ap us government

Links to all of the AP US Government and Politics Review Posts
To all the kids in AP classes with C's

You worked hard for that C. Sure you would like your normal A but that doesn’t mean you should put yourself down because of a C. AP classes are supposed to be hard so if you think about it, a C is really an A. Heck some schools have a weighted GPA. A C in an AP class is an A in those kind of school systems, but what I’m trying to say is don’t put yourself down for something you worked hard for, your effort was seen and recognized or else it would be an F instead of a C. 

A word about AP scores

As many of you have gotten/are about toget AP scores back, I want to remind everyone of a few things:

-The AP program is meant to provide students with the opportunity to learn college-level material while still in high school. To a college, the AP scores of an incoming freshman serve as the ability to place out of introductory classes. That’s it. It’s just a kind of placement test, nothing more. That being said, don’t despair if you didn’t do as well on an AP as you had hoped. All that means is you might need to take one more class in college. You’re not a lesser person if you got a bad score on an AP.

-The AP program is weirdly focused and structured so even if you do good/bad on a specific subject you might have a completely different experience with it in college, and that’s okay.

-If you’re not a senior and plan on sending your scores to colleges as part of the application process, don’t worry either. You might not want to send them a really low score, but in regards to the application process what colleges mostly look at is the fact that you took the class at all (”rigor of schedule” is what many schools like to call it). Colleges also look at so many other factors that a good or bad score might not even make a difference, and that’s okay.

-Everyone has their bad days and there are hundreds of reasons why you might not have gotten the score you wanted. Don’t dwell on it. You also don’t know how close/far away you were from the thresholds to each score, so don’t sweat it.

-On the flip side, a 5 doesn’t mean you’re god’s gift to humanity. By all means be proud of your accomplishments, but remember to stay humble. College will be a huge transition for everyone; the fact that you got a 5 on x AP won’t matter when you’re sitting in your college classes.

Regardless of the score you got, you made it through the year and the test and I’m proud of all of you–you should be too.

AP Government Review #4: Political Parties, Interest Groups, and Mass Media

Hi everyone! Today, I’m going to cover the 3rd section of the US Government and Politics exam, which is 10-20% of the exam.

Key Terms:

  1. Critical Election: an election when significant groups of voters change their traditional patterns of party loyalty
  2. Divided Government: government in which one party controls the presidency while another controls Congress; has dominated the US since the 1970s
  3. Free Riders: people who benefit from an interest group without making any contributions; public interest groups and labor unions have this problem because people can benefit from the group’s activities without joining
  4. Horse Race Journalism: tendency of the media to cover campaigns by emphasizing how candidates stand in the polls instead of their stance on the issues
  5. Hyperpluralist Theory: theory that government policy is weakneed and often contradictory because there are so many competing interest groups
  6. Interest Group: organization of people whose members shares views on specific interests and attempt to influence public policy to their benefit; do not run for public office
  7. Linkage Institutions: connect citizens to the government; mass media, interest groups, and polittical parties are the 3 main ones
  8. Mass Media: means of communication such as newspapers, radio, television, or the internet; can reach a large audience
  9. Party Era: historical period dominated by one political party
  10. Party Realignment: majority party is displaced by the minority party, which ushers in a new party era (FDR)
  11. Political action Committee (PAC): commitee formed by business, labor, or other groups to raise money and make contributions to the campaigns of political candidates to whom they support
  12. Political Party: group of citizens who organize to win elections, hold public offices, operate governments, and determine public policy
  13. Power Elite Theory: theory that a small number of very wealthy individuals, powerful corporate interest groups, and large financial institutions dominate key policy areas
  14. Pluralist Theory: theory that many interest groups compete for power in a large number of policy areas
  15. Plurality Election: winning candidate is the person who receives more votes than anyone else, but less than half the total
  16. Single Member District: electoral district where one person is chosen by the voters for each elected office; leads to legislatures dominated by 2 political parties

Political Parties:

What is a Political Party?

