apollo 11 mission

error 1202

pertaining to the idea of murphy’s law, and that with a human on board a spaceship the statistical outliers become like 150 times likelier here is something i learned today:

for the moon landing of 1969, the astronauts had trained for thousands of different manoeuvres and errors and situations

except for “error 1202”

because error 1202 was considered to be too unlikely

and so when ground control screens alerted of this error these scientists and engineers spent precious minutes in the most critical phases of the landing of the lunar module trying to remember what the error is even supposed to mean let alone the procedure for it

and this was a situation where human error had to be basically 0 for the landing to be smooth

in the end armstrong was basically on his own to land the module

and yet now there is a flag planted safely on the moon as a reminder

so in conclusion: humans are arrogant and reckless, manage to create the imossible, and then still survive to tell the tale

Innovation at 100

Air travel, spaceflight, robotic solar-system missions: science fiction to those alive at the turn of the 20th century became science fact to those living in the 21st. 

America’s aerospace future has been literally made at our Langley Research Center by the best and brightest the country can offer. Here are some of the many highlights from a century of ingenuity and invention.

Making the Modern Airplane

In times of peace and war, Langley helped to create a better airplane, including unique wing shapes, sturdier structures, the first engine cowlings, and drag cleanup that enabled the Allies to win World War II.

In 1938 Langley mounted the navy’s Brewster XF2A-1 Buffalo in the Full-Scale Tunnel for drag reduction studies.

Wind Goes to Work

Langley broke new ground in aeronautical research with a suite of first-of-their-kind wind tunnels that led to numerous advances in commercial, military and vertical flight, such as helicopters and other rotorcraft. 

Airflow turning vanes in Langley’s 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel.

Aeronautics Breakthroughs

Aviation Hall of Famer Richard Whitcomb’s area rule made practical jet flight a reality and, thanks to his development of winglets and the supercritical wing, enabled jets to save fuel and fly more efficiently.

Richard Whitcomb examines a model aircraft incorporating his area rule.

Making Space

Langley researchers laid the foundation for the U.S. manned space program, played a critical role in the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo programs, and developed the lunar-orbit rendezvous concept that made the Moon landing possible.

Neil Armstrong trained for the historic Apollo 11 mission at the Lunar Landing Research Facility,

Safer Air Above and Below

Langley research into robust aircraft design and construction, runway safety grooving, wind shear, airspace management and lightning protection has aimed to minimize, even eliminate air-travel mishaps

NASA’s Boeing 737 as it approached a thunderstorm during microburst wind shear research in Colorado in 1992.

Tracking Earth from Aloft

Development by Langley of a variety of satellite-borne instrumentation has enabled real-time monitoring of planet-wide atmospheric chemistry, air quality, upper-atmosphere ozone concentrations, the effects of clouds and air-suspended particles on climate, and other conditions affecting Earth’s biosphere.

Crucial Shuttle Contributions

Among a number of vital contributions to the creation of the U.S. fleet of space shuttles, Langley developed preliminary shuttle designs and conducted 60,000 hours of wind tunnel tests to analyze aerodynamic forces affecting shuttle launch, flight and landing.

Space Shuttle model in the Langley wind tunnel.

Decidedly Digital

Helping aeronautics transition from analog to digital, Langley has worked on aircraft controls, glass cockpits, computer-aided synthetic vision and a variety of safety-enhancing onboard sensors to better monitor conditions while airborne and on the ground.

Aerospace research engineer Kyle Ellis uses computer-aided synthetic vision technology in a flight deck simulator.

Fast, Faster, Fastest

Langley continues to study ways to make higher-speed air travel a reality, from about twice the speed of sound – supersonic – to multiple times: hypersonic.

Langley continues to study ways to make higher-speed air travel a reality, from about twice the speed of sound – supersonic – to multiple times: hypersonic.

Safer Space Sojourns

Protecting astronauts from harm is the aim of Langley’s work on the Orion Launch Abort System, while its work on materials and structures for lightweight and affordable space transportation and habitation will keep future space travelers safe.

Unmasking the Red Planet

Beginning with its leadership role in Project Viking, Langley has helped to unmask Martian mysteries with a to-date involvement in seven Mars missions, with participation in more likely to come.

First image of Mars taken by Viking 1 Lander.

Touchdown Without Terror

Langley’s continued work on advanced entry, descent and landing systems aims to make touchdowns on future planetary missions routinely safe and secure.

Artist concept of NASA’s Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator - an entry, descent and landing technology.

Going Green

Helping to create environmentally benign aeronautical technologies has been a focus of Langley research, including concepts to reduce drag, weight, fuel consumption, emissions, and lessen noise.

Intrepid Inventors

With a history developing next-generation composite structures and components, Langley innovators continue to garner awards for a variety of aerospace inventions with a wide array of terrestrial applications.

Boron Nitride Nanotubes: High performance, multi-use nanotube material.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

tlc [meta? pointless analyzation?]: How fast is the rampion?

Well, I went to the air and space museum today, so what can i say?

To begin: the distance between the earth and the moon is on AVERAGE 238,855-238,900 miles away from earth (I used the former number for any calculations

The problem I had with this was that there’s no definite time frame for how long the Rampion takes to traverse the distance between the moon and the earth. We only have two instances where the time frame is mentioned at all.

