antebellum era

???zoomans????

“Ages ago, Rebecca pitched The Zoo to Lamar and I as this absolute utopian, hippie society full of beautiful and healthy people with no concept of pain or sadness. So we went to town drawing as many different kinds of hot people as possible!” - Katie Mitroff 

“a good good friend of mine told me about a quote from…uh…someone…about how utopias usually have something/someone missing, or that you should look for what’s not there in these settings. with that in mind i wanted to make the zoomans (zoo humans) as varied and diverse as possible.” - Lamar Abrams  

For a series that has creators who are so concerned with inclusion and diversity, it’s really confounding to see stuff like “the Zoo” crammed into the narrative. You would expect the crew to be more educated about the history of colonization, especially since the main antagonists of the series are colonizers. It can’t be refuted that colonization plays a huge role in the story. Steven Universe lifts a lot of stuff from real life, but hippie communes should not have been used as the inspirational foundation for Pink Diamond’s “human zoo.” Crewniverse should have researched how colonization efforts contributed to the creation of actual human zoos long before they even began brainstorming. Hell, even a vague knowledge of Antebellum era stereotypes would have sufficed. Then the crew would be like: “No, let’s not have mostly black and brown captive humans act like docile, happy Uncle Toms, because if we did that’d be pretty racist!” 

If the crew is truly as invested in the promotion of diversity as they claim to be, then they would have known about human zoos. Had they done their research, they would have known not to represent the “zoomans” as unburdened, overly innocent, clueless, and totally dependent on their captors, because such a portrayal would fall in line with racist stereotypes propagated by white colonizers. Had they done their research, they would have known not to have characters say “human zoo.” Had they done their research, they would have known that making the “zoomans” mostly “hot” black and brown people would be a terrible idea, because racial fetishitization is dehumanizing and the inclusion of predominantly black/brown people in a “human zoo” would have unfortunate implications. Had they done their research and had they really cared about being inclusive, “the Zoo” would not be a thing that exists. 

“The Zoo” just makes it painfully clear that Crewniverse is full of really ignorant people who are not aware of their ineptitude at meeting their own ideals. 

Note: the gems are the equivalent of white colonizers and the captive humans are synonymous with colonized people. Again, colonization plays a big role in the story and the crew takes cues from real life to get that across (e.g. Homeworld colonizes land for resources, they brutally uproot native populations, they express prejudice toward native populations, the Gem Homeworld salute, etc.)

i wrote an actual fic!! this was strongly, strongly inspired by a conversation i had the other day with @spideyxchelle (who also read this before i posted). they also write like…spectacular headcanons too so definitely read their stuff!!! i also realize i never say this, but my friend @accioharry reads all my shit before i post generally, so a big thank you to her. she also writes spideychelle headcanons, so read them! here’s a link if you want to read it on ao3!

without further ado,

just friend things

                                                i. the thing with movie night cuddling

it all happens a bit suddenly. one thursday, michelle is sitting at the end of the table, reading of human bondage and decidedly not listening to peter and ned as they talk about how excited they are about marathoning the harry potter movies this saturday. then the next day michelle sits down across from them and asks what time she should be over at peter’s place. and: “what? i like harry potter.” and that’s how michelle joins their every other week movie marathons. (they’re all taking ap classes, they don’t have time for weekly movie marathons right now.)

what makes less sense to ned is when exactly peter and michelle started to cuddle at their every other week movie marathons. it starts out subtly. bodies lined up neatly next to each other. then a head resting on someone’s shoulder. then an arm over someone’s shoulders. and then, before ned can even take the redvines from his backpack, peter is sitting at one end of the couch while michelle lies down across it, head in his lap and feet up on couch arm across from peter. (damn her legs are long.) and ned’s just. what the fuck, guys?

but peter and michelle seem to think everything is fine. when ned questions it, they just exchange a look, michelle extending her neck and peter glancing down. then they look back at him and peter shrugs. “it’s comfortable. besides, we’re friends.” yeah, sure. because peter and ned put their heads in each other’s laps all the time.

but ned leaves it be. he doesn’t bat an eye when michelle giggles, peter trying to stuff popcorn into her mouth, eyes bright as she smacks him on the shoulder. ned just keeps his eyes focused on the movie playing because he doesn’t have time for this set of friends.

