese bombing attack [Doolittle Raid]. Maymyo, Burma., 04/19/1942