  • In Cinder, (if I remember correctly), Levana calls Kai shortly after Rikan dies, announcing that she’s going to come to earth for peace alliance talks, and arrives the next day.
  • In sosn, the only commentary Cinder makes about the length of time it takes from luna to earth (IF they don’t have to travel parallel to the surface of the globe to reach france) is that it’s a “long flight” and she fixes a loose fitting then spends the rest of the time catching up with Cress and Thorne.

Let’s just assume (and very generously) that the flight takes 8 hours on the Rampion. Cinder would probably fix that loose fitting in under an hour, but spending 7 hours talking is unlikely, but whatever.


238,855 miles/8 hours = 29,856.875 mph. That’s incredibly fast.

Just for reference:

Speed of light: 186,000 mi/sec (PER SECOND, NOT HOUR) [i know there’s no possible way it could travel at the speed of light, it’s just for reference]. 

Reaches moon in: 1.3 seconds

Speed of Apollo 11 mission, the fastest manned mission to the moon that landed on its surface: 24790.8465 mph, on average. 

Reaches moon in: 75 HOURS, because it traveled at different speeds along the way. 

Speed of Apollo 10, the fastest manned mission to the moon (didn’t land): 24,791 mph

- The New Horizons probe took 8 hours 35 minutes to reach the moon, but it did not go into orbit and was unmanned, so it isn’t comparable for human transport. 

Speed of sound: 767.269 mph

Reaches moon in: 13 days

Speed of Rampion: 29,856.875 mph

Reaches moon in: 8 hours (v. hypothetically)



  • Because the rampion is going faster than the speed of sound, it goes faster than the sound it is producing. Therefore, you would see the Rampion before hearing it - on earth or luna, that is, since sound can’t travel in the vacuum of space.
  • Keep in mind that the rampion is a CARGO SHIP meant for the army. It’s big, bulky, and intended for the safety of goods, not speed and immediacy, as Cinder complains about while fixing it. It’s most likely on the slower side of spaceships in the TLC-verse. Which begs the question - how fast could newer, sleeker, designed-for-speed spaceships go? 

Please lmk if I’ve gotten any math/science wrong!!

On this day in 1969, with 600 million people watching on TV, an American crew landed on the Moon. The Apollo 11 mission had three crew members: Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins. Collins piloted the craft that would return them to Earth, while the others became the first two people ever to walk the Moon’s surface.

Eventually, a total of six Apollo missions would land men on the Moon, the last arriving in December 1972. The missions brought the U.S. national glory– and more importantly, scientific results. Over the course of six moon landings, astronauts conducted invaluable geologic research. Using lunar sample collection bags, they eventually amassed more than 842 pounds (382 kilograms)[1] of Moon rocks, which are studied by lunar scientists to this day. These rocks were the key to demonstrating that the Moon formed from debris created when a Mars-sized object impacted Earth 4.5 billion years ago.

Photo: NASA

Fun fact: It is widely believed that Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin encountered landed UFOs observing the first human mission to the moon on July 20, 1969 which was dubbed Apollo 11. During the live broadcast being watched by many in America, a nail-biting 2 minutes went by in which the broadcast lost signal and there was no audio or picture of the astronauts on the moon. It is widely speculated that during the lost 2 minutes, astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin were engaging Houston in dialogue on a hidden NASA radio channel about the UFOs that were observing them from a crater on the lunar surface.

Mareta West (1915-1988) was the first female astrogeologist, and the person to choose the site of the first manned lunar landing, Apollo 11.

Educated at the University of Oklahoma, she was also the first female consulting geologist in the area, and the first female geologist to work for the U.S. geological survey in Arizona. Part of the team to of the historic Apollo 11 mission, her notable work was honored by NASA. After her death, her cremated remains were launched into space.

Sleeping at Last

“An instrumental! I treated this one as if I were given an opportunity to score the Apollo 11 Mission. After watching hours of footage, I wrote this piece of music imagining as best I could as to what music for an adventure like this might sound like. I had a lot of fun doing it… and if you listen closely, you can hear (in sequence from launch, Moon-landing to the return back to Earth) NASA audio from that Apollo 11 mission scattered throughout the song.” -Ryan O’Neal

MoonSleeping At Last

Buzz Aldrin’s Apollo 11 Slide Rule - Flown to the Moon. A Pickett Model N600-ES (Eye Saver) Log Log Speed Rule, a six-inch pocket rule with 22 five-inch scales. Most of today’s cell phones have much more computing power than the Apollo 11 mission carried on board. Though they seem archaic to many of this present generation, the slide rule was (and is) a powerful computational tool and would certainly come in very handy on a space flight in the event of a computer malfunction. The rule offered here was flown to the moon aboard Apollo 11 by Dr. Aldrin. The Pickett Company, founded in 1943, was proud of the fact that NASA selected this slide rule model of theirs to fly on five of the Apollo missions; they used that fact in their advertising of the period. Research shows that the N600-ES would have sold for $10.95 at retail in 1969 (one wonders what NASA paid).

This is Katherine Johnson, the NASA scientist who calculated the trajectory of the Apollo 11 mission. She received the Silver Snoopy award on May 5th, 2016. Today is her 99th birthday, and ‘Katherine Johnson Day’.