Of brains and bones: How hunger neurons control bone mass 

In an advance that helps clarify the role of a cluster of neurons in the brain, Yale School of Medicine researchers have found that these neurons not only control hunger and appetite, but also regulate bone mass.

The study is published Sept. 24 online ahead of print in the journal Cell Reports.

“We have found that the level of your hunger could determine your bone structure,” said one of the senior authors, Tamas L. Horvath, the Jean and David W. Wallace Professor of Comparative Medicine, and professor of neurobiology and obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive sciences. Horvath is also director of the Yale Program in Integrative Cell Signaling and Neurobiology of Metabolism.

Caption: AgRP neurons not only control hunger and appetite, but also regulate bone mass, according to Yale researchers. Credit: Michael Helfenbein, Yale University

The wolf is a spiritual animal! The spiritual meaning is: sharp intelligence, deep connection with instincts, appetite for freedom, feeling threatened, lack of trust.

anonymous asked:

HEY! I love your tumblr! I've been trying to lose weight for a long time and I always try to eat less and eat healthy but the more I do it, the more I get hungry. Any tips?

Hey, Pretty Girl!  ♥
I’m glad you asked this question. Hunger is at the center of weight loss, and the reason everyone gets to the point of needing to diet. Hunger can control us, and everything we do- but with a little education- we can be away from it longer! This post ties in with a lot of other posts I have made, so look out for links! 

In your specific case, it may not be the amount of food you eat any longer, (since you are further along into weight loss,) but the kinds of food. Read about the compounds that make you feel full at the end of the post, and try to change the foods you eat. Maybe take a peak at the extra supplements that can help you out as you re-teach yourself to not be hungry longer.

Hopefully all this information helps you out- and together we can


What is HUNGER?

Hunger is the term for hormonal reactions in the body, and resulting physical aspect of “feeling hungry.” It is sensation related to contractions of the stomach muscles and the thoughts of food that haunt our minds. Hunger is mainly controlled by three aspects in the body - the hormone the body produces when needing more nutrients(ghrelin), the hormone produced when he body is satisfied(leptin) and the part of the brain that detects them(the hypothalamus.)

Ghrelin: (hunger hormone) When the stomach is physically empty, ghrelin is secreted. When the stomach is stretched, secretion stops. Ghrelin can cross the blood-brain barrier easily (very few compounds and hormones can do this) so the feeling can be strong and quick-to-act. Ghrelin increases hunger exponentially, by having the stomach (and other digestive organs) make and secrete gastric acid and bile; it also increases gastrointestinal motility (stomach cramps and movements) to prepare the body for food intake. These are the stomach aches you feel, and rumbles you hear when you’re hungry. The opposing hormone for ghrelin is leptin. 

Leptin: (full/satisfied hormone)  is made by adipose(fat) cells and helps to regulate energy balance by stopping hunger. Regulation of producing fat storage is the primary function of leptin. Leptin is UNABLE to pass the blood-brain barrier, so it takes more time for the body to deliver and the brain to process, so the feeling of fullness comes on slower than the feeling of hunger. Leptin, since made in fat cells, is reliant on fat- the more fat you have, the more leptin your body produces. This is why the thinner you get, the more you might feel hungry. (The opposite case is made in extreme obesity, when the brain becomes resistant or “blind” to the hormone leptin, making the obese feel always hungry when they have plenty of fat.)

Leptin and Ghrelin are detected by the same receptor in the brain(in the hypothalamus). This means that if your brain doesn’t feel one, than it must feel the other. There is no “in-between” for the body to experience. Even though we know we are not starving, the body is always ready to take in more nutrients.

The hypothalamus, the most ancient and rudimentary part of the brain, is the main regulatory organ of hunger hormones (it detects and processes them). Although it is the size of an almond, the hypothalamus is powerful enough to drive our most basic instincts, like sleep, sex and hunger. This is why being hungry is so hard to avoid. Hunger isn’t like happiness or negative feelings, we can’t think hard or meditate to avoid it. Our body will make these hormones, and the hypothalamus will detect them whether we like it or not. Since the hypothalamus controls Sleep, Sex, Thirst and Hunger- imbalances in these can make you crave the others. This is why you can be thirsty and feel hungry or even feel hungry when you’re sexually frustrated.

Why do we feel HUNGRY? Even when we shouldn’t be?