  • organize to win elections, hold public offices, operate the government, and determine public policy
  • recruit and nominate candidates to public office, run political campaigns, articulate positions on issues, and critique policies of opposing party

Types of Political Parties

  • One Party: one party exercises total control (North Korea)
  • Two Party: two major political parties compete for control (US)
  • Multiparty: numerous parties compete for control; represent different ideologies (France)

Why America has the Two Party System

  • never had a strong socialist party dedicated to making a new system
  • share a group of core political values (individualism, equality, freedom)
  • most identify as moderates


Why Third Parties Don’t Work:

  • Democrat and Republican candidates are automatically put on state ballots, whereas minority candidates have to persuade registered voters to sign petitions in order to get on the ballot
  • winner-take-all format makes it difficult for a minor party candidate to win
  • cannot participate in presidential debates

Why Third Parties are Important:

  • express strong views on controversial issues, which the major parties won’t do
  • push major parties to adopt their ideas
  • play the “spoiler” role by affecting the presidential election outcome (Think 2002 and Ralph Nader’s Green party)

Major Party Eras:

  • The First One (1796-1824): The first party was led by Alexander Hamilton, and the party was known as the Federalists. They supported a strong federal government and a national bank. The opposing party was led by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson. Known as the Democratic-Republicans, they supported a limited federal government and opposed the national bank. 
  • Jacksonian Democrats (1828-1856): The Democratic party was led by Andrew Jackson, and they supported voting rights for all white males, opposed the national bank, and used the spoils system. The opposing party was led by Daniel Webster and Henry Clay. Known as the Whigs, they supported high tariffs and a national bank.
  • The Republican Era (1860-1928): The Republican party was led by Abraham Lincoln, and they were antislavery. The Democrats were the dominant party in the South. 
  • FDR and the New Deal (1932-1964): Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal Coalition had groups of labor unions, Catholics and Jews, Southerners, African Americans, and urban people. It did not have the support of Northern business leaders or wealthy industrialists. 
  • Divided Government (1968-Now): Richard Nixon’s election marked the beginning of Republican dominance. Carter’s presidency, 1977-1981, was the exception. The divided government meant that one party controlled the White House while another controlled both houses of Congress. 

Interest Groups:

What is an Interest Group?

  • organization of people whose members share policy views on specific issues and attempt to influence policy to their benefit
  • link citizens to the government by expressing opinions, conveying policy information to members, and raise money to influence policy makers

Types of Interest Groups

  • Business Groups: monitory legislative activity that may affect large corporations’ business; notable ones include the National Association of Manufacturers (focuses on legislation affecting labor laws, taxes, trade, and minimum wages) and the Chamber of Commerce (world’s largest business federation)
  • Agriculture Groups: shape agricultural policies; major ones include the Farm Bureau and the National Farmers Union, which speak the opinions of the farmers
  • Environmental Groups: support wilderness protection  pollution control, and animal rights; major ones include the Audubon Society and the Sierra Club
  • Labor Groups: concerned about worker rights; major one is the American Federation of Labor
  • Professional Groups: varied interests; major ones include the National Education Association, American Medical Association, and the American Bar Association
  • Single-Issue Groups: focus on one issue; major ones include the National Right to Life Committee and the National Rifle Association (one of the most influential single-interest groups)

Lobbying

  • process by which interest groups attempt to influence policymakers’ decisions
  • normally targeted towards Congress, the Executive Branch, and the Courts
  • often testify before Congressional Committees
  • often meet informally with congressional aides

Monetary Contributions

  • contribute money via political action committees
  • amount of money is limited by law; a PAC can only contribute $5,000 maximum to one candidate per election (primaries, general elections, and special elections are count separately)

Power-Elite Theory

  • PACS encourage a close connection between money and politics; more money = more access to the government

Mass Media:

  • means of communication (radio, television, radio, and internet)

What They Do

  • emphasize entertainment with popular programs and high ratings, create news reports in order to notify their audiences, and create political forums in order to promote their careers and draw attention to the issues
  • set the agenda by attracting public attention to certain issues
  • center attention more on the candidate than the issues; do this with sound bites, focusing on day-to-day campaign activities, and engaging in horse-race journalism

Types of Mass Media

  • Print: newspapers and magazines
  • Broadcast: television, internet, and radio

And that’s what you need to know![:

anonymous asked:

How should I approach AP government (my school combines us and comp)? I'm taking it this upcoming year, but I have no clue about current events and I don't really have political opinions

Start reading up on current events. Find out the top hot-button political issues, do your research, and form some opinions. This is important not just for the class, but for life in general, so start building good habits now. Nothing screams “I’M A FAILED ADULT” like deliberate ignorance.