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Gang Bangs Anyways: Song Analyzes

           The disbandment of the Black Panther Party, has caused California, more specifically Los Angeles to be one of the biggest gang affiliated cities in the nation. The Game’s song: Gang Bang Anyways paints the perfect picture of what gang activity and violence is like in Los Angeles. The Game uses historic references, the use of internal and external wars, and being the product of the environment.

           Gang violence is something that America has been dealing with for more than 40 years. Even more so African-American gangs such as: The Bloods and Crips. Few people know that these two groups were started after the dismantlement of the Black Panther Party. In Gang Bang Anyways, The Game raps, “Started as Black Panthers, everything power, everything PRO Black/ Started off unified the FBI know that,” (Taylor). The Game reveals with this verse that the Black Panther Party was helping uplift the black community. The government was opposed to this because they were also receiving funding from taxpayers. The FBI set up a secret group called COINTELPRO, which targeted not only the Black Panther Party but many other ethnic and civil rights leaders.

           In addition, the review written by Dabian Witherspoon of Cle “Bone” Sloan’s documentary of: Bastards of the Party. Who is also a well-known member of the Bloods. Discusses many topics that are similar to the Game’s song.  “Gang bangers, like the members of the infamous Bloods and Crips in Los Angeles, live lives defined by violence and violent retribution…” (Witherspoon). This quote plays into the theme of The Game’s lyrics. The Game raps, “From the Hoovers to the Hundreds/From Kelly Park to Bounty Hunters/Same age as the kids in Iraq now/LA Chiraq now, funerals is packed now,” (Taylor). Throughout history, Bloods and Crips have always had a vicious rivalry. The Game reveals that it does not matter what set you claim a bullet does not have a name on it. Wheatear it’s Bounty Hunter Bloods or Hoover Crips is being claimed death is around the corner. The Game also suggest that Los Angeles is just as dangerous as Chicago. That the kids in LA are dying and getting involved in violence just like those in Iraq who are being forced into war. The quote from Witherspoon and The Game’s verse tie into to each other because both are explaining the tit for tat of gang life. If a Crip kills a Blood, then the Bloods are going go after that Crip. Then the Crips are going to go after the Bloods. Neither gang is going to stop until the vengeance is settled.

           Furthermore, The Game uses internal and external war, to further explain the love/hate relationship of gang life. The Game raps, “N***as don’t really like it but we grew up in it/City of the angels, belly of the beast get chewed up in it,” (Taylor). According to The Game Los Angeles, specifically Compton, growing up in gang life is inevitable. Wheatear it’s liked or not. Hints at the theme of internal and external war; the fact that young African-American males know that getting involved with gangs is wrong ultimately they know they have no choice but to get involved. Being surrounded by gangs all day, every day, there is a mentally of kill or be killed.

           The Game also reveals that having such a heavenly name (City of Angels) it is actually closer to hell. Which is another reference to his earlier verse, “Preachers at the pulpit, Jesus is the background/Grandmother get shot walking out the church/How that sound?” (Taylor). Again despite having such a heavenly name it’s still a city of hell. After a day of worship, a grandmother still gets shot. Leaving one to believe no one is really safe.

