antimatter

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BY POPULAR DEMAND, HERE IS THE MATPAT AND NATEWANTSTOBATTLE TRAILER

If MatPat and Nathan Sharp were in a Five Nights at Freddy’s movie.

Inspired by Saw VII & the FNAF series

10

Ask Ethan: What’s The Difference Between A Fermion And A Boson?

“Could you explain the difference between fermions and bosons? What differs from an integer spin and a half-integer spin?”

On the surface, it shouldn’t appear to make all that much difference to the Universe whether a particle has a spin in half-integer intervals (±1/2, ±3/2, ±5/2) or in integer intervals (0, ±1, ±2). The former is what defines fermions, while the latter defines bosons. This hardly seems like an important distinction, since intrinsic angular momentum is such a nebulous property to our intuitions, unlike, say, mass or electric charge. Yet this simple, minor difference carries with it two incredible consequences: one for the existence of distinct particles for antimatter and one for the Pauli exclusion principle, that are required for matter as we know it to be. Without these differences, and without these rules, it’s simply a matter of fact that the atoms, molecules and living things we see today wouldn’t be possible to create.

What’s the difference between fermions and bosons? A little difference goes a long way! Find out on this edition of Ask Ethan. (And thanks to the anonymous tumblr question that inspired it!)

W̵̢̢̧̔̃͋͌̅̑̆͝͠ę̷̨̧͇̬̙̱̥͓̼͔̣̅̓̆̑̂̀̈̂͂̂̌͌̅͑͜͜ͅl̴̦̦̂̿̔̽̌̂̄͒́̚͝c̶̘͗͂̎̾̿͊͐͒͠ơ̶̖͓̫̒́́͘m̶͇̯͒̆̓̌̑̆́̋́̊̿̓̈́͘ȩ̵̼̽͌̎̃͑̾̊̎̀̊͘ tơ̸̧̧̪̦̣͑̏͒̈́̀͒̈́͋͊̈́̈́̋̈́͜͝ͅ ̵Ó̸̩̹̟̣̭̞̪̼̀͊͌̈̂͗̐̌͆̊̚͝ͅu̴̡̬̻͓̘̥̎̽̆̒̔̃͒̂͆́̎ŗ̵̪̪͇̤̺̬͍̩̦̺̳͔̹͗̋̌̈̒̅̊̉̕͠ ̶W̸̘͖̝͕̯͉̘̦͇̮̯̮̹͒͊̃̃͋o̵̜͓̬̤̎ŗ̷̨̟̞̦̳̝̘̤̝̟̃̈́̅͋̐̊̑̓̀̈́̿̐̆͘͜͝l̸̘͉̉͆̒̉͌́̎͑̕͜͠d̸̨̠̘͇̜̥̄̃͊̒̉̊̀̓͜

Yeah, so, I finished it. I had a lot more time today to fiddle around with it and a lot less left that I had to do than I thought.

From left to right it’s Mad!Cry, Antisepticeye, Darkiplier, Antimatter, and Natemare. I had a lot of fun drawing the dudes and will, actually, make a blog for them. Not sure when, but within the next week or two.

3

Antimatter measured for the first time!!!

Scientists have managed to trap and measure antimatter for the first time. Physicists at CERN successfully managed to create and maintain antihydrogen for 15 minutes by combining positrons and antiprotons in a vacuum tube using extremely strong magnetic fields to prevent the antimatter from colliding with the regular matter of the container and annihilating. Positrons occupy different energy levels just like electrons in regular atoms. A laser was used to excite the antihydrogen causing the positrons to move to a higher energy level. Just like in regular atoms, when the positrons are shifting back to their original energy levels electromagnetic radiation in the form of light is given off. The results of the experiment show that antihydrogen absorbs and then reflects the same wavelengths of light as regular Hydrogen as predicted by the standard model. They are hoping to run more precise experiments but so far it looks like we won’t have to change our understanding of physics yet.

Top left image is antihydrogen atoms coming into consideration contact with the sides of the container, annihilating and giving of energy in the form of light.

Here is a link to the pdf of the experiment.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaap/ncurrent/full/nature21040.html