Here are some important sources:

  • The New York Times is a classic, from news to opinion to lifestyle to blogs. The print version is always gorgeous as well.
  • Wall Street Journal is THE newspaper for business and keeping on top of the stock market. Build that economic foundation, because it’ll come up in “adult” conversations a lot.
  • Boston Globe is another classic paper, with strong entertainment and lifestyle sections.
  • Los Angeles Times is my home newspaper, so I sort of have to love it, of course. Southern California, represent.
  • NPR. Goddamnit, I will forever defend the importance of public radio. It also makes you sound really cultured when you start a conversation with, “I was listening to a program on NPR and…”
  • The Atlantic has some high-quality long-form pieces. (Great for building SAT vocab too, by the way.) A great way to see current events through an opinionated lens.
  • Slate is always interesting to read. A little clickbait-y, but you’ll never be bored, so it’s a good stepping stone for beginning news readers.
  • Reuters, on the other hand, is as dry as it gets. Great for getting your facts straight, but not so great for keeping yourself entertained.
  • TIME always, always has fascinating cultural and sociological articles. The photography is on point and the print design is cleanly minimalist.
  • Al Jazeera is an arabic news network with strong US reporting. It’s always good to keep a few foreign newspapers on your list so that you can avoid US bias.
  • I is a branch of the UK’s Independent, widely regarded to be an easy-to-read yet still accurate source. Again, foreign newspapers for the win.
  • Salon is full of liberal opinions, so of course I dig it.

Sources to avoid:

  • FOX News is trash. As someone with liberal leanings, I could be biased, but even most intelligent conservatives agree that FOX News is trash.
  • CNN/ABC/NBC and other TV channel networks can sometimes be heavily sensationalized. This is especially true for local branches of TV networks, which report things like toast burnt in the shape of a celebrity or other insignificant shit like that. It’s great to be caught up on local news, but keep an eye on the big picture.
U.S. Government Amendments (parenthesis indicate hints to remember)
  • Amendment 1: Freedom to speech, assemble, petition, press and religion (two parts to the last)
  • Amendment 2: Bear arms
  • Amendment 3: Voluntarily quartering of soldiers
  • Amendment 4: Warrants to search and seizure required
  • Amendment 5: Due process, protection against double jeopardy, etc
  • Amendment 6: Right to quick and speedy trial
  • Amendment 7: Right to a jury within trial
  • Amendment 8: No cruel and unusual punishment (equal sign)
  • Amendment 9: Enumerated powers (eNINErated powers)
  • Amendment 10: Powers not listed in Constitution go to states/people
  • Amendment 11: Protection of states against lawsuits ( | | <- barrier protecting states)
  • Amendment 12: Separate vote for president and vice president in electoral ballots (1 and 2 are not the same number, president and vp are not the same vote)
  • Amendment 13: Abolish slavery
  • Amendment 14: Incorporation (provides rights of citizenship due process equal protection etc)
  • Amendment 15: Guarantees right to vote regardless of ethnicity race and previous forms of servitude
  • Amendment 16: Income tax (when you're 16 you can work, and you get this)
  • Amendment 17: Senators elected directly
  • Amendment 18: Prohibition of Alcohol enacted (when you're 18, you can't drink)
  • Amendment 19: Woman can vote
  • Amendment 20: ("lame duck") Legislators have set terms/sessions
  • Amendment 21: Prohibition ends (when you're 21, you're allowed to drink) (so convenient how the two Prohibition amendments work out)
  • Amendment 22: Limits the presidential terms (2 only)
  • Amendment 23: DC is allowed a vote in the electoral college
  • Amendment 24: Poll tax abolished
  • Amendment 25: Presidential succession if president cannot preform duties in office
  • Amendment 26: 18 year-olds can vote
  • Amendment 27: Congressional pay
AP Government Review #2A: Constitutional Foundations of the United States Government

Welcome to the first post of the first unit of the AP US Government and Politics Review series. The posts that have the #2 on them will be about the first portion of the AP Government exam. The material I cover will be about 5-15% of the exam. I’m going to divide this unit into two different posts. The first one (this one) will be about the history of the US government and the key terms and social movements that occurred. The next post (#2B) will be about Federalism. Please note that in order to do well on the AP Government exam, you need to know your vocabulary. This is mostly a vocabulary exam! Okay, let’s get started!

Key Terms:

  1. Democracy: A system of government in which ultimate political authority is vested in the people. Derived from the Greek words demos (“the people”) and kratos (“authority”)
  2. Direct Democracy: A system of government in which political decisions are made by the people directly, rather than by their elected representatives; probably possible only in small political communities
  3. Representative Democracy: A form of government in which representatives elected by the people make and enforce laws and policies; may retain the monarchy in a ceremonial role 
  4. Constitutional Democracy: a system of government based on popular sovereignty, in which the structures, powers, and limits of government are set force in a constitution 
  5. Majority Rule: A basic principle of democracy asserting that the greatest number of citizens in any political unit should select officials and determine policies
  6. Plurality: the outcome of an election that involves more than two candidates
  7. Bicameralism: two legislative chambers [Congress- HoR and Senate]
  8. Natural Rights: Rights held to be inherent in natural law, not dependent on governments. John Locke stated that natural law, being superior to human law, specifies certain rights of “life, liberty, and property.” These rights, altered to become “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness,” are asserted in the Declaration of Independence
  9. Separation of Powers: The principle of dividing governmental powers among the executive, the legislative, and the judicial branches of government
  10. Checks and Balances: A major principle of the American government system whereby each branch of the government exercises a check on the actions of the others
  11. Direct Primary: where voters directly select the candidates who will run for office
  12. Judicial Review: The power of the Supreme Court or any court to declare unconstitutional federal or state laws and other acts of government (established in Marbury Vs. Madison 1803)
  13. Writ of Mandamus: A judicial order directing a government official to perform a duty of his or her office
  14. Executive Order:  A rule or order issued by the president to an executive branch of the government and having the force of law
  15. Executive Privilege: The privilege, claimed by the president for the executive branch of the US government, of withholding information in the public interest

 Important Court Cases of the Time:

  • Marbury v. Madison: (1803) Adams appointed the “midnight judges;” Jefferson refused to honor Adams’ decisions–established judicial review. You need to know this. Don’t forget this.
  • Gibbons v. Ogdens: (1824) NY granted Fulton and Livingston exclusive rights of steam boat navigation on NY waters. Ogden said his steamships were licensed under the Act of Congress–interestate commerce
  • McCulloch v. Maryland: (1819) Maryland enacted a statute imposing taxes on all banks not chartered by the state; Maryland didn’t have power to do so; Congress can incorporate a bank pursuant to the Necessary and Proper Clause–division between national and state government  

What You Need to Know:

Types of Government: 

  • Anarchy: no goverment (ana = no)
  • Autocracy: rule by one (auto = by itself)
  • Absolute Monarchy: type of autocracy; rule through inheritance; no restrictions on power
  • Constitutional Monarchy: type of autocracy; rule through inheritance; restrictions on power; mostly ceremonial/figurehead
  • Oligarchy: rule by few
  • Aristocracy: type of oligarchy; rule by the elite–wealthy, powerful
  • Theocracy: type of oligarchy; rule by religous people
  • Democracy: rule by the people (see key terms above for more on democracy)

What Influenced the US Government: 

  • Greece and Rome: democratic government began in Greece and Rome; heavily influenced the ideas of America’s founding fathers
  • Magna Carta: (1215) this was the first attempt to limit the British Monarchy and was forced upon the monarchs. It guaranteed certain rights, like trial by jury, due process of law, and protection against unfairly taking life, liberty, and property away from its citizens. Magna Carta = Great Charter
  • Parliamentthe parliament of Britain became the major lawmaking body of the government, limiting the monarchy
  • Petition of Right: (1628) this extended the protection of the Magna Carta to commoners. It also further limited the monarchy by restricting its ability to tax without parliament’s consent, declaring marital law, military rule, or housing military in private homes during peace time without the owners consent was illegal. This challenged the divine rights of the King
  • English Bill of Rights: (1689) an agreement between parliament and King William and Queen Mary to prevent future monarchs from abusing their powers. guaranteed free parliamentary elections, rights of citizens to a fair and speedy trial, freedom from excessive bails and fines, no cruel and unusual punishments, the right to petition the crown, and suspension of public laws was prohibited. 
  • John Locke: was a philosopher during the Enlightenment; supported the concept of social contract: a voluntary agreement between the government and governed; argued that people were born with natural rights and that governments had to support those rights. (Think Declaration of Independence)
  • Montesquieu: not as major as Locke but did argue for the need for branches of government (Think early checks and balances/ separation of powers)

