apache geronimo

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A pair of before and after photos from the infamous Carlisle Indian boarding school. This group shot shows the children of Apache leaders who were imprisoned in Florida after surrendering to General Miles in 1886. These didactic photos were meant to show the “positive” outcomes of the US policies of Indian removal and forced assimilation.

Biographical notes on some of these children can be found in the book “From Fort Marion to Fort Sill: A Documentary History of the Chiricahua Apache Prisoners of War, 1886-1913”. A not insignificant number of the Apache children taken to Carlisle at this time–about 100 from Fort Marion–died of TB and other diseases; a few children in this photo never returned home and were buried at Carlisle. Hugh Chee, on the other hand, was among those pictured here who lived a long life.

“Chiricahua Apaches as they arrived at Carlisle from Fort Marion, Florida, November 4th., 1886”, Carlisle Indian School, Pennsylvania
Photographer: J.H. Choate
Date: 1886
Negative Number 002113

“Chiricahua Apaches Four Months After Arriving at Carlisle”, Carlisle Indian School, Pennsylvania
Photographer: J.H. Choate
Date: 1886
Negative Number 002112

Geronimo, c. 1886. 

A prominent leader of the Bedonkohe Apache tribe, Geronimo led his tribe’s resistance against the white colonization of southwestern North American. He eventually surrendered after a year of fighting, in 1886. He spent the last 20 years of his life as a prisoner

Check out our short film clip on Geronimo here.

(Photo: Library of Congress)