Depletion of the body’s store of nutrients is the biggest cause of hunger. The primary fuels for the cells of our body are glucose (a simple sugar) and fatty acids (compounds produced by the breakdown of fats). If the digestive system contains food, these nutrients are absorbed in the blood and nourish our cells: no problem and no hunger. The body is most content when using the food we eat as energy. When we diet, however, we are telling our body to use the fat we already have as energy, by restricting calories and food. Sometimes, at the beginning or end of a diet, this restriction can cause the body to react violently or protest. Although we are not in any actual danger, the body perceives this diet as a threat, and encourages you to find and eat more food. Basically, if given the choice, the body would rather use energy from food, than what you already have in your fat storage.The switch to fat storage to fat burning is a difficult one to make your body do.

Some other reasons for feeling excess hunger can be:

  1. Being Young. Young people have more hunger pains and are more sensitive to ghrelin because their body is developing. 
  2. Not Eating: People who only eat large and far-between meals experience empty bowels more often. 
  3. Regular Eating Patterns: If you eat on a regular schedule, missing these times make your body go into overdrive more easily.
  4. Being Female: females experience greater appetite satisfaction than males and a decrease in appetite with age. Females typically have more fat to produce leptin, and so may experience more pleasure in eating and rewarding themselves. Estrogen, also made by fat, can have a exaggerating effect on ghrelin production.
  5. Disrupted Sleeping Schedule: Ghrelin levels can be exaggerated by sleep deprivation. Not enough sleep, will make you more hungry for longer since ghrelin production is stopped in your sleep. exposure to light at night.Short sleep duration may also lead to obesity.
  6. Not Enough Light: also a part of the body’s sleep cycle is light exposure. In winter or long bouts of darkness, the body will start to crave more food because of more ghrelin production.
  7. You’re always looking at food: If you have food out and on display in your house or in your work place, you can trigger a craving. Visuals are a large part of emotional eating- sometimes just looking at food can make your mouth produce more saliva! Avoid looking at “Food Porn” on websites.
  8. Too Much Sugar and Salt: Too much of these very specific compounds can throw off your body’s digestive and urinary systems. This can lead to blood sugar spikes and water retention(bloat), respectively.
  9. Alcohol: is broken down fruit and starch sugars that are absorbed very quickly in your body. These sugars will cause a release of hormones that effect the hypothalamus. This is why you sleep less and eat more when drunk- you’re throwing off all the systems the hypothalamus controls.

So, What is APPETITE, then?

Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger, but not always. Appetite is the term for emotional reactions to visuals, feelings, smells, food and hunger, resulting in the emotional want of “feeling hungry.” Anything from a picture of fancy food, or walking by a warm smelly bakery can stimulate appetite even when hunger is absent. Appetite has a relationship with every individual’s behavior. Some people have close emotional ties to food, or bad habits that reward them when they give in to their appetite or craving. Hunger, as we know, is regulated by the hypothalamus which also plays a role in the reward system of the brain. This is why we feel so good when we eat. Sometimes, though repetitive habits and teachings, we start to connect these feelings of happiness with food. We begin to learn that the instinctual feeling of hunger can result in a reward if we satisfy ourselves. The hypothalamus is why we all learn that eating can be as addictive as sex or drugs because of the rewiring of the brain’s pleasure and reward systems. When stressed, appetite levels may increase and result in an increase of food intake. 

Is Suppressing Hunger Healthy?  

Suppressing hunger is a crucial and necessary step in weight loss. If eating too much, or the wrong things got you into the situation you are in now, the only way to get out is to backtrack.

Suppressing hunger is different than not eating at all. It’s not about stopping eating all together, but eating only what you need. Some will argue that instead of suppressing your hunger, you should exercise more to compensate the calories you eat, but no work-out can burn the amount of food most American Diets allow. Plus, learning to deal with your hunger is also about re-thinking how you eat, why you eat and when you eat for a better lifestyle. Suppressing your hunger teaches you about how linked your reward system is with eating, and can highlight other unhealthy problems in you life like over-stressing and improper sleep habits.

♥ As long as you know your body and your caloric needs, you will be able to suppress your hunger, and stay healthy.

Suppressing HUNGER

Here we are. Now that you know more ABOUT your hunger, and why you have it, you can understand more about how to control it. Below will be a list of compounds that make you feel full and why, along with a list of foods that contain those compounds. There will also be a list of supplements and dietary additives that will help you control your body’s processes.