Keep reading

AP Government Review #5C: Institutions of National Government- Federal Bureaucracy

This is the last portion of 35-45% of your exam! A lot of what is relevant to the Bureaucracy has already been mentioned in #5A and #5B, which is why this one is much shorter than the other two![:

Key Terms:

  • Bureaucracy: large, complex organization of appointed officials; have hierarchical authority, job specialization, and formal rules
  • Executive Order: a directive, order, or regulation issued by the president (mentioned in #5B)
  • Implementation: translation of policy goals into rules and standard operating procedures
  • Regulation: use of governmental authority to control practices in the private sector

Federal Bureaucracy:

  • originally drawn from an elite group of upper-class white males
  • Pendleton Act: (1883) created the federal civil service; workers are selected according to merit, not party loyalty
  • Office of Personal Management (OMP): administers civil service laws and regulations; in charge of hiring most federal agencies

Federal Bureaucracy’s Organization:

  • Cabinet Departments: 15 departments–each headed by a secretary (except the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Attorney General) 

Independent Regulatory Agencies:

  • created to protect the public by regulating key sectors of the economy
  • major ones include: Interstate Commerce Commision (ICC), National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), and the Federal Reserve Board (FRB). 
  • are led by small commissions appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate (commissioners cannot be removed)

Monetary Policy vs. Fiscal Policy:

  • Monetary Policy: refers to the money supply and interest rates; controlled by the Federal Reserve; most common form of monetary policy is open market operations (increase the money supply or decrease the money supply)
  • (Discretionary) Fiscal Policy: refers to government spending and taxing; more government spending and less taxing is expansionary; less government spending and more taxing is contractionary

Government Corporations:

  • provide a service that could be provided by the private sector
  • major ones include the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and Amtrak

Independent Executive Agencies:

  • include basically everything that’s non-cabinet
  • major ones include: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Implementation vs. Regulation:

  • Implementation: can break down due to conflicting goals, faulty program design, a lack of finances, and fragmentation of responsibilities; Congress usually gives mandates to federal agencies
  • Regulation: was actually mandated by the Supreme Court in Munn v. Illinois (1877); business was deregulated when Congress disbanded the Civil Aeronautics Board

Bureaucracy and the President:

  • President appoints agency heads and subheads, but the rest of his power is limited since Senate has to approve his appointments and the agency heads are loyal to their own departments, not the president
AP U.S. Government (add on more information if needed)

Federalism- National and State Government

Articles of Confederation -> Constitution

Confederation: States > national

Articles didn’t allow Congress to tax (no public services), establish a military 

Shay’s Rebellion- “If a bunch of farmers can start a riot and the government can’t do anything about it, somethings wrong” - caused for a rewrite of the Articles, then they completely scraped it and started the Constitution

Judicial Review- The act of looking at the Constitution and interpreting it to the specific scenario a case is in (not a specific power in Constitution but is now the norm)

Marbury v. Madison- Established judicial review

McCullough v. Maryland- Enhanced national supremacy (“yes the government CAN build its own bank!!”), formulated the elastic clause/necessary and proper clause [within the Constitution this clause resides] (“things not listed in Constitution that are deemed "necessary and proper” for the government’s existence are allowed to be created")

Plessy v. Ferguson- Separate but equal is constitutional

Brown v. Board of Edu- Separate but equal is UNconstitutional

Johnson v. Texas- Symbolic speech is protected by First Amendment (the guy burnt an American flag but it was a form of speech so…yeah)

Schenck v. U.S.- Symbolic speech is not protected by First Amendment if it fails the clear and present danger test

(this test applies to all forms of speech to determine whether it is symbolic speech or not)

Tinker v. Texas- Symbolic speech is allowed in schools as long as it’s not taking away from the original purpose of school (aka if it’s distracting it can be censored or removed) (fml dress code ugh)

Roe v. Wade- Privacy (“don’t ask me why I’m getting an abortion you don’t have a right to know, you simply provide one for me”)

