Evolution and Allometry of Calcaneal Elongation in Living and Extinct Primates

  • by Doug M. Boyer, Erik R. Seiffert, Justin T. Gladman and Jonathan I. Bloch

“Specialized acrobatic leaping has been recognized as a key adaptive trait tied to the origin and subsequent radiation of euprimates based on its observed frequency in extant primates and inferred frequency in extinct early euprimates. Hypothesized skeletal correlates include elongated tarsal elements, which would be expected to aid leaping by allowing for increased rates and durations of propulsive acceleration at takeoff. Alternatively, authors of a recent study argued that pronounced distal calcaneal elongation of euprimates (compared to other mammalian taxa) was related primarily to specialized pedal grasping. Testing for correlations between calcaneal elongation and leaping versus grasping is complicated by body size differences and associated allometric affects. We re-assess allometric constraints on, and the functional significance of, calcaneal elongation using phylogenetic comparative methods, and present an evolutionary hypothesis for the evolution of calcaneal elongation in primates using a Bayesian approach to ancestral state reconstruction (ASR). Results show that among all primates, logged ratios of distal calcaneal length to total calcaneal length are inversely correlated with logged body mass proxies derived from the area of the calcaneal facet for the cuboid. Results from phylogenetic ANOVA on residuals from this allometric line suggest that deviations are explained by degree of leaping specialization in prosimians, but not anthropoids. Results from ASR suggest that non-allometric increases in calcaneal elongation began in the primate stem lineage and continued independently in haplorhines and strepsirrhines. Anthropoid and lorisid lineages show stasis and decreasing elongation, respectively. Initial increases in calcaneal elongation in primate evolution may be related to either development of hallucal-grasping or a combination of grasping and more specialized leaping behaviors. As has been previously suggested, subsequent increases in calcaneal elongation are likely adaptations for more effective acrobatic leaping, highlighting the importance of this behavior in early euprimate evolution” (read more/open access).

(Open access source: PLoS ONE 8(7): e67792, 2013)

…I am not a prisoner of history. I should not seek there for the meaning of my destiny… IN the world through which I travel, I am endlessly creating myself. // I am part of Being to the degree that I go beyond it"

“The Negro is not. Any more than the white man" 

- Homi Bhabha, "Introduction” to The Location of Culture

#1 Part of a series on postcolonial Nazi-leaders


“I shall have no complaint to make of my “emptiness.” I am not nothing in the sense of emptiness, but I am the creative nothing [das schöpferiche Nichts], the nothing out of which I myself as creator create everything.” 

- Max Stirner, Der Einzige und sein Eigentum

Anthropoid (2016) trailer footage.

#Anthropoid New TV Spot 


Film Anthropoid - “review”

“Jsme Češi! My se nevzdáme!”/ “We are Czechs! We are not surrender!”

I was lucky enough and had a chance to see film Anthropoid on Karlovy Vary International Festival. So this review is just my opinion. And as far as I’m historian I’m not a expert on WW2.

The film starts a few months before actuall attack on Heydrich in the moment when paratroopers land somewhere in the forest. It’s a full story accompanying the May events and immediate consequences. Despite slow start of the film you will still worry about whether the attack will come and if ever. It is not a historical film, it’s more a thriller but it does not detract from the stories it tells virtually nothing. Yes, there are some changes for the sake of the storytelling, the main point of this film - let the world know more about this event - is met.

Lots of people complain about English with Czech accents, I really don’t mind it - if we want people abroad to see the film we have to make some concessions. Though it’s funny when two main characters struggle with name of theirs native villages. But this will really be issue just for Czechs probably.

All newspapers wrote about Jamie Dornan in Prague, filming Anthropoid… Well yes but the best one is without a doubt Cillian Murphy, he completely overshadowed everybody.

It’s not probably an amazing 5* film, but this film is telling the thruth about one really important event which is not as well known as it should. I had goose bumps from the words “based on true events” at the beginning until the final few minutes of applause from the full Grand hall (3000 people approx.) for all the participants planning the attack. It’s 5* film for me.

And after this film you can continue with the film Lidice and not to forget the fate of Ležáky. :)  

A reference to a comment from the author of books on Anthropoid about changes in film. A little spoiler-ish and in Czech.

anonymous asked:

You already saw Anthropoid? What did you think?

This post?

Yes, last week. As per the reviews out of KVIFF, the movie was disappointing. An amazing true story, but the script and the cinematography don’t do it justice and the movie feels like a made-for-tv docudrama. IMO. Cillian was outstanding of course, and unbelievably gorgeous at times, despite the incredibly unflattering sepia grading. Anthropoid is unlikely to be in theaters for very long, but worth going if only to see Cillian on the big screen again. That’s definitely a treat!

Here’s a new clip with a longer scene from a clip shown in the 1st trailer —