What Makes Me Feel Full?

  • Fiber: itself has no calories. Humans lack the enzymes needed to break them down, but bacteria in our gut can, and flourish the more you eat it. Fiber absorbs water we take with it and doubles/triples in size in the body. This fluffy gel-like fiber can also absorb things you don’t want to be digested like fats and toxins. Foods containing soluble fibers include oats, barley, beans, peas, apples, berries, spinach, broccoli, carrots and soybeans. Insoluble fiber is found in the skins of fruits and vegetables, nuts, whole grains, prunes, asparagus, corn and bran. (Not all these foods are listed in my food list because of their high sugar content.) 

  • Stimulants like caffeine often masks hunger and fatigue because it acts as a stimulant, providing a short-term boost in energy and alertness, so your body thinks it requires less caloric energy. Stimulants “stimulate” the central nervous system and the impulse to perform external action. When sections of the brain dealing with external action are in an elevated state of activity, signals are sent to the sections of the brain that control appetite, digestion and connected functions to reduce their activity. (Basically they keep your mind busy with physical activity, instead of worrying about food.) Since amphetamine-based appetite suppressants increase bodily activity, they also facilitate weight loss by inducing a higher rate of fat burning= higher metabolism.

  • Fats are high in calories when broken down, but take longer to digest. When fat enters the small intestine, it slows digestion because of it’s complexity and long process of breaking down. Think of fats as a slow-release pill that “works all day.” Only use unsaturated fats to curb appetite- the ones found in protein, buts and vegetables.

  • Proteins have compounds called peptides that are able to communicate to brain faster that you’re full. When eaten, they stimulate very sensitive receptors that almost instantly, and for a long time after the meal, trigger the “full” feeling. Starting the day with protein can make this effect last longer- so start the day with eggs or other lean proteins. Most adults only need 6 to 7 ounces of protein daily, about the size of about two decks of cards.  

  • Acids acids, vinegar, and sour flavors all do one thing- pucker your stomach. Yes, just like your mouth, these tart tastes can make your stomach feel like it’s shrinking. Although you are only feeling a temporary irritation and acid imbalance, it is a nice feeling when you’re hungry. These tastes can also balance your blood sugar levels, helping your body avoid sugar spikes that lead to hunger, later.

  • Spices in your food instead of sodium can help reduce bloat, and the feeling of constant thirst. Thirst is often confused with hunger, so using spices instead of salt can help avoid both feelings. Some spices also expand the stomach when they come in contact with the stomach’s tissue. The mild irritation makes the stomach puff, feel full, and keep you from feeling hungry for a while. Hot spices have a thermogenic reaction in the body, making you heat up, and burning more calories. This hot sensation helps to keep you full by burning more fat that you already have instead of the body asking for more food.

Foods that keep you FULL:

Sweet Potato
Sour Anything
Dark Chocolate
Vegetable Juice
Flax Seed
Grapefruit Citrus

Spices that keep you FULL:
Cayenne / Turmeric / Black Pepper
Cinnamon / Mustard Seed / Cumin
Hot Sauce / Cardamon / Garcinia Indica
Paprika / Oregano / Thyme

Drinks that keep you FULL:
Ginger Tea 
Red Wine
Lemon/Citrus Water 
Green Tea
Tomato / Vegetable Juice

Vitamins and Diet Products to help your HUNGER

These herbal supplements and vitamins help you to control fat in several different ways. Some are stimulets and others work with the hormones and physical aspects of digestion. Research each one, or try them one at a time to see what works for you.

Fiber (can be found in powders to add to food/drink)
Mono-saturated Fat
Steric Acid
Isoflavone(called genistein)  
Olic acid
Alli (orlistat - blocks your body from absorbing fat)
Burdoc Root / Chickweed / Bee Pollen
Rasberry Keytone / Garcinia Cambodia

Prescribed: The FDA has approved three weight-loss drugs that function as appetite suppressants: phentermine, diethylpropion and phendimetrazine. These three medications are similar to an amphetamine and affect your central nervous system so your appetite doesn’t rage out of control. (These may need to be prescribed, but generics can be found online.)