           The Bastards of the Party continues to discuss themes very relevant throughout The Game’s song. A reference to the earlier paragraph speaking on gang life being a never-ending “cycle of death”. The Cle’s documentary continues to look for the answers of why young black men become a part of gangs. Witherspoon writes, “Few, however, can explain the roots of that cycle, or why they would choose such a life,” (Witherspoon). Cle’s documentary provides insight and meaning by what attracts young black men to gangs. The Game raps, “Now the sh*t is worldwide cause it is what it was/We know the history and we know the sh*t could end any day,” (Taylor). The Game reveals that gang banging is not just between neighborhoods anymore, it is a worldwide situation. The Game again uses the theme of internal and external war and becoming the product of the environment. The line, “We know the history and we know the sh*t could end any day.” Reveals the decision of choosing right and wrong, once the history has been explained and the violence between gangs is seen first-hand. They know that tomorrow is not promised either. Can these young black men be the ones to blame, if all that has been seen and taught is gang life. So, regardless of the consequences gangs will still gang bang anyway.

           Cle opens up his documentary with images of the Antebellum-era, “Negroes for sell” signs and pictures of lynching’s from the early 20th century. According to Witherspoon, “The images highlight the deliberate annihilation of black of black people in America…” (Witherspoon). This plays into the historical references the Game uses. The Game raps, “Picture us chained together, under the boat, that’s a Kodak/Stolen identity, God left us here without low jack,” (Taylor). The reference to being chained together on a slave ship is also The Game asking how did black go from protecting each other and fighting together? Now black on black crime is more prevalent than protecting one another. The next line The Game is alluding to religion. A low jack is a device use to locate a stolen car and to return it to its rightful owner. The Game reveals that after blacks were stolen from their land and identities were taken. That children of slaves have no way of relocating themselves or where they have come from. The Game could also be alluding to the fact that black people rely on a religion that has done nothing but make black dependent and forget their culture.

           The hatred for blacks in Los Angeles dates back to as early as the 1940’s. In that era whites had restricted blacks from certain areas. Along with constantly being harassed by LAPD, there was also a white gang named the Spook Hunters that worked with the LAPD. Their last legal lynching was in 1948 of LA. This connects to one of the Game’s last verses. The Game raps, “Forced to find ourselves, forced to break up outta chains/Got tired of getting hanged so we started our gangs,” (Taylor). With the absences of African culture; blacks were forced to either fit into a culture that did not belong to them or start from scratch and make a new culture and life for themselves and their families. Literally having to break free of the slave chains but also having to break free of the mental chains that had kept black people oppressed for so many years.

           The Game reveals in his next line that blacks were tired of being harassed, attacked and bullied by other races. Black people began forming gangs to protect their communities. This line also has a double meaning; it is first referring to the days of lynching. As well as the violence going on within the neighborhoods. Which forces the children to stand together against outsiders and insiders that threaten harm.

           Throughout The Game’s very analytic verse he rapped about themes such as historic references, internal and external war and becoming the product of one’s environment. This essay explored how the effects of the FBI disbanding the Black Panther Party affected the black community and how it was a more a negative impact. It also examined the love/hate relationship that gang members have with their gangs. This paper is a short conversation, of the larger vision that gang life is more detrimental to that of young black men and black communities than the Black Panther Party ever was. It also opens up that dialogue if gang violence continues to spiral out of control there will be no more Crips or Bloods.  

Regarding Concrete

Why are we mad? Chill out over a rough black and white sketch of a character that was never actually implemented. I know all about minstrels and early antebellum era blackface. When I saw her, that is not what I thought at all. Calm down fam, go be mad about something else please. The President is still a rapist you know. Flint? Clean water? Go make yourselves busy.

3

September 3rd 1838: Douglass escapes

On this day in 1838, famed abolitionist Frederick Douglass escaped from slavery in Maryland. Douglass was born into slavery, and when he was around twelve years old was taught the alphabet by the wife of his plantation owner. The young Douglass was soon able to read and write fluently, but had to keep his literacy a secret as slaveholders decided that an educated slave was dangerous. When it was discovered that he was teaching other slaves to read, Douglass was sent to a ‘slave breaker’, who frequently and brutally whipped him for alleged ‘insubordination’. Douglass’s education, and his experience of the horrors of enslavement, refined his critique of the institution of slavery. Douglass successfully escaped from his enslavement in September 1838, using the papers of a free sailor to board a train headed North, eventually arriving in the New York safe house of abolitionist David Ruggles. Douglass went on to become a prominent abolitionist, famous for his eloquent oratory and his intelligence, which disproved slaveholders’ claims that slaves were not intelligent enough to be free. He published multiple narratives of his life in slavery, which drew attention to the injustice of slavery in the Southern states, and campaigned for civil rights issues in the antebellum era. Douglass continued the fight for equal rights after the Civil War and emancipation, advocating the enfranchisement of African-Americans and women. In 1872, the radical Equal Rights Party nominated him for Vice-President - with feminist activist Victoria Woodhull for President - making him the first African-American nominated for the office. Frederick Douglass died in 1895, aged seventy-seven.

“On Monday, the third day of September, 1838, in accordance with my resolution, I bade farewell to the city of Baltimore, and to that slavery which had been my abhorrence from childhood.”
- from ’Life and Times of Frederick Douglass’, 1881

(via I Don’t Want to Watch Slavery Fan Fiction - The New York Times)

Many fiction writers have tried, to varying degrees of success, to reimagine slavery or create alternate histories where the Civil War never happened or never ended, or the Confederacy won.

Most recently, in the novel “Underground Airlines,” Ben H. Winters created an alternate history where slavery still exists in four states, there was no Civil War and segregation is the order of the day throughout the United States. I suppose it’s an interesting premise, but as is often the case with interesting premises, at what cost?

It has been more than 150 years since the Civil War ended, but it often feels like some people are still living in the antebellum era. In parts of the United States and, as evidenced by Donald Trump’s visit to Poland recently, the world, the Confederate flag is still proudly flown. This month, Ku Klux Klansmen marched in Charlottesville, Va., to protest the removal of a Robert E. Lee statue from a city park. They were not the first nor will they be the last to resist acknowledging that the Confederacy lost the Civil War.

At the National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington, in May, a noose was found in an exhibition about segregation. That was one of three nooses found in the city within a few months. There was a noose found hanging from a tree in Philadelphia. There have also been noose-related incidents in Maryland, Louisiana, North Carolina and Florida — quiet, insidious acts of violence, reminders that racial hatred is alive and well.

Each time I see a re-imagining of the Civil War that largely replicates what actually happened, I wonder why people are expending the energy to imagine that slavery continues to thrive when we are still dealing with the vestiges of slavery in very tangible ways. Those vestiges are visible in incarceration rates for black people, a wildly segregated country, disparities in pay and mortality rates and the ever-precarious nature of black life in a world where it can often seem as if police officers take those lives with impunity.

read more @ the link

limevines  asked:

Hi there! I was wondering, do you know any tips about clothing from American 1860s-1890s? Specifically girls dresses, gowns from a richer side. Anything off the top of your head, don't want to be annoying. I check your historical clothing master post but everything was specifically English [at least, the internet ones]. Whatever you have on this subject is greatly appreciated. So sorry if this is an annoying or stupid question, and by the way, I love your art and your rocks are glorious. Thanks!

American fashions weren’t vastly different from their European counterparts at the time, actually!  Especially with the advent of the telegraph, communication and cultural exchange across the ocean sped up dramatically- American fashion might be behind the times, sure, but it would usually only be by a year or two.

(everyone stop what you’re doing right now and read The Victorian Internet, it’s amazing)

Nonetheless, American dress is it’s own beast- different resources and different politics create things like the advent of  Zouave jackets after the Crimean War, or Amelia Bloomer’s dress reform movement that is so American as to eventually be referred to as “American dress.”  The great thing about this time period is that you can still get your hands on American fashion plates, photography, and even extant dresses from the era- all the easier if you’re looking for fashions of wealthy privileged people.  Here are a bunch of books that could point you in the right direction:

Less what you’re looking for since you mentioned well-off fashion and finery, but still a great read:

I hope that’s a start!  Do remember that the 1860’s - 1890’s is a pretty broad swath- that’s forty years, almost half a century, and so you’ll probably want to pinpoint the era you’re looking at more specifically. :)

-C

As hip-hop, black music, and black artistry in general continue to trend worldwide it’s important to acknowledge the rich history of black nationalistic ideologies in black music. Too often bigoted/racist individuals consume & appropriate black music without knowing of it’s rich history and purpose...

PROOF: 

As an ideology, Black Nationalism acknowledges America’s unjust prejudice against African Americans and calls for the solidarity and resistance of blacks against discrimination. Authors Darren W. Davis and Ronald E. Brown define Black Nationalism as, “a political strategy for empowerment” (240). In addition the authors list the doctrines of the ideology, “the basic tenants of black nationalism [are] self-determination, racial intolerance, separatism, self-sufficiency, black pride, and the quest for a separate nation” (240). Martin Delany is considered to be the grandfather of Black Nationalism. Delany’s incomplete novel, the Huts of America advocates for black activism and rebellion. Over the years numerous other authors such as: Marcus Garvey, Henry McNeal Turner, Henry Highland Garnet, Edward Wilmot Blyden, and Paul Cuffee also published writings that contributed to the development of black nationalistic ideology. Among the contributions to Black Nationalism is David Walker’s Appeal, a seditious text in which Walker lists ten tenants that ultimately become the theoretical foundation of both Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism. Walker’s pamphlet was one of America’s earliest militant abolitionist publications with a wide distribution. Both the publicity and availability of the pamphlet threatened the status quo of the southern slave owning society that had already been threatened by an increasing number of slave revolts. Prior to the pamphlet’s publication in 1829, the most successful slave revolt of all time took place in modern day Haiti. On August 22, 1791 “thousands of slaves set fire to plantations, torched cities, and massacred a terrified white population. The slave rebellion that started that night—the most successful slave rebellion in history—lasted 12 long years” (Thomson 76-77). Out of fear that the American institution of slavery would share the same fate, the pamphlet was banned in the south and any slave found in possession of it faced grave consequences. Though the pamphlet was banned during the antebellum era and largely erased from American history throughout the following centuries, the ideologies of David Walker remain influential in African American politics and culture. This influence is demonstrated through the resurgence of David Walker’s tenants in Funk, Soul, and Classic Hip-Hop.

Funk artist James Brown was the first to incorporate Black Nationalist ideologies into music; in his 1968 hit Say It Loud he implements Walker’s tenant of unity by encouraging solidarity among members of the black community. During the time of the song’s release, the Civil Rights Movement was also taking place and thousands of southern African Americans were on the verge of receiving suffrage rights that had previously been withheld from them. There existed among blacks of the time a belief that these forms of discrimination had lasted so long due to disunity among the black population. This same ideology is present in David Walker’s Appeal. When recounting the events of Hannibal’s siege on Rome, Walker asserts that had Carthage been united and given Hannibal support they would have been able to conquer Rome. He goes onto say, “But they were disunited, as the coloured people are now, in the United States of America, the reason our natural enemies are enabled to keep their feet on our throats” (Walker 40). This ideology is implemented in the lyrics of Say It Loud. The track starts with the command, “Say it loud: I’m black and I’m proud” (Brown, Say It Loud). With this command artist James Brown attempts to create among African Americans an agreement of feeling or solidarity. Brown’s resurgence of Black Nationalist ideologies forever changed the music industry.

Furthermore, Brown’s Say It Loud also resurges the tenant on the profound degradation of African American slaves by describing abasement of blacks in modern day America. Since the institution of slavery, both members and officials of American society have degraded African Americans. However, throughout the course of history America’s degradation of its black population has largely been denied or ignored by the country’s white citizens. Despite the nation’s large-scale denial of the abasement against the African American population, blacks in America have always been aware of their condition. This is demonstrated through Walkers acknowledgement of the profