I have a question concerning newborns in the US and I was wondering if you could help me; do children in the US have their BCGs (TB vaccines) at birth or can parents decide to not give their child the vaccination? Thank you for everything you do here!
Kids in the 21st-century US are not routinely inoculated with BCGs at birth, or, typically, ever.
The reason behind that is that tuberculosis is not anywhere near as prevalent in the US as it is in other parts of the world, so the vaccine basically isn’t needed. It can be administered, of course, if the newborn character lives in a high-risk area or with parents with antibiotic-resistant TB.
The Center for Disease Control actually has a pretty good page about the vaccine which you may want to peruse, including lists of who should and should not receive the vaccine and why.
Generally speaking, vaccinations in the US are optional, and extremely polarizing, with extremists on both ends of the vaccinate/anti-vaccination spectrum. I’m not the person to ask about whether anyone should vaccinate their children or not, because I have extremely strong personal feelings on the topic (that I won’t share here).
Ultimately vaccinations are not state-enforced, so parents get to choose, but bear in mind many public schools won’t permit students who haven’t had particular vaccinations into the schooling system; private schools’ rules vary, and @scripteducator may have more info on how different educational systems approach various vaccinations.
I hope this helps you write your stories!