Good Luck, Pretty Girl!  ♥

Just a thought 💡 #powerfully #sexy #sense #humour #taste #adventure #healthy #glow #hips #grab #openness #confidence #humility #appetite #intuition #smartass #comebacks #presence #quickwit #dirty #jokes #innocent #looking #lady #woman #beauitful #foodforthought #thursdayquote #thursdaymood #thursdayfeeling #thursdaythoughts

anonymous asked:

Okay, so I struggle a lot with getting myself to eat (I don't really realize I'm hungry until I get really anxious), and I'm starting to lose weight because of it. How do you get yourself to eat when you aren't feeling up to it?

Sometimes I resort to junk food just to get enough calories in me, to be honest. Doritos have saved me more than once. 

I’d suggest keeping some easy food that you love the taste of around so even if you’re not hungry you will still enjoy it somewhat. Or at least it’ll be easier to convince yourself to eat it. Setting alarms to eat can also help, as well as keeping your snacks within arm’s reach (like in a purse or next to wherever you spend most of your time).

Granola/nut bars can be great to keep on hand. I eat a kind called Perfect bars and they’re full of nutrients and actually keep me full for longer than anything else seems to. Plus I love the almond kind. They can be a bit pricey, but I usually only eat half of one at a time so I can stretch them out a ways.

I hope that gave you some ideas! Best of luck.


The Bible is wrong
about serpents.

God’s favor is clear
in the skin

shed in one piece,
the snake emerging

vivid as a woman
who slips from

the stockings between
her and pleasure.

Notice the jaw: it unclasps
to accomodate

appetite. The sleek skull
is earless. The world’s music

plays along the finely
tuned underside.

—Francesca Bell, first appeared in Tar River Poetry

anonymous asked:

i just realized how skinny i was getting. i haven't been eating right if i do at all. i have no motivation to cook for myself or waste money on take out. i think i had low sugar last night. i was kind of shaking and i ate candy and stopped. i had rlly bad dysmorphia of my shoulders last night to. i actually felt deformed and thought my shoulder was popped out of place. i looked in the mirror and i didnt think i looked so bad. but when i look down i hate it. i have no appetite. idk what to do.

This sounds serious, if you are able to search out medical help, I encourage you to please do so, especially to rule out any physical causes or conditions that have a hand in this as well as mental health issues. On top of that they can help you choose foods or set up a diet plan with you, and maybe help with appetite stimulating tips or medications.

If you have problems with making an appointment and going through with it, maybe you could ask a friend or family member to help you with that, general advice about the doctor’s office and survivors is here.

There is a post with tips for disordered eating here. Then again we had the food for low spoon days a while ago, and there will be lots of suggestions popping up if you browse the tag here.

Your appetite will diminish over time when you do not eat. So it is better to keep to some sort of meal plan. By that I don’t mean anything strict or rigorous unless you are the type for that. But you can start making a rule that between two sleep cycles you aim to eat x number of meals. That and sticking to low spoon foods might help you get back to eating more often. If you have troubles remembering to eat, you could set up alarms or reminders on your phone or computer.

If you have not eaten for a longer time, or only very little, start slowly with small portions of easily digestible food, you do not want to overwhelm your body. Too much fat at once could cause diarrhoea.

If you cannot afford take out food, but would manage heating up ready-made food from the freezer, and have a willing friend, you could meet up once a week and pre-prepare food for the upcoming week (or a longer interval if you have the freezer space and are up to it).

In general: something is better than nothing. So do not beat yourself up how healthy something is, or how much you manage to eat. Maybe it is just two spoons full, or it is some not overly healthy food right out the package, but it is still better to do a little than nothing. And if you do not manage that, do not fret over it or blame yourself. It is okay. Just try again next time.

Something you have not mentioned, but I will is beverages. If you skip eating, there is also a possibility you do not keep hydrated, so maybe have a look at that, too. Plus, beverages are a great way of sneaking in some extra nutrition, e.g. with fruit and vegetable juices.

You are a worthy person and you deserve to eat and to take out the motivation and energy every day to do so, and to spend money on food. Your body is worth it and you are worth it, too.

I hope this helps you a bit. Please take good care, will you?

- Kitty

Hm. @the_fellowship:

Does anyone in Darker than Black (maybe like Amber even) ever mention Hei’s appetite prior to Toyko? Do we know if he ate a lot in South America?

Because I hc that his appetite isn’t actually his appetite. I think it comes with the calories he burns using his power; it would make sense then that so many people assume eating or cooking is his price, since he does tend to do so primarily before/after missions, particularly intense ones.

Which means that he actually would have eaten a super normal amount like even as a kid. I dunno why but I like that idea.