antibiotic use

quietscribbles  asked:

Be warned, if you're allergic to the metal in your piercing, it might look like it's infected. But if the symptoms don't start clearing up after the use of antibiotics, that is most likely when you have a sensitivity to metal. Make sure to find a reliable piercer, because if you get a bad piercer, you can get nerve damage. If you want to know some more facts, just IM me. (2/2)

Ah, yes, that’s for sure
I was very careful when I went to get my nose one (it was pricey but worth it!)
Nerve damage
…man, that sounds so scary!

Good class, amigo/a. Thank you!


There is no such thing as a non-vegan environmentalist.
What you see above are aerial photographs of large feedlots and massive lagoons of waste. British artist Mishka Henner accidentally captured these aerial photographs that show the results of industrial beef farming. At first glance you may think it as abstract photography because of the geometric and vibrant images, or may even resemble open infected wounds, as you start to look closely however, you’ll see the details of the feedlots. The small black dots are only a small portion out of the billions of animals bred to become food. “While I was working on that series I was looking intensely at the American landscape, and that’s when I came across these really strange-looking structures, like a big lagoon, or all these dots that look like microbes,” Henner says. The massive waste lagoons waft up dangerous hydrogen sulfide fumes and contaminate groundwater with nitrates and antibiotics. Feedlots use large amounts of energy and water and saturate the air with odors that emit huge quantities of climate changing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. This is extremely damaging on the environment. “To me, as somebody in the U.K., looking at something [like] the feedlots I was shocked on a very personal level,” Henner says. “I think what the feedlots represent is a certain logic about how culture and society have evolved. On one level it’s absolutely terrifying, that this is what we’ve become. They’re not just feedlots. They’re how we are.”

So, does everyone remember when Tim Drake lost his spleen in the middle of the desert?

It tends to be a big deal in the Tim Drake fandom. I’ve read a multitude headcannons/fanfics about Tim’s post-spleen removal health, and I got curious.  I am kind of a medical nerd, so I decided to look into exactly what Tim’s medical treatment might be like if he were a real person with asplenia. To make this quandary somewhat legit, I did not use the powers of google, rather the online medical library at my university.

Obviously, the spleen plays a significant role in the immune system, and Tim’s lack of spleen would mean that he has an increased risk of developing infections. 

That being said, I found that most likely, Tim would not be on a daily antibiotic. Research studies show that daily (prophylactic) antibiotic use wasn’t really beneficial to adult patients without spleens. There is also concern that daily antibiotics may actually increase the patient’s risk of developing an antibiotic resistant infection. Children with asplenia are often on daily antibiotics, but this is usually only until age 16 or 18, when their immune system has mostly matured. 

If a patient does develop sepsis (a severe infection that cause organ failure and death), especially from pneumonia, they are more likely to be placed on daily antibiotic therapy. About 5% (depending on the source) of patients with asplenia will develop sepsis in their lifetime. The first year, especially the first 90 days, after spleen removal is when the incidence of sepsis is the highest.

However, if the patient does spike a fever, it is recommended that he immediately be started on an antibiotic. They actually recommend that these patients keep a filled prescription of antibiotics at home so they can start them right away. They also need to contact their doctor immediately, as they will need to undergo a fairly extensive work up to determine the source of the infection so it can be treated appropriately.

Prevention is really the key in keeping an asplenic person healthy. This means it is essential for them to to stay current on their vaccinations, especially for flu, meningitis, and pneumonia (which is the type of infection that most commonly leads to sepsis). Ideally, vaccination starts before the removal of the spleen. But that unfortunately can’t happen if the splenectomy happens emergently (or in a secret base run by ninjas).

Basically, to stay healthy, Tim just needs to do “normal” things to maintain his health - healthy diet, adequate sleep, exercise, wash his hands on occasion, attempt to reduce stress, and avoid unneeded exposure to people who are ill. 

Tim might be slightly screwed on that last part.

(Disclaimer: this post is in no way intended to discourage people from posting whatever Tim Drake headcannon/fanfic/ideas/meta that they want - I was just genuinely curious about the medical treatment of asplenia, and thought that I would share my findings.) 

God I HATE conflicting information on the Internet with fish. I’ve never experienced so much conflicting information in any sort of hobby as in fish keeping, specifically with betta fish. So reading about fin rot, tail biting etc, cause trying to figure out what’s up with vista. And reading the fin rot section on various websites and some of them are like INCREASE WATER TEMPERATURE TO 80 DEGREES. And other places are like LOWER IS TO 73 DEGREES BECAUSE IT WILL SLOW OR STOP BACTERIA PROGRESS and other places are like keep it right at 76 degrees. Some places are like use melafix, others say never touch melafix. Some say use antibiotics others say only treat with aquarium salt unless it’s body rot. And God don’t get me started on dosage and how to use aquarium salt cause that just seems like a bag of cats.

How in God’s name am I supposed to provide the best care for my fish when every other website I go to has different information. And even then, what makes that person an authority on treating the fish? God I just want some hard scientific information that comes from a reliable source. I know keeping fish for several years gives a lot of experience but I’ve seen way to many people who’ve kept fish for decades who think they’re experts who very clearly have no clue what they’re doing even though they’ve managed to keep the fish alive. Like it’s so hard for me to even trust people’s advice on half this shit even though I’m clueless to some degree and have to make a decision. It’s just so stressful, I just want to properly treat my fish and if I’m doing something wrong I just wanna know what I’ve done wrong so I can fix it. Why does it have to be so obnoxiously confusing

Apart from the fact that this feeble attempt to project circular logic onto science just doesn’t work…

If you really believe that science didn’t work, then you wouldn’t use antibiotics, fly in airplanes or use computers.

All religious people have a basic intuitive understanding that science works; they only oppose it on ideological grounds, because it conflicts with their faith-based opinions.

  • Client: so, my dog had a rash a few weeks ago. Now my other dog has one, and the first dog's rash is back. I started giving her the leftover antibiotics from last time, but I was wondering if I could get some more.
  • Me: antibiotics are prescription medications so by law we have to see the animal to dispense them. Also, you shouldn't have 'left over' antibiotics.
  • Client: I know, I know. I guess it's my silly fault the rash came back for not finishing the course.
  • Me (before thinking): yeah, probably.
  • Client: ... You're not supposed to say that!
  • Me: what am I supposed to say, sir?
  • Client: you're supposed to assure me it's not my fault.
  • Me: it's not my job to lie to you sir. It's my job to treat your dog and ensure proper use of antibiotics.

In 2010, the world used about 63,000 tons of antibiotics each year to raise cows, chickens and pigs. That’s roughly twice as much as the antibiotics prescribed by doctors globally to fight infections in people. Here’s another reason to be vegan.“We have huge amounts of antibiotic use in the animal sector around the world, and it’s set to take off in a major way in the next two decades,” says Ramanan Laxminarayan, who directs the Center for Disease Dynamics Economics & Policy in Washington, D.C. With half of the world’s pigs living in China, the country tops the list as the biggest antibiotic consumer in farming. The European Union banned the use of antibiotics to boost animals’ growth in 2006. At first, the ban had little effect on the amount of drugs given to pigs. But the U.S. isn’t far behind in second place, using about 10 percent of the world’s total. Brazil, India and Germany round out the top five for farm animal consumption of antibiotics. What frightens Laxminarayan is the huge rise in farm drug use, especially in middle-income countries. “We project in the next 20 years, world consumption of antibiotics in animals will go up by two-thirds,” he says. “The implications for the effectiveness of our antibiotics could be quite devastating.” As people around the world get richer, they want to eat more meat. Who can blame them, right? But all those extra chicken wings and pork chops come primarily from factory farms. We can talk about hormones at another time.

Discoveries by scientists like Antonie van Leeuwenhoek and Robert Koch connected microbes to infectious disease. These discoveries formed a way of thinking called “germ theory” that said a specific microbe caused a specific disease. With widespread use of antibiotics beginning in the 1940s, people zealously tried to rid their lives of any and all microbes, spreading the anti-microbial mindset to personal and household cleaning.

But today, scientists are starting to reevaluate germ theory. Using antibiotics to treat bad germs will remain an essential, life-saving part of medicine. But repeated or unnecessary use of antibiotics prevents our bodies from establishing the community of microbes it needs. Scientists now suggest that we look at microbes in context, understanding that microbes (Helicobacter pylori, for example) can be both beneficial and harmful

Overusing antibiotics has pushed microbes to evolve resistance, making them less available for general health care or surgical procedures. Clostridium difficile (pictured) is an example of a strongly antibiotic-resistant microbe. Successful treatment of C. diff. happens when a patient’s gut community comes back into balance, often by introducing a new microbial community from the stool of a healthy donor.

Learn much more about this topic in the Museum’s newest exhibition, The Secret World Inside You, now open. 

Did you know 80% of antibiotics - including many used for treating important infections in humans - are fed to healthy animals? Farmers add antibiotics to animals’ feed to compensate for keeping them in crowded, unsanitary conditions. The antibiotics are added at a level that does not treat disease but improves growth. The overuse of antibiotics on farms contributes to antibiotic-resistant bacteria (superbugs).

Over two million Americans suffer from an antibiotic-resistant infection every year, and 23,000 people die. The FDA has known about the problem of antibiotics misuse since at least 1977, but has not required farmers to stop this dangerous practice.

A New Culprit in Lyme Disease

Researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., have discovered a new species of tick-borne bacteria that causes Lyme disease.

The new species, provisionally named Borrelia mayonii, after the clinic, has been found only in the upper Midwest but may be present elsewhere.

Six patients with the infection were identified by the researchers. The patients had symptoms similar to, but not precisely the same as, those caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, until now the only species known to cause Lyme disease in North America.

The new strain apparently adds nausea and vomiting to the list of typical Lyme symptoms, which include fever, headache and neck pain. B. mayonii patients also had a higher-than-expected concentration of bacteria in their blood.

Fortunately, the antibiotic treatment normally used to treat Lyme disease appears to be effective against B. mayonii, Dr. Pritt said.

Borrelia mayonii in a laboratory dish. Credit: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
Antibiotics will soon 'stop working'
Urgent action is needed to control the use of antibiotics before they cease to work, leaving a number of major conditions untreatable and causing “terrible human and economic cost”, a major study has warned.

Resistance to antibiotics is growing at such an alarming rate that they risk losing effectiveness entirely meaning medical procedures such as caesarean sections, joint replacements and chemotherapy could soon become too dangerous to perform. Unless urgent action is taken, drug resistant infections will kill 10 million people a year by 2050, more than cancer kills currently, the report’s authors warn.

Drug resistant infections are thought to be growing due to over-use of medicine such as antibiotics and anti-fungus treatments to treat minor conditions such as the common cold. With over-use, resistance to the drugs builds up meaning some conditions become incurable and so-called ‘superbugs’ such as MRSA develop.

Research has also suggested that antibiotic use in pig farming is common as poor living conditions mean such treatment is necessary to prevent infections spreading between livestock and that this passes down to humans through pork consumption, increasing resistance levels further. In the UK, 45 per cent of all antibiotics are given to livestock.

The report is the result of a two year long review of the use of antibiotics undertaken by economist and former Goldman Sachs Asset Management chairman Lord Jim O’Neill. The review was commissioned by the Government amid growing concerns about the use of the medicines in the UK.

Antibiotic resistance: WHO reveals woeful misconceptions about global health crisis

Two-thirds of people believe antibiotics can be used to treat colds and the flu, while another third think they should stop taking them when they feel better rather than continuing the whole course of treatment. The World Health Organisation’s survey of public understanding of antibiotic resistance has revealed some woeful misconceptions – a problem compounding one of thebiggest health challenges of the 21st century”.

The WHO surveyed 10,000 people across 12 countries to establish what people knew about antibiotic resistance. The report was published at the start of the first-ever World Antibiotic Awareness Week and to mark the launch of WHO’s new campaign, Antibiotics: Handle with care. The campaign says we should become better stewards of antibiotics, only using them when appropriate.

And this, they say, is of paramount importance. They found 65% of people had used antibiotics in the last six months. Over half, however, said there was not much they could do to stop antibiotic resistance and 64% think scientists will solve the problem before it becomes too much of an issue.

The vast majority of respondents said the drugs were prescribed to them by a healthcare professional (81%) or from a pharmacy or medical store (93%). However, they also found a small percentage of respondents in China and India had bought antibiotics online.

Findings revealed 76% of people thought antibiotic resistance occurs when the body becomes resistant. Almost half thought antibiotic resistance was only a problem encountered by those who took these drugs regularly, while 66% say they will not be at risk of a drug resistant infection if they take their antibiotics as prescribed. None of these statements are true.

Antibiotic resistance happens when bacteria changes to resist the drugs being used to treat it. This occurs when antibiotics are misused – for example people not completing the dosage – and taking them for ailments they are not supposed to treat. Should antibiotics lose their efficacy, which health bodies across the globe are warning about, everyday infections could again become lethal.

Keiji Fukuda, Special Representative of the Director-General for Antimicrobial Resistance, said: “The findings of this survey point to the urgent need to improve understanding around antibiotic resistance. This campaign is just one of the ways we are working with governments, health authorities and other partners to reduce antibiotic resistance. One of the biggest health challenges of the 21st century will require global behaviour change by individuals and societies.”

Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General, added: “The rise of antibiotic resistance is a global health crisis, and governments now recognise it as one of the greatest challenges for public health today. It is reaching dangerously high levels in all parts of the world. Antibiotic resistance is compromising our ability to treat infectious diseases and undermining many advances in medicine.”

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If you're not going to use antibiotics properly, don't use them at all.
  • Me, whenever anyone implies taking antibiotics for viruses: *Pinching the bridge of my nose* You don't... you don't take antibiotics for viruses. *Pulling my hair* "Anti-biotic" means it kills living germs. Viruses are NOT alive, you can't kill what isn't alive. *Pounding the desk* People like you are the reason we have antibiotic resistant super germs!
Although rheumatic heart disease due to group A streptococcal infection has all but disappeared in wealthy countries (Lancet, 2012), some countries still go to great lengths to test for streptococcal throat infections, including the United States. As a result, we spend more than $8 million per each additional case of rheumatic heart disease prevented (Prev Med. 2002).

American Family Physician, May 2015

See this old post for more on the grotesque overuse of antibiotics for strep throat in the US