Miranda v. Arizona- Accused must be read his/her rights on arrest (self incrimination void otherwise)

Mapp v. Ohio- Exclusionary Rule (evidence must be obtained legally to try)

New Jersey v. T.L.O- Search and Seizure in school is allowed

Warren Court- Liberal court (Brown v. Board of Edu)

Burger Court- Republican court (yet strangely acted liberally; Roe v. Wade)

Iron Triangle- relationship between interest groups to a congressional committee to an agency

Litigation- interest group taking something to court

Grassroots mobilization- interest group rallying the people

Lobbying- interest groups convincing congressional groups to do what they want

New Jersey Plan- One representative per state (small states would be equally represented/powered as larger states)

Virginia Plan- Representatives based on state population (larger states would be more accurately represented)

Great Compromise/Connecticut Plan- Have two chambers in Congress based on population and then states

Bicameral- Two chambers (ie, Congress with the House of Representatives (population, 453 in total) and the Senate (2 per state, 100 in total))

[Congressional] caucus- Group of Congress members with similar beliefs etc (IMPORTANT ONES TO KNOW OF are Congressional Black Caucus and the Congressional Women Caucus)

Ways and Means committee is in the House and deals with revenue and money

The House initiates bills regarding revenue

Senate approves of most presidential appointees

Senate has the filibuster (endless debate on a bill while on floor) and it can be ceased by cloture (petition signed by 2/3)

Impeachment- To formally accuse an officer of the government of misusing power

The House impeaches, Senate holds the impeachment trial

AP Government Review #8: How to Handle the FRQs

Hi! Here’s some tips on handling the FRQ.

  1. Pace yourself. You get approximately 25 minutes per question. Watch the clock/timer! You’d be amazed at how quickly 25 minutes goes by.
  2. Define concepts! If there’s a part of the question, and you’re not sure if you should define it, define it anyways. Give a quick short definition to drive it into the reader’s head that you know your stuff. For example, if an FRQ asks how a president can control domestic policymaking using vetos, you need to define what a veto is. Be specific.
  3. Be direct with your responses. This is not English class. Fluff is not appreciated. You do not need to blow the reader away with your vocabulary. Rather, it’s the opposite. You don’t need a thesis statement here. You need to just directly answer what they want from you.
  4. If it says to describe, describe. Be aware of what the question’s asking you. Describing requires you to explain how a definition is put into practice. For example, if I define what a veto is, I could later go on and explain that a president can pocket veto a bill by ignoring it for 10 days. If Congress adjourns within 10 days, then the bill is vetoed.  My best advice is to include a “for example” to make sure you’re actually describing it.
  5. If they ask you for 2 examples, give three (if time permits). If you know more than what they ask you for, go ahead and list them. They won’t deduct points for wrong answers if you have enough qualified answers. Does that make sense? If, for part c, it asked me to describe 3 types of enumerated powers of the president and I knew 4, I should list 4 in case one of them is wrong. Cover yourself. 
  6. Complete the loop. By this, I mean, basically restate the question in a sentence form. Is it sophisticated? No. Does it matter? No. You need to reiterate the question in order to complete your explanation. If you begin by saying the President exerts influence over domestic policymaking by….and then you describe everything great. You need to end it with, thus the President is able to hold great influence over domestic policy making. Redundant, sure, but at least you covered all your bases. Failing to complete the loop is one of the dumbest reasons for losing points. JUST COMPLETE THE LOOP. 
  7. Cross out A, B, C, etc. If you have the right answer to A in part C, but you have them labeled, graders can’t give you those points! You can have the letters while writing to keep you on track, but before you’re done, cross them out! You want to get as many points as possible.
  8. Write as legibly as possible. No, they’re not grading you on handwriting, but they will only spend roughly 30 seconds on your question. Let them get through your answer as easily as possible. They are not your friends. They will not go looking for places to give you points. They do not recognize your handwriting. Make their lives easier by writing decently. 
  9. Remember that the questions build upon one another. Do not go jumping around from a to e. Work in order. It’ll progress logically.
  10. Write a short conclusion summing up your ideas. This is not the same as an English paper conclusion. Rather, it can be a couple short sentences reminding the reader of your key points and what you answered (you can always rework the question into it too). 

so it’s the last few months of junior year and it seems like everything is coming at you at once.  Breathe.  You’ve got this.  Even though it seems crazy now, if you manage your time well you’ll be good! 

  • AP exams are coming up - prepare a month or so early.  As a junior you’re most likely taking one or more APs and when it comes to studying content, be it a math, science, history or english AP, the earlier you start the better off you’ll be. 
  • Taking 4-6 AP exams at once? I’m in the same boat as you!  budgeting time is key for each subject.  Each day you should being doing daily revision for each of the topics.  Don’t designate full days to cram all the information from one subject in.  Long term exposure to content is guaranteed to help you remember it. 
  • DO take a break every now and then - if you work super hard throughout the week leave Friday evening to yourself.  Read a book, take a walk, exercise, hang out with friends just do whatever makes you happy
  • PRACTICE!!! This may seem obvious but too many of my friends just read the prep books or notes without actually practicing applying all the knowledge.  Knowing the information is one thing, but practicing will make everything smoother and will allow you to identify your weaknesses. 
  • do NOT procrastinate - ESPECIALLY during April.  It’s imperative that you put in a lot of effort in this month and it will all pay off in May. 
  • understand that you are not obliged to have to hang out with friends if you have to prioritize studying first.  Communicate to your friends that this is an important time so they may be seeing less of you if there is a social concern. 
  • find what study methods works for you - I am a very physical person. whenever exam season comes around I’m making mindmaps and plastering them all over the walls in my room.  it allows me to collect my thoughts. find out what works for you and stick to it. 
  • Don’t let others scare you - this may seem a bit obscure but you know how when you hear someone else talk about how many hours or how many practice tests they did, you get anxious? Don’t get anxious - people have different ways of studying and for them billions of recopies of notes may work but that doesn’t mean they’re any more prepared than you are with your style of studying. 
  • DO stay healthy - this is so important and I mean staying healthy in all ways.  Eat well, sleep enough and drink plenty of water!!
  • DO know that it’s not a competition - there will always be someone one step ahead of you and that’s okay.  The only person you should compare yourself to is yourself.
  • Celebrate after APs - April will most likely be a month of studying a lot.  When you’ve completed your AP Exams (even though school finals, SAT subject tests and ACTs may be lurking around the corner) you need to celebrate!! Take a well deserved break to unwind before the end of the school year antics speed up. 
  • DO realize when you’re overworking yourself - we are not superheroes.  we’d like to be able to work for 15 hours straight but that is slightly impractical for some of us and that’s not a bad thing.  take breaks when you need to - you know yourself better than anyone else

Just remember - the work that you put in will always pay off.  Working less and cramming a few days before may work occasionally but the probability of preparing well and putting in a lot of effort is much higher than solely relying on short term memory retention just before the exam. 

If you liked this pt 3. of my junior year series message me again and i may make a pre senior year checklist (all the things rising seniors/current juniors should be getting in order for college apps!!) 

anonymous asked:

do you know where i can find the 2013 ap us government multiple choice questions?

I don’t have a clue. I’m sorry! You could talk to your teacher about any released exams or multiple choice practices they have on hand! I went through my old bookmarks and found updated links that might help you though! Good luck~

2013 FRQs
http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/members/exam/exam_information/2086.html#name13

Released 2009 Exam
http://www.glenelghigh.org/cms/lib01/MD01001859/Centricity/Domain/318/2009%20Test.pdf

Released 1999 Exam
http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/us-gov-released-exam-1999.pdf

Sample Questions + FRQs
http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/ap-us-government-and-politics-course-description.pdf

Review Links
http://www.appracticeexams.com/ap-government

I’m always here for advice!

My last day of high school is tomorrow, so while I’m preparing for college, I’m sure there are many of my followers preparing for middle school or high school. Since I’ve spent 4 years in a highly competitive STEM magnet school and taken 5 million APs and gotten all 4s or 5s, I figured I could help / give advice. 

AP exams I’ve taken: [AP Biology, AP Music Theory, AP French Language], [AP Calculus BC, AP US History, AP Psychology, AP Physics B, AP Environmental Science], [AP Statistics, AP US Government, AP Physics C]

**self-studied exams in italics

I can also give advice on college admissions since I just went through that whole process! :)

ASK HERE!!!