antibiotic use

Medicine in the (Post-Apocalyptic) Wasteland: 1 / ?

Hey everyone. I get so many asks about post-apocalyptic scenarios that it’s I’m going to build you a series of posts, dealing specifically with medicine after the collapse of civilization.

Originally posted by jupiter2

Yes, this borders on sci-fi. Yes, a lot of things will be very different in your story, depending on the hows and the whys and the social structure that exists after the apocalypse. Things will also be incredibly different based on when your story is set, because things will likely collapse in a particular order. So your story is going to change a lot depending precisely when you’re writing about, in relation to The Catastrophe (of whatever type).

The difference between this and sci-fi asks is that there is very much an area of medicine devoted to this type of care. It’s called Austere Medicine, AKA Wilderness Medicine. It’s studied. There are resources. There are people who work in villages that may not have had an apocalypse, but have limited funds, access to power, access to diagnostics, access to drugs, and they do it every day of their lives. This is sci-fi with modern parallels. This is interesting.

For the purposes of this article, we’re assuming two major problems: no / extremely limited electricity, and no / extremely limited gasoline.

That first one throws out most of modern medicines. Hospitals. Surgeries. MRIs, CT scans, even the humble X-ray goes by the wayside. Providers have to go back to doing medicine with their hands and with their ears.

Oh, and a lot of people are going to die.

Enter Dani Disaster.

She’s smart, but moreover she’s resourceful, and she can think outside the box that modern medicine has tried to put her in. Maybe she was a doctor, or a nurse, or a paramedic. Now she’s a healer, a Jane-of-all-trades of medicine. She barters for what will help people in the short term, and shakes her head and sighs when she realizes she can’t help a lot of the people she used to be able to.

One thing I want to mention is that Dani will definitely want to keep someone around, preferably an intimidating, armed someone, to protect her. Because people will want things from Dani; everything from begging her to fix their dying-of-something-she-can’t-fix husband, to demanding she be personal medic to the Warlord King (or whatever brute is rising to power in your world).

The First 6 Months

Originally posted by mysillyfreedomdreams

Most people don’t have more than a month’s worth of their medication on hand. Even most pharmacies would run out of the most popular life-saving medications inside of a month or two, assuming they aren’t simply raided by bandits. And in a world without gasoline, the odds of restock are very, very low.

That means no blood pressure medications, no blood thinners, in an ever-increasingly-stressful world. That means no insulin for diabetics, no immunosuppressants for those with autoimmune diseases, no antiepileptics for those with seizure disorders, no antibiotics for septic patients. No pressors to give and no pumps to hang them on. Even IV fluids, literal salt water, will run short.

I will be straight up with you all, keyboard-mashers: a lot of people will die in the first 6 months of an apocalypse, and I’m not even talking from the fighting. I’m not even talking about starvation. I’m just talking about chronic illness. Heart attacks. Diabetes. Blood clots. Strokes. I’m talking about the elderly, who can barely make it a block to the store. I’m talking about serious respiratory patients who need steroids and who have serious trouble walking distances. Cancer patients won’t get chemo, or radiation, or maybe even food. Patients with HIV will run out of antivirals, and then run out of T cells, and die from the common cold.

There are going to be a lot of deaths in the first 6 months after the apocalypse, friends, and it will be ugly as hell. Remember that for most of human history, the lifespan was about 40 years. In a world without organized medicine and the pharmaceutical processes to make medicine, there’s precious little that can be done to expand the lifespan.

Congratulations: You’re the Surgeon. And the Infectious Disease doc. And the Midwife. And the Wound Care Specialist. And the Anesthesiologist. And the…

Look, healthcare is a wide field, and no one person is going to be good at everything. No one person is actually interested in everything, either. There is no one type of healthcare provider who can do everything, although Emergency Medicine docs probably come the closest; and before The Thing That Happened, Dani may have been an ICU nurse, tweaking ventilators, or a paramedic who’d never thrown a stitch before, much less amputated a badly gangrenous leg.

What I’m saying here is, there’s a learning curve for the actual technical things she’ll need to do, in addition to re-learning how to do everything with nothing. And some of it might be way, way outside her wheelhouse, especially at first.


Six Months to Five Years: The Rise of Dani Disaster

Originally posted by asmothdeus

If Dani is lucky, and she gets to the raiding of pharmacies early on, she’ll stock up. On anything she can get, of course, but especially on three things: antibiotics, analgesics and sedatives. Why? Because they’re what will save lives and be useful as hell for trading. Here’s why:

Antibiotics: infection will probably be the single group of preventable deaths that are worth looking at, from a supply-vs-life-years-saved perspective. A single course of antibiotics will save someone’s life, but a diabetic will need insulin, every day, for decades. Also remember that with system breakdown comes water supply breakdown, which means a return of diseases like typhoid and cholera and diptheria and polio.

Antibiotics are an art all of their own, but frankly, they’re boring. Broad-spectrum antibiotics will be most useful; including amoxicillin/Augmentin, Cefaclor, Keflex, Levaquin, erythromycin or clarithromycin or azithromycin, Cipro, or doxycycline. 

Oral antibiotics are going to have benefits over IV antibiotics, for a number of reasons, mostly portability and ease of administration; IV-only drugs haven’t been listed here. Some meds may come in a form that can be given IM; this may be helpful for conditions that severely upset the GI tract (and thus prevent people from absorbing them, because the pill will either go up or down, depending.)

The thing you have to realize is that in austere medicine, common things happen commonly. No one cares if your patient has a pulmonary embolism, or a cool dysrhythmia, because with complex conditions, one of two things are going to happen: They are going to get better, or they are going to die. Heart attacks, a major focus of modern medicine, are essentially untreatable without the risk of dying.

Instead, the most important things Dani will be treating are things that, in the developed world, should be handled in urgent care clinics: gastroenteritis (the shits) and broken bones and infected wounds and yeast infections. A friend of mine went to Haiti after the quake, and within 24 hours she could diagnose a yeast infection by the way a woman was walking.

Originally posted by mattsgifs

Diflucan. She will need LOTS OF DIFLUCAN.

(It’s worth noting that Haiti was very hot and very humid, which is where fungi like to grow; other areas may see other climates, and thus less yeast infections.)

Analgesics: If she’s smart, Dani will take anything she can beg, borrow, or steal. Common, over-the-counter meds like Advil/ibuprofen and Tylenol/acetaminophen/paracetamol, and pill opiates like Vicodin and Percocet and Morphine and Dilaudid. All of these have their place, but mostly this is a “whatever I can get” sort of a thing.

If Dani is really smart, she will go out of her way to find every bottle of ketamine in whatever hospital she raids. We’ve talked about ketamine before, but it’s worth mentioning again, in that it can be used to sedate the crazy, ease pain, or put someone under for short surgical procedures like an appendectomy or amputation. (It’s also a single agent; it controls pain and causes sedation. It doesn’t act as a paralytic, but hopefully she won’t need one).

Lidocaine in a Big Fucking Bottle is optional but beneficial for topical procedures, wound care, suturing, etc.

However, all of these things will eventually run out, no matter how judicious she is about using them. And that’s when we get to….

Five Years Plus: Back to Herbalism It Is

Originally posted by indefenseofplants

There are a lot of allopaths–those who practice Western medicine–that believe herbalism is complete and utter horseshit. I am not one of those people. A lot of medications have their origins in natural remedies and plants, and herbalism is how we treated, well, everything, for quite some time.

The poppy plant begat opium, which begat laudanum, heroin, morphine, and fentanyl. The foxglove plant (digitalis) begat, Digoxin, whose actual name is digitalis. Curare is one of the original paralytics used for surgery. The list goes on and on.

Now, an allopathic education doesn’t typically lead to an in-depth knowledge of medicinal herbs. But fortunately, there are these lovely things called books, and there are, in fact, some really good ones on this topic.

Originally posted by amnhnyc

My personal medical-herbalism reference is James A Duke’s The Green Pharmacy (Amazon link, but available everywhere; not an affiliate link). The author ran the medicinal herb research at the US Dept of Agriculture for a good long while, and the best part about his book is that it is organized by disease (so you don’t have to read about 5,000 plants to find one that treats allergies), and he grades his evidence base for each recommendation. However, there are also field guides to medicinal plants.

Once the allopathic meds run out, Dani Disaster is going to become, basically, a witch doctor, without the witchy aspects. (Or with, depending on her faith and whether or not she practices the craft; no one is judging here.)

She’s going to have a garden of medicinal herbs, and she’s going to learn to prepare poultices and teas and tinctures and creams. Basically, she’s going to bring an allopathic ideology back to herbalism, preferably with some form of evidence base. Willow bark tea is going to be a Big Deal™, because willow bark tea contains an active ingredient very similar to aspirin.

Originally posted by nutnuhmellaarts

But she’s also going to have to be, in part, a home chemist. If she does enough research she can learn how to make her own ethyl alcohol, aka ethanol, aka boozeahol, but this can be used as a disinfectant and antiseptic. (Hell, in a pinch regular ol’ wine can be used to clean out wounds, apparently.) 

She can also learn to make her own bleach, her own IV fluids (0.9% Normal Saline, anyways), her own oral rehydration solution (aka Pedialyte / Gatorade), and perhaps even her own ether, which is a crap anesthetic but better than nothing.

Originally posted by gif87a-com

That’s It…. For Now

This is just a small snippet into the world of austere medicine. (Be careful with Google searches on this topic; Doomsday Preppers are very, very scary and their websites can be… uhhh….. ill-informed.) There’s still plenty more to talk about, so stay tuned for more posts! (I’m especially drooling over the idea of writing a post on the ethics of medicine in the austere environment–stay tuned!!)

I hope this was useful, but remember also this poem by the greats of old:

When the world ends, now
is the time to be sure I
read the disclaimer.

Originally posted by the-reactiongifs

See you in the wasteland. xoxo, Aunt Scripty

anonymous asked:

You can be vegan all you want, good for you, but not being vegan doesn't make someone a bad person. Not everyone in the world will convert to being a vegan so maybe y'all should stop being angry people and just get over it.

Of course the whole world will never be vegan, but I strongly believe that someday a majority of the world will be vegan. In fact, the world will have to go mostly vegan or we are screwed, anon. Veganism is the future, out of necessity, and the UN agrees.

Animal agriculture is destroying our world. 

No, not being vegan does not make someone a bad person… but if you’re aware of the slaughter you’re contributing to and you’re able to change that and choose not to, that is extremely problematic. Especially if you mourn the deaths of companion animals, but not the ones on your plate. 

Penicillin

Penicillin is a widely used antibiotic prescribed to treat staphylococci and streptococci bacterial infections. 

  • beta-lactam family 
  • Gram-positive bacteria = thick cell walls containing high levels of peptidoglycan
  • gram-negative bacteria = thinner cell walls with low levels of peptidoglycan and surrounded by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer that prevents antibiotic entry 
  • penicillin is most effective against gram-positive bacteria where DD-transpeptidase activity is highest.

Examples of penicillins include:

  • amoxicillin
  • ampicillin
  • bacampicillin
  • oxacillin
  • penicillin

Mechanism(s)

  • Penicillin inhibits the bacterial enzyme transpeptidase, responsible for catalysing the final peptidoglycan crosslinking stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis.
  • Cells wall is weakened and cells swell as water enters and then burst (lysis)
  • Becomes permanently covalently bonded to the enzymes’s active site (irreversible)

Alternative theory: penicillin mimics D-Ala D-Ala

Or may act as an umbrella inhibitor

Resistance

  • production of beta-lactamase - destroys the beta-lactam ring of penicillin and makes it ineffective (eg Staphylococcus aureus - most are now resistant)
  • In response, synthetic penicillin that is resistant to beta-lactamase is in use including egdicloxacillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, and methicillin. 
  • Some is resistant to methicillin - methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).  
  • Demonstrating blanket resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics -extremely serious health risk.
nature.com
Untreatable gonorrhoea on the rise worldwide
Of the countries surveyed around the world, 97% reported cases that were resistant to ciprofloxacin, the cheapest and most widely available treatment; 81% reported gonorrhoea cases resistant to azithromycin; and 66% to cephalosporins.

Gonorrhoea is becoming as incurable as it was in the 1920s, before the first drugs to treat it were discovered. More than 60% of countries surveyed around the world have reported cases that resist last-resort antibiotics, according to an announcement by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 6 July. The announcement included information about a new gonorrhoea drug in development.

Since the 1930s, several classes of antibiotics have been used to kill the bacterium that causes gonorrhoea, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Widespread use — and misuse — of these drugs, however, has led to a rise of antibiotic-resistant strains of the bacteria. “The best time to have had gonorrhoea was the eighties, since there were many drugs to treat it with,” says Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy in Washington DC. Increasingly, that’s no longer the case, he says.

Continue Reading.

Betta Generalization

For lack of a better title.

Before I found Fishblr, I used to be apart of a fish forum that was FULL of know-it-alls, agism, and decade’s old info.

A lot of it actually pissed me off, and I thought I’d post some of the nonsense here, and see what you all think?

-I was told that aquarium salt is one of the worst things you can use for a betta, and if water changes don’t suffice, you should skip right to antibiotics. Salt does nothing for your betta, except damage it’s liver and kidneys.

*I honestly think this is utter bullshit. I was totally taken aback when I read this. Salt does have healing properties, and has been shown to be beneficial in fin and gill health. I’ve personally had great results with salt, and would never skip right to antibiotics. As a matter of fact, if kidney damage is as much a concern as it is with salt, I wouldn’t use antibiotics either!

-Bettas can’t recognize their keepers by action or gesture. All humans are humans to them.

*My bettas know me, they know my hands, and the way I move. If you get anyone else poking around their tanks, they go wild and hide. With me, they actually come up to my hands and try nibbling on them.

-The only reason bettas greet you at the side of the tank, is because they felt the vibrations of your feet, walking towards their tank.

*Bullshit. I weigh 100 lbs soaking wet, and my house is built on a solid concrete foundation. I could be wearing lead boots and stomp around, and I bet my fish wouldn’t feel these said “vibrations”. I could see them becoming accustomed to the sound, and your arrival, given you didn’t have a concrete foundation, but it’s not essential, and not the only way they know of your presents.

-Bettas have terrible eyesite, and cannot see more than a foot or two in front of them.

*I am currently about 12 ft from my furthest tank, and Peaches is doing her food wiggles for me. The closest tank is about 8 ft, and Nanners is staring at me. :p

-They are incapable of feeling pain and fear.

*The amount of bull with this one, makes me want to scream! The person who posted this said that betta/fish in general, are incapable of experiencing pain as humans do. I.e., they only “react” to uncomfortable situations, because they’re prey animals, and don’t want to be eaten. (Idk how the hell they came up with that). A fish will swim away from pain, because that’s all they can do. Humans will pull their hands back from a burning flame. It’s the same thing! Not to mention, fish don’t always swim away from these annoyances, they’ll actively try to dislodge parasites, such as the Ich! They do feel sensations, and they know when they don’t like something.

I’m sure there were more, but these are some that stood out in my mind. All these people were super rude and condescending, it was ridiculous. I’m so glad I found fishblr. UwU

Medicinal uses for common culinary herbs

(Found this useful and figured I’d share it)


 Category: Herbology Published: Wednesday, 19 September 2012 Written by Super User

Medicinal Uses For Common Culinary Spices

ALLSPICE - Active ingredient is eugenol, same as cloves. Topical pain relief, tea and mouthwash.

ANISE - Seven tsp. of seed to one quart water, boil down by half, add 4 tbsp. of honey, take two tsp to calm a cough. Drink tea for memory, aid digestion, and a wash for oily skin.

ANNATO - (Lipstick tree)- Lightly crushed seeds added to food is like natural gas-x.

ARROW ROOT POWDER - One tbsp in a cup of juice every few hours to relieve diarrhea. Poultice to soothe skin inflammations.

ASAFOETIDA - Buy the tincture in Indian shops. They add a drop to many dishes to relieve stomach pains (gas). Insect repellent. Topical use to heal ulcerated sores.

ASPARAGUS - Boil in water and drink the water for kidney problems. Dissolves uric acid deposits and promotes urination.

BASIL - Add fresh herb or seeds to boiled water to make tea for migraines and bed time restlessness. Douche for yeast infections, eliminates candida, gargle and mouthwash. Pregnant women should avoid medicinal use of basil.

BAY LAUREL - Heat leaves in a little olive oil to make a bay oil salve for arthritis and aches.

CARAWAY - Bring 2 cups of water to a boil and add 4 tsp lightly crushed seeds. Simmer for 5 minutes, then steep 15 min. Drink with meals to prevent gas, even for infant colic. Promotes menstruation and relieves uterine cramping.

CARDAMON - Digestive aid, eases gluten intolerance (celiac disease). Sprinkle powder on cereal.

CAYENNE PEPPER - Capsicum speeds metabolism. Capsicum cream and oils relieve arthritis and aches, not just by warming and stimulating blood flow, but also by blocking pain transmission by nerves. (blocks substance P) Prevents blood clots, heals ulcers. Cayenne and garlic in chicken soup really IS as effective as antibiotics after the onset of cold or flu. Cayenne dramatically drops blood sugar levels and should by avoided by hypoglycemics. Cayenne promotes excretion of cholesterol through the intestines. It increases energy levels and aura brilliance.

CELERY - Sedative. Active ingredient thalide. Seed and stalk, reduces hypertension. Celery seed tea for the kidneys as a cleanser.

CHERVIL - Steep in boiled water and apply with an eye cup for a wide range of eye complaints.

CHICORY - Liver cleanser, fat cleanser, dissolves gallstones. Prepare like coffee.

CILANTRO - Leafy part of coriander plant. Food poisoning preventative.

CINNAMON - Mouthwash, good for upset stomach. Simmer sticks with cloves for 3 min, add 2 tsp lemon juice, 2 tsp honey, 2 tbsp whiskey - as cold medication. Cinnamon is good for yeast infection and athlete’s foot. A 2% solution will kill both of these conditions. Boil 8-10 sticks in 4 cups water, simmer 5 min, steep 45 min, then douche or apply to athlete’s foot. Cinnamon reduces cancer causing tendencies of many food additives.

CLOVE - Use oil for pain relief for sore gums and toothache. Add clove oil to neutral oils for topical pain relief of arthritis. Small amounts of clove in a tea for nausea. 3 cloves in two cups of boiled water, steeped for 20 minutes, as an antiseptic and mouthwash. Former alcoholics can suck on one or two cloves when the craving strikes to curb the desire.

COFFEE - Although not a spice, it is commonly available in the kitchen. The caffeine in coffee can be used to alleviate headaches (particularly those caused by caffeine withdrawal.) Coffee enemas with olive oil are used to cleanse the bowels and are one of the safest and most thoroughly cleansing enemas available. Caution and common sense must be used to avoid dependency. Hot black coffee sipped through a straw helps break up mucus congestion in the lungs.

CORIANDER - Coriander tea can be used topically to remove unpleasant odors in the genital area for men and women. The tea can be held in the mouth to relieve the pain of a toothache. Can also be drank to relieve flatulence and indigestion.

DILL - Bring one pint of white wine almost to a boil, remove from heat and add 4 tsp of dill seeds, let steep 30 minutes and strain. Drink 1 ½ cups a half hour before retiring to sleep well. To the same directions, but substitute for the 4 tsp of dill, instead add 1 tsp each of anise, caraway, coriander and dill to stimulate the flow of breast milk in nursing
mothers. Chewing dill seeds removes bad breath.

FENNEL - Chewing fennel seeds relieves bad breath. Fennel seed tea sweetens breastmilk. Fennel tea relieves colic in infants.

FENUGREEK - Use as a tea as an excellent relief for colic and fever in children. 1 tbsp ground fenugreek seed taken in the diet daily can reduce cholesterol. 8 tsps of seed presoaked in 4 cups cold water for 4 hours, then boil for 2 minutes, strain and drink 1 cup a day to ease hay fever attacks.

GARLIC - Ultimate antibiotic. Useful even for sexually transmitted diseases. Strongly recommended for hypoglycemia, and diabetes. Destroys intestinal parasites. Reduces cholesterol. Repels insects, and reduces sting effects of insects and red ants.

GINGER - Anti-nausea tea, blood thinner, substitute for coumadin. Boil 2/3 cup of freshly chopped root in 1 gallon water, wrapped in cheesecloth (or old nylon stocking) until the water is yellow. Then soak towel and lay on bruises and sprains while still hot, to ease them. Stimulates a delayed period. Warm ginger tea is good to break up congestion and fever. Ginger is one of the few herbs that easily passes the blood/brain membrane and is used in conjunction with other herbs that are meant to have an effect on the mind. Pregnant women should avoid medicinal concentrations of ginger.

HORSERADISH - Freshly dug root is added to a cold-pressed oil of choice (such as safflower or olive) to make a massage oil for muscle aches and to break up chest congestion. Grate fresh ginger and horseradish together and make a tea to stop post nasal drip.

LEMONGRASS - ½ cup dried leaves to 2 pints of water, simmer for 10 minutes, and sip to bring down fevers.

LICORICE - Tranquilizer. Balances nervous system, stimulates liver functions. Long term usage (over 3 months) could cause liver damage.

LOVAGE - Steep root for 15 min in a cup of boiled water, drink after every meal to prevent flatulence.

MARJORAM AND OREGANO - Over 2 dozen related species. Use as a tea to help reduce fevers and break up bronchitis. Drink tea to relieve cramps and irregular menstruation. Eases suffering of childhood diseases like mumps and measles.

MINT - (Peppermint and spearmint)- Peppermint tea for migraines, nervousness, stomach disorders, heartburn, and abdominal cramps. Herpes sufferers can take 2 cups of tea a day to ease the symptoms when the virus is active. Mints are used to buffer the action of other herbs that have uncomfortable effects on the stomach and intestines. Can be used in any combination for flavor.

MUSTARD - 1 ½ cups of dry yellow mustard in a bathtub of water for sprained backs. Make a paste with water and apply to knee and elbow sprains till blisters appear! Mustard and ginger plaster for deep rattling coughs - 1 tsp each mustard and ginger powder mixed with 2 ½ tbsp of olive oil. Rub over chest and back and put on an old T-shirt (or cover with cloth diaper).

NUTMEG AND MACE - Gas, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, and kidney problems - make a paste of powder with cold water and then add to boiled water. 1 tbsp of powdered nutmeg produces a floating euphoria for between 6 and 24 hours. Can cause near constant erections for men during that time. Side effects are bone and muscle aches, burning eyes, sinus drainage, and limited diarrhea.

ONION - Egyptians swore their oaths on onions; Grant refused to move his army until he got 3 railroad cars full of onions; interviews with hundreds of people who lived to 100 plus all indicated a heavy intake of onions in the diet. Onion is an excellent dressing for burns. Crush sliced onions with a little bit of salt and apply to burns. Apply sliced onion to bee and wasp stings. For asthma: puree an onion, cover it with brandy and let sit overnight, strain it, filter it through a coffee filter, and refrigerate. Take 2 tbsp 20 minutes before expected onset or before going to bed.

PARSLEY - The purifier. Chew for halitosis. A few sprigs provide 2/3 the vitamin C of an orange, lots of vitamin A, and the important amino acid histidine, which is a tumor inhibitor. Parsley tea is good for kidney problems, painful urination, and kidney stones. One cup of parsley to 1 quart of water makes a strong tea. Two cups of parsley to 1 quart of water, steep an hour and drink warm, as an aphrodisiac. In Spain they have found that feeding parsley to sheep will bring them into heat at any time of year!

PEPPER (black)- Pain relief from toothache, brings down a fever.

ROSEMARY - Flower tea for the breath. Boil water with rosemary in it to make it safe to drink. Diuretic and liver aid, increases bile flow. Two handfuls of flowering tips into 2 cups of good brandy, soak 10 days, strain and seal. Mouthful twice daily. Oil of rosemary is a natural anti-oxidant, and stress reliever; sniff for headaches. Chop a double handful of twigs and put in a pint of olive oil for one week, and use as a muscle liniment.

SAGE - Chew a fresh leaf and put on insect bite to reduce sting and swelling. Sage tea for the throat. Two cups of sage tea a day for a week will dry up mother’s milk. For the itching of skin problems, steep a handful of freshly crushed leaves in a pint of boiled water for one hour, and bathe the area, then sprinkle with whole wheat flour. Sage tea
prevents blood clots.

SAVORY - (the herb of love) One quart boiled water, 3 ½ tbsp fenugreek seed, and steep for 5 minutes. Remove fenugreek and add 2 handfuls of savory leaves, steep 50 minutes and drink 2 cups, as an aphrodisiac.

TARRAGON - 1 ½ tsp cut dried herb in 1 ¾ cups boiled water, steep 40 minutes, drink warm for insomnia, hyperactivity, depression, or nervous exhaustion. (or anything “jittery”) For digestion steep a handful of dried leaves in a jar with apple cider vinegar, stand 7 hours, strain and seal. Take 1 tbsp before each meal.

TEA - Caffeine relieves migraines. Tea drinkers suffer less hardening of the arteries than coffee drinkers. Black tea kills dental plaque.

THYME - Antibiotic. A tsp in ½ cup boiled water to make a gargle or mouthwash, to prevent bad breath, tooth decay, and cold sores. Drink for cold, flu, fever, and allergy symptoms. As a bath for nail fungus and athlete’s foot, and also as a douche. Compress for bumps and bruises. Health liqueur - 6 sprigs of thyme in 1 ½ cups of brandy for 5 days, shaking daily. Take several times daily when you feel a cold coming on. Thyme is good for killing bacteria and for relaxing tense muscles. Relieves migraine headaches and stomach cramps.

TUMERIC - Anti-oxidant. Powdered turmeric on any ulcerated skin condition or mix with enough lime juice to make a paste and put on herpes sores, mumps, chicken pox, etc. Dip a cloth in turmeric solution to wash away discharges from conjunctivitis and opthamalia. As an anti-inflammatory, turmeric’s properties are as good as 1 % hydrocortisone and phenylobutazone. Take ½ tsp in juice in the morning and evening to aid in removing fat around the liver. Turmeric, bay leaf, clove, and cinnamon all tripled insulin performance in metabolizing blood glucose in a test tube! Field tests proved to greatly enhance production of insulin by the pancreas. “Spicecaps” from Great American Natural Products have a pinch of cinnamon, 2 cloves, ½ bay leaf, and 1 tsp of turmeric per capsule.

VANILLA - Sexual stimulant. Soak a cotton ball with vanilla extract, squeeze it out, put it under the tongue and it will quickly calm hysteria.

VINEGAR - Naturally brewed apple cider vinegar deserves a course all on its own. It is one of the finest blood cleansers and arthritis cures known. Take 1 tbsp per day of equal parts vinegar and honey in water to taste to cleanse the blood and reduce inflammation from arthritis. Be sure to use naturally brewed vinegar, as the white cheap stuff in the grocery store is actually acetic acid, a petroleum by-product, and pretty well useless. (except as a window cleaner!)

BAKING SODA - Although not an herb or a spice, this is especially recommended for people who are allergic to MSG. Many people will use a meat tenderizer for bee stings,
but it contains MSG which can cause some people to swell. Instead, make a paste and apply directly to the insect bite to reduce swelling. You can also mix 1 tsp with water and take for relief of indigestion.

The above information was obtained from the following sources: 
The Herb Book, by John Lust.
“Heinerman’s Encyclopedia of Healing Herbs and Spices”, by John Heinerman.
“The Healing Herbs: The Ultimate Guide to the Curative Power of Nature’s Medicines”, by Micheal Castleman
“The Vinegar Book”, by Emily Thacker

As a reminder, the above listed information should not replace the advice given to you by your health care professional. 

Rowan Morgaine

The drug-resistant bacteria that pose the greatest health threats

The World Health Organization (WHO) has for the first time released a list of drug-resistant bacteria that pose the greatest threat to human health — and for which new antibiotics are desperately needed. The agency’s aim in listing these ‘priority pathogens’ is to steer funds towards development of the most crucial antimicrobials. Researchers say the list is a useful reminder of the danger of bacteria that are becoming resistant to antibiotics.

The list ranks 12 bacteria or bacterial families and is topped by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. This obscure bacterium causes a severe infection for which almost no treatments exist, and mainly affects people who are already critically ill. (It is resistant to carbapenem antibiotics, a ‘last resort’ antibiotic used only when all other treatments have failed.) The ranking also includes well-known bacteria, such as those that cause  pneumonia and gonorrhoea (see ’Threat list’).

Antibiotic resistance kills an estimated 700,000 people each year worldwide, and some experts predict that number to reach 10 million by 2050 if efforts are not made to curtail resistance or develop new antibiotics. Despite an urgent need for these drugs, the once-robust development pipeline for antibiotics now produces little more than a trickle of compounds. As of September 2016, about 40 new antibiotics were in clinical development for the US market, compared with hundreds of cancer drugs.

Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii tops the the World Health Organization’s 'priority pathogens’ list. CDC/Science Photo Library

Iron Man
Black Sabbath
Iron Man

Black Sabbath - “Iron Man” (Live Astbury Park 1975 bootleg)

My favorite part is just after the second verse, where Ozzy inexplicably shouts “tetracycline!” - an antibiotic used to treat acne. Presumably he meant “tetrahydrocannabinol,” which does not treat acne

How to Treat Fin Rot

No pet owner ever wants to have a sick pet…

In the fall of 2012, my roommate and I had a sick betta fish on our hands. We had went away for a vacation and returned to find our boy, Ianto, in a rough state. Although it was scary, we managed to bring our boy back to his usual self with patience and care.

Unfortunately, it can often be difficult to find good information about how to treat sick bettas, so I’m making it my mission to do what I can to help make it easier for other betta owners to diagnose and treat their fish. 

Because we were able to successfully treat our sick betta, here is handy information about fin rot and what you can do to hopefully make your pet healthy again as well:

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Vaccines

And the dangers of tampering with herd immunity.

I kind of get why vaccines creep people out. Vaccination can mean getting injected by a needle filled with science juice. Although, pretty much every medical practice sounds terrifying when you break it down like that. An appendectomy means removing one of your organs through stabbery. Antibiotics are poisons used to murder things living in you. And even exercise means forcibly burning up your insides. My point is, the human body is a true carnival of horrors and frankly, I’m embarrassed to have one.

anonymous asked:

I have a question about vaccines, well, more about viruses and diseases in general. I have a character that ends up getting trapped back in time (medieval times), and I was wondering how his body would react to being in a whole other time. Would the vaccines he would have gotten in our time as a child and such be of any help when it comes to his body’s immune system dealing with the new time? Or would have the viruses mutated and change so much over all that time that it’d be of no use to him?

Hey there nonny! 

So viruses play the evolutionary game known as “How much can I change each time I copy myself while still being able to copy myself more later?” Basically, they have adapted to a high rate of transcription errors to ensure that when they are copied, they have some form of variability. The cold and influenza viruses are massively good at this. It’s why you keep getting “the cold” over and over: it’s a different strain each time around. 

(There’s actually a drug that works by pushing the transcription error rate to be high enough that the RNA can’t reliably copy itself and the virus literally messes itself up to death. Science is Freaking Neat™ .) 

So viral diseases in general are going to be very different from the things they’ve had in the past, though particularly with bacteria, the “safer” / less murdery strains were around in the past, mostly because we put a lot of evolutionary pressure on bacteria with the (over-)use of antibiotics. 

It’s also… so Bubonic Plague? That thing that wiped out a third of Europe (and lots of other places too)? That’s curable with a good course of antibiotics. 

All of that said, your character has a major advantage over their medieval counterparts. 

They understand germ theory

Look at a medieval person, even a doctor, and tell them that diseases are caused by germs and bacteria and viruses and they will think you have six heads and need to be taken away. They didn’t have the optics power to see the microorganisms, so they didn’t know about them. 

Your character will do better than average simply by washing their hands as frequently as possible and washing their food, and trying to get water from as far up the river (ie before it’s been pooped in) as they can. 

Meanwhile, their neighbors will be convinced that disease is the result of the Evil Eye or of a “miasma” of evil. Doctors might diagnose an imbalance of the humors and bloodlet people. 

This is legitimately what smart people believed and were taught. And some day they’ll say “Holy cow, the 21st century Earthanoids believed and did what?!” in shock and disbelief. 

In any case. Their vaccines may protect them from some of the viruses going around at the time, but they also have the educational advantage that the locals don’t have. 

Best of luck with your story! 

xoxo, Aunt Scripty

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When people claim the existence of science disproves what we do

When people say potions, spells, herbal remedies, home remedies, and witchcraft in general are voided by merely the existence of science, I like to bring up a few points

1. People used moldy bread to treat infections until scientists came along and figured out there was penicillin in it which they learned is an antibiotic that they began using To Treat Infections

2. Science has proven that energy can neither be created nor destroyed and everything has a resonance/vibration (See: Wave Theory for the Theory of Everything based on that)

3. A TON of “scientific discoveries” not have been either from figuring out that and how long-used remedies work (e.g. honey for hayfever, fenugreek to increase milk supply when nursing children) or from amalgamations or engineering of properties of things used in those remedies (e.g. cyanide which is used in significant amounts as a poison and tiny amounts as a safe way to cut some vitamin supplements).


Witchcraft is science that hasn’t yet been “discovered” or understood or explained.

Witchcraft is directing energy that already exists.

Witchcraft is directing the resonance/vibrations (energies) in stones.

Witchcraft is using herbs, flowers, grasses, and/or other things with useful properties to do many things.

Witches use science to improve our craft.

No, science can’t explain a lot of it …yet, but there’s no telling how many discoveries are waiting to be made.

So, does everyone remember when Tim Drake lost his spleen in the middle of the desert?

It tends to be a big deal in the Tim Drake fandom. I’ve read a multitude headcannons/fanfics about Tim’s post-spleen removal health, and I got curious.  I am kind of a medical nerd, so I decided to look into exactly what Tim’s medical treatment might be like if he were a real person with asplenia. To make this quandary somewhat legit, I did not use the powers of google, rather the online medical library at my university.

Obviously, the spleen plays a significant role in the immune system, and Tim’s lack of spleen would mean that he has an increased risk of developing infections. 

That being said, I found that most likely, Tim would not be on a daily antibiotic. Research studies show that daily (prophylactic) antibiotic use wasn’t really beneficial to adult patients without spleens. There is also concern that daily antibiotics may actually increase the patient’s risk of developing an antibiotic resistant infection. Children with asplenia are often on daily antibiotics, but this is usually only until age 16 or 18, when their immune system has mostly matured. 

If a patient does develop sepsis (a severe infection that cause organ failure and death), especially from pneumonia, they are more likely to be placed on daily antibiotic therapy. About 5% (depending on the source) of patients with asplenia will develop sepsis in their lifetime. The first year, especially the first 90 days, after spleen removal is when the incidence of sepsis is the highest.

However, if the patient does spike a fever, it is recommended that he immediately be started on an antibiotic. They actually recommend that these patients keep a filled prescription of antibiotics at home so they can start them right away. They also need to contact their doctor immediately, as they will need to undergo a fairly extensive work up to determine the source of the infection so it can be treated appropriately.

Prevention is really the key in keeping an asplenic person healthy. This means it is essential for them to to stay current on their vaccinations, especially for flu, meningitis, and pneumonia (which is the type of infection that most commonly leads to sepsis). Ideally, vaccination starts before the removal of the spleen. But that unfortunately can’t happen if the splenectomy happens emergently (or in a secret base run by ninjas).

Basically, to stay healthy, Tim just needs to do “normal” things to maintain his health - healthy diet, adequate sleep, exercise, wash his hands on occasion, attempt to reduce stress, and avoid unneeded exposure to people who are ill. 

Tim might be slightly screwed on that last part.

(Disclaimer: this post is in no way intended to discourage people from posting whatever Tim Drake headcannon/fanfic/ideas/meta that they want - I was just genuinely curious about the medical treatment of asplenia, and thought that I would share my findings.) 

lildinogirl  asked:

So I have extra money and i want to buy my fish some medicine just encase he gets sick and this way i'm not scrabbling to find a good medicine for him. So far i only have aquarium salt for him but that's it.

Ohh, I’ll list a few of my favorites!

Seachem’s Kanaplex, is a broad spectrum antibiotic, that is easy on beneficial bacteria, but does wonders for most ailments, whether it’s fungal or bacterial.

Seachem’s Paraguard, is an anti-parasitic, and is particularly good for eradicating external parasites, bacterial lesions, and many types of fungi.

Seachem’s Stressguard, isn’t a medication, rather an antiseptic. It’s composite of ions that adhere to wounds, and effectively shields them (like a bandaid). This is an amazing product, especially when dealing with fin rot.

Seachem’s Metroplex is another broad spectrum antibiotic, but it’s particularly useful in eradicating protozoan infections, such as ich.

_

That’s just a few, and pretty much all I ever use, if I need to! And, yeah, I owe Seachem my liver. :x

Bacteriophages: Antibiotic Alternative or Just a Phase?

It is now clear that we are rapidly approaching a post-antibiotic era, and the need for an alternative is more vital than ever. The CDC estimates that approximately 2 million people are infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria each year, and of that 23 000 of them die as a result of the infection [1]. Our antibiotic pipeline is drying up and the development of new antibiotics is both slow and expensive, making antibiotics unappealing investments for pharmaceutical companies. Although alternatives to antibiotics are far from the market, the field is slowly expanding. Amongst the alternatives, bacteriophages (phages) are a potential candidate for both diagnostic and therapeutic medicine.

Quite simply, phages are viruses that infect bacteria. These are the most abundant biological entity on the planet and are thought to outnumber bacteria 10:1. Their sheer abundance has led to a vast diversity that has yet to be exploited by modern medicine. This is in part due to a number of problems with phages that haven’t made them ideal candidates for therapy. This article seeks to look at some of the problems with phages, and what steps are being taken to improve them for application in humans.

Rapid clearance from the host:

Delivery systems for phages have not been thoroughly assessed for systemic phage application. In other words we are still lacking a way of delivering a bacteriophage drug intravenously to ensure that phages have the maximal effect on the patient. Annoyingly, our immune systems are great at rapidly inactivating and removing them from our bodies [2], with animal studies showing that phage can be completely cleared within 24 hours [3]. Early work carried out in germ-free mice in the 70s showed that phages are passively collected in the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), where they remain viable until inactivated by immune cells [3].

There have been two solutions developed so far to amend this problem [2]. The first was developed in the late 90s by the National Institute of Health in the US, which involved the serial passage of phage through a living organism. It was hypothesised that some phage would have mutations in their coat proteins that would give them increased protection from the natural filtration systems in the body over wild type phage [3] and by selecting for these phage, you could gradually produce a population of long-circulating phage. When applied, these phage would have longer circulation times, and therefore a greater chance of colliding with their target bacteria. Animal studies have shown far better recovery of animals given long-circulating strains of virus over wild type, when presenting symptoms of otherwise fatal bacteraemia [4].

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Figure 1. Diagram showing a few of the possible receptors for Salmonella sp. phage [5]

Additionally, to prevent degradation or inactivation of phages, polymers can be added to the coatings of phages [1]. The polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been shown to increase systematic circulation and decrease T-helper cell activation in response to phage. It is likely that a combination of these two methods may improve delivery strategies in the future of phage therapeutics.

Altering host range and preventing resistance:

Unlike antibiotics, phages have incredibly refined, narrow host-ranges. This property is in reality a double edged sword: in many cases, phages are only able to target a few strains of a single species, whereas antibiotics relentlessly target multiple branches of the bacterial phylogenetic tree. Antibiotic treatment can lead to disruption of the host’s own microbiota which can permit the colonisation of nastier and less cooperative microorganisms.

In contrast, phages can target their host whilst leaving the surrounding organisms in relative peace. When a patient presents symptoms of infection, the particular species or strain causing the infection would be unknown. Identifying the culprit before selecting the right phage would take time a patient may not have.

Receptors on the bacterial cell surface are what determine which phage are able to bind to the cell. A wide variety of receptors are used by phage, but many still remain a mystery. To curtail these issues and ensure that as many receptors can be targeted for a particular bacterium, phage cocktails are used [6]. These are mixtures containing a number of different phage strains. In theory, the cocktail should be designed so that the phages together should be able to target all the known clinically relevant strains of a particular species of bacteria.

Creating phage cocktails from natural sources can be laborious [7], however viral DNA provides a platform for genetically engineering phages with desired properties. Improving phage cocktails with modified phages expressing structures that could target a wide variety of receptors on a bacterial cell could ensure that a cocktail could target the maximum number of strains, whilst reducing the selection pressure on a sole receptor. Resistance to the phage cocktail would then also be avoided.

Much of this work looks at genetically engineering phage tail fibres [7, 8]. These ‘spider-leg’ like components regulate the initial binding step between a phage and a target cell. It has been shown by Mahichi et al, 2009 and Ando et al, 2015 that switching tail fibres between phages with different host ranges can confer host-range specificity from one phage to another. Hopefully, modular engineering of phages will push phage technology forwards, offering new strategies for developing phages for therapeutic purposes.

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Figure 2. Diagram showing how the modular shuffling of tail fibres between viral strains can confer host range of parental strain [7].

Preventing the release of cellular toxins

A major health risk of phage, is that like β-lactam antibiotics, they interfere with the bacterial cell wall integrity and ultimately lead to cell lysis. Lysing cells prevents further replication, but also releases all the cell’s content. This may include but not be limited to superantigens and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) [2]. These toxins will trigger the inflammatory response, and in extreme cases cause organ failure and death.

Phages have a simple dual-lysis system consisting of a holin and endolysin. The holin is a pore-forming membrane protein that creates an exit from the cytoplasm for the endolysin. The endolysin is then able to attack the peptidoglycan of the bacterial cell wall, resulting in its rupture. To generate phage incapable of lysing a cell, the dual lysis system simply needs to be inactivated.

To restore killing power to the phage in the absense of the dual lysis system, a bacterial toxin needs to be incorporated into the phage genome. Hagens et al, 2004 has shown that by engineering the filamentous phage M13 to encode a non-native restriction enzyme, antimicrobial activity can be restored through the generation of double stranded breaks in chromosomal DNA. Upon infecting Psuedomonas aeruginosa with this phage, there was a 99% drop in viable cell counts over the time course [9]. Other research has looked into other uses for the non-lytic killing of bacteria, including proteins that interfere with regulatory systems and other bacterial toxins.

Conclusions:

Phage therapy has shown promise in recent years as being a good candidate for either working in synergy with or replacing antibiotics. The appalling lack of human based clinical trials haven’t helped to expose their potential for human use. Although this is the case, a significant amount of work has been done on improving phage therapy in preparation for further studies with human application. The past 15 years have seen an improved outcome for this technology as obstacles with phages are gradually manoeuvred by intelligent reengineering. With hindsight we have now acquired through our experiences with antibiotics, hopefully we will not make the same mistakes with phages as we have done with antibiotics.

1. CDC (2013) Antibiotic resistance threats. US Dep Heal Hum Serv 22–50

2. Lu TK, Koeris MS (2011) The next generation of bacteriophage therapy. Curr Opin Microbiol 14:524–531

3. Carlton RM (1999) Phage therapy: past history and future prospects. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 47:267–274

4. Merril CR, Biswas B, Carlton R, Jensen NC, Creed GJ, Zullo S, Adhya S (1996) Long-circulating bacteriophage as antibacterial agents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:3188–3192

5. Chaturongakul S, Ounjai P (2014) Phage host interplay: examples from tailed phages and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Front Microbiol 5:1–8

6. Moradpour Z, Ghasemian A (2011) Modified phages: Novel antimicrobial agents to combat infectious diseases. Biotechnol Adv 29:732–738

7. Ando H, Lemire S, Pires DP, Lu TK (2015) Engineering Modular Viral Scaffolds for Targeted Bacterial Population Editing. Cell Syst 1:187–196

8. Mahichi F, Synnott AJ, Yamamichi K, Osada T, Tanji Y (2009) Site-specific recombination of T2 phage using IP008 long tail fiber genes provides a targeted method for expanding host range while retaining lytic activity. FEMS Microbiol Lett 295:211–217

9. Hagens S, Habel A, Ahsen U Von, Gabain A Von (2004) Therapy of Experimental Pseudomonas Infections with a Nonreplicating Genetically Modified Phage Therapy of Experimental Pseudomonas Infections with a Nonreplicating Genetically Modified Phage. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:3817–3822

“neosporin does cause harm to their scales, but it goes away after a few sheds so im going to keep using it”

or you can use chlorhexidine or betadine which we know for sure doesnt cause damage to healthy tissue when used correctly… but i guess if you want to absolutely make sure you’re causing scales to slough off you can keep using triple antibiotic cream…

i know my brain doesn’t work correctly but i really dont fucking understand when people have to argue just to feel right… especially when theyre hurting their animal and prolonging the healing process??

The Cure. (The Walking Dead)

Originally posted by daryl-dixon-is-life

The Inova Alexandria Hospital stood longer than most everything else in the small town located on the northeast banks of Virginia, but it too fell in the end. This is where I have been held up since the beginning. At first my main priority was surviving, but the longer I stayed the more I discovered about what the doctors had been doing here. They had been trying to figure out what was causing the epidemic that has now taken over the world and reanimates the dead. With nothing else to do with my time, I dedicated myself to finishing their work with less than half of the supplies the doctors themselves had had in their possession.

Time went by quickly while I researched and tested for what seemed like a waste of time and resources, in my opinion. It seemed I failed more than I won with these experiments. I had a close call with a dead one I had tried to bring into the hospital once. Much to my dismay, I had no choice but to dispose of the corpse and find another one. The research progress was slow and frustrating. It felt as if I was gaining nothing out of this but headaches.

What was worse is that I was running out of supplies a lot quicker now than before I started researching. I was in need of fuel for the vortex machine and for the air conditioning in the building. It had to be cold so I could feel when the corpses turned even the slightest bit warm. Today I had no other choice than to leave the hospital and scavenge.The only reason this was a burden to me was due to the fear of having an encounter with other people. I wasn’t selfish with the hospital’s shelter, but I wasn’t exactly trusting of what people had become now that the world had gone to shit.

There weren’t as many dead ones outside of the hospital. I kept most of them fenced in around the health department not too far from the hospital itself. This made it easy to get across the street and hide along the walls of the high school where I kept backup ammunition and resources. The stuff I wouldn’t touch unless it was an absolute emergency. And finally, across the street from the high school was the Bradlee Shopping Center. I had a foolproof route I took to obtain my supplies. It was safe and untraceable to outsiders.

I wouldn’t bluntly say I was more intelligent than other people, but I’ll say it now considering there are few people left. I’ve always been a gifted problem solver. I was good at math and science. I analyzed and planned and developed strategies before ever taking action. I was a thinker, not a doer. That was until I stumbled upon a fairly large group of survivors. The sudden presence of so many people overwhelmed me and when a boy around my age spotted me the first thing that popped into my head was to bolt for it.

That was the most impulsive thing I had ever done. In any other situation I would’ve hidden until they left and returned to the hospital afterwards. There was no way one of them wouldn’t find me if I had hidden in the Safeway supermarket we were all in though. When I made it to the high school, I made sure they weren’t close behind me and then returned to the hospital, clutching the bag in my arms tightly and trying to steady my breathing.

As the day progressed, the group had left my mind and I was so engrossed in today’s results that I didn’t even notice when they came into the hospital. They had managed to rig the alarm from the outside. Recently, my research seemed to be on a consistent track, it was leading me somewhere and just as I was printing out the final results I heard a gun cock behind me.

“Put your hands behind your head and turn around.” The rough voice behind me was too close for me to reach under my desk for the gun I had taped under the wooden surface. My heart was beating rapidly against my chest and I swallowed the lump in my throat, refusing to let them intimidate me. “Turn around or I’ll pull the trigger.”

An irritated sigh left my mouth before I could stop it and I turned around rather snappily. I was annoyed with this man’s audacity to come into my shelter and tell me what to do, but I was smart enough not to do anything in front of his large group who all had a weapon aimed at me. “Can I offer you some coffee?” My voice was dripping with sarcasm, a trait not exactly appreciated by the group.

“What’s your name?” the guy asked, coming closer and causing me to take a sudden step back.

“Stay away from me.” I warned. The guy glared at me, his grip tighter on the handle of his gun at being ordered by a teenager. Regardless, he gave his group a look and they all took one step back.

“What’s your name?” he repeated.

“Y/N.”

“What are you doing here?” he asked.

“I’ve been here since the start. What are you doing here?” I put my hands down and they all tightened their grip on their weapons. Their leader put a hand up and gave them a single nod. Their weapons came down, but the tension in the air was still thick. I saw a boy around my age shivering, holding a baby girl closely to his chest. I had forgotten how cold it was in here. “Do you want a blanket?”

The boy’s blue eyes met mine and he gave me a thankful nod. I moved past them and towards a closet near the door of the laboratory. I pulled out a blanket and handed it to him. He wrapped it around the baby on his chest and his bare arms crawling with goosebumps.

“We saw you out there and thought you might have a shelter.” the leader’s eyes seemed to soften after my gesture as did his voice. “My name’s Rick Grimes.”

“You should know, Rick Grimes,” I said as I finished printing out my results. “This isn’t an open home for those wandering out in that world.”

Rick nodded, placing his gun in his holster. “I know, but I think it’s worth a shot to convince you. We’d stay out of your way. We’d stay in our part of the building. We’d help you scavenge. Glenn,” an Asian man came up to Rick’s side and I turned to give him a nod. “He’s our best scavenger. In and out. And Daryl,” he motioned to the man holding a crossbow. “Daryl can track anything.”

“I may be a teenager, but I’m not naive. I know what it’s like out there and there is no way a dead one didn’t see you on your way here. Then that dead one causes a chain reaction and more dead ones follow him and the next thing you know there’s a herd of them blocking my exit ways. It’ll be much harder to know if one got in now considering you destroyed my alarm system. You’re impulsive and don’t think you actions through, Rick. I can’t have that type of people under the same roof as me.”

“Listen, kiddo,” a redheaded man with a handlebar mustache came up to the front. “You may think that you’re the shit after fixing this place up and figuring out how to work that test tube spinning thing, but there are bigger problems than you’re bullshit science fair projects out there. Are you really going to send a baby back out there?”

“She’s survived this long.” I said with a small shrug.

“We are on a mission to get this man,” he pulled a nonchalant looking man sporting a mullet to his side. “To Washington, D.C. Eugene here has the cure to whatever the hell is happening out in that shit show and if you don’t help us we are all undoubtedly going to end up like those walking hell raisers out there.”

My eyes met with those of Eugene’s. They were shifting, trying to avoid mine. I smirked a little. “Do you really? Well that makes two of us.” His eyes narrowed while the rest of the group’s widened.

“What?” Rick asked.

The vortex machine came to a stop and I pulled out one of the test tubes before walking towards the back room. Rick and his group followed me without hesitation. The dead one I had tied down to the operating table began to struggle against it’s restraints when he heard us come in, when he smelled us. “I’ve been doing some research since the beginning,” I paused. “Well, adding on to previous research files, more like. It’s safe to say that today is the closest I’ve come to a potential cure.”

“How likely is this cure going to work?” a black woman with a katana asked. My eyes met hers and I hesitated slightly on answering, but I got nothing out of lying to them.

“There is an 83% chance that this will work. That is the highest percentage outcome I’ve had since the start.” I handed Michonne the results I had printed out and she had Eugene take a look at them to confirm.

“That is accurate,” Eugene looked at me. “But I don’t know if I’d trust it. What’s in the cure?”

“Amoxicillin and Ciprofloxacin.”

“Those are only antibiotics. The use of the two simultaneously will cause nothing but an even quicker death. What you’ve created is a suicide injection , kid. Death guaranteed and certified by your own hand.”

The group shared a look among themselves that only they understood before turning back to me. “It might not work, kid.” Daryl spoke gruffly.

My shoulders raised slightly as I turned to the dead one. The syringe I used filled up a little over halfway with the antibiotic mixture and then I injected it into the dead one’s arm. There was a dilation in the pupils behind the cloudiness in its eyes. Slowly, the white began to clear away and the struggling lessened as did the moans and groans. And suddenly, it fell limp and stiff still. I quickly turned to the monitors and stared at the heart rate as well as at the corpse’s body temperature.

“A body loses or gains heat progressively until it equilibrates with the temperature of its environment. The normal body temperature is 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. The temperature in this room is exactly 52 degrees Fahrenheit. Which means the body needs to reach 52 degrees before it begins to revive and reach the normal body temperature again.”

“How cold is the body right now?” Rick asked.

“99.2 degrees. He was recently bitten, a day ago more specifically. It took him two hours to reanimate and his body matched the temperature outside. Even so, once he reaches the normal body temperature and comes back in a human state he’ll be very ill, but with the right medication he will be able to heal.”

“A body loses 1.5 degrees per hour. We won’t see any results until then, kid.” Eugene said.

“Stop calling me kid,” I snapped angrily. “My name is Y/N and this cure is created to work faster than 1.5 degrees an hour. In thirty minutes his body temperature will be 97.7 degrees. And I’m not asking you to stay to see any results. I’m not asking you to stay at all.”

Rick put a hand up before Eugene could retaliate. “We have nowhere else to go. Please let us stay. Just for the night. We’ll be out of your hair in the morning.” he pleaded. Our eyes held each other’s for a long minute and I then I found myself nodding.

“Fine. But in the morning, you’re out of here.” I said firmly. Rick nodded in agreement. I looked at the corpse’s monitors and sighed. Maybe it wasn’t going to work. Maybe I had put too much hope into this. Maybe they were right. “I’ll show you where you can stay.” I lead the group to the hospital’s lobby and set them up with blankets and pillows before returning to the lab.

It wasn’t until I arrived there that I heard a loud crash behind me and I turned to see Glenn bending down to pick up a metal trash bin. I chucked and he blushed. “Sorry. I was doing good until then.”

“Did you need something?” I asked walking into the lab and to the back room.

“I just wanted to tell you that I think it might work.” I looked at Glenn and he gave me a small smile. “I don’t know much about science, but I don’t really have anything to lose with having hope on this.”

“Thanks, Glenn.” I said with genuine appreciation.

In the brief silence between us a faint beep emitted from the monitors and we both turned to see that the corpse’s temperature had dropped to 97.7 degrees Fahrenheit.


Requested: Reader is an incredibly smart and tough teenager held up in a hospital working on a cure. Scavenging one day, she stumbles into Team Family and they follow her back to the hospital. After explaining her situation, they don’t think her cure will work, but it does. I actually have no idea if anything in this scenario in regards to ‘the cure’ is even the slightest bit accurate, but I did my best. Regardless, I hope you like it! Thanks for requesting! xx

anonymous asked:

Wait wait wait babe you said you've got the flu but the doc gave you antibiotics???? The flu is a virus not a bacterial infection so it won't help you'll just wipe out your gut bacteria which is dangerous - if you haven't started already then don't take them! Overprescription of antibiotics is part of why we're getting superbugs (people not finishing their courses is also a reason though so if you've started taking them don't stop)

Hey there, the antibiotics are for secondary infections, which are common and in this strain can be deadly if you have health problems, which I do.

So my doctor and I made the decision to treat my secondary symptoms.

For people who are deemed by a medical professional to be at risk, antibiotics are used selectively to prevent secondary bacterial infections. I acknowledge all the points you are making, the most important thing is to trust the advice of trained professionals.

By all means, question them and understand the care you are getting. But, and this isn’t directed purely at you, it doesn’t do us much good to assume that no antibiotics will be helpful for those suffering from influenza as the secondary symptoms, which may be treatable with antibiotics, may be what is being treated..

I actually have a few nasty messages in my inbox, one of which is calling me a dopey bitch, and it’s based on misunderstandings of antibiotics. When I asked a friend who has a degree in Bachelors in Molecular Genetics and Biotechnology, Honours in Biomedical Science, and is getting close to a PhD in Medicine what people could do.

His research was recently published in a Nature family journal earlier this year as lead author on a paper detailing the most rapid method yet detailed of detecting antibiotic resistance in one of the highest risk bacterial species.

And he had this to say:

1. Follow medical advice to the exact letter. Doctors don’t tell you to do things for no reason.

2. Purchase meat and dairy that is certified to come from antibiotic-free feed lots.

3. Donate to organisations like Rotary who are working in developing nations to stop antibiotic abuse there … because that’s where multidrug resistant organisms are primarily arising.


When I asked him about antibiotic abuse in “western” countries he said that it could be a problem, but mostly due to people who ASK for antibiotics even if they don’t need them and tend to demand them from doctors because they just want a solution to the misery of sickness they are in.

“We need to educate patients to have polite, honest discussions with doctors about their concerns, accept when a doctor chooses not to prescribe, and follow instructions when they do.”

It’s worth noting that I understand the fear of super bugs and wanting to help, but I was going to NOT take potentially lifesaving medicine because I disbelieved the doctor giving me antibiotics. Because I’d heard that they shouldn’t be taken for influenza.

So, ask questions of your doctor, don’t demand medications when you don’t understand them.

#antibiotics #long post

anonymous asked:

I'm getting a betta soon (after my tank cycles) and this will be my first betta. I was wondering what you would recommend I keep on hand, like food and medicine. Also I was wondering what you do as far as a good feeding schedule? I'm sorry if you've answered this before, and if so, could you direct me to where you did? Thank you so much!

Hello there! It’s not a problem!

It’s exciting, getting a new fishy friend!

Some medicine that I recommend:

Aquarium Salt (any brand), is a good first medication, if water changes don’t seem to do the trick. It’s good for dips and baths, and is a good start when you’re unsure of what may be ailing your fish. Use it for external problems, such as fin-rot.

Seachem’s Kanaplex, is a broad spectrum antibiotic, that is easy on beneficial bacteria, but does wonders for most ailments, whether it’s fungal or bacterial.

Seachem’s Paraguard, is a malachite green-based anti-parasitic, and is particularly good for eradicating external parasites, bacterial lesions, and many types of fungi.

Seachem’s Stressguard, isn’t a medication, rather an antiseptic. It’s composite of ions that adhere to wounds, and effectively shields them (like a bandaid). This is an amazing product, especially when dealing with fin rot.

Seachem’s Metroplex is another broad spectrum antibiotic, but it’s particularly useful in eradicating protozoan infections, such as ich.

 Fritz Mardel’s Maracyn and Maracyn-two, are antibiotics. Used as a duo for gram+/- bacterial infections (I.e. if you have an extremely stubborn bacterial infection, that’s not responding to other treatments, use these)

Kordon’s Malachite Green, is a great external antiparasitic. It can also be used as a “swab” on affected areas of your fish. Also great for dips and baths!

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There are many others, but these are my favorites!!

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As for feeding, I feed my betta Omega One: Betta Buffet Pellets, at a rate of 4 pellets per day. All my fish do well with this amount, but you may need to adjust this based on your fish’s needs (Make sure they’re not getting too much or too little.)

I also fast my betta every Thursday, and feed them garlic-soaked frozen bloodworms, twice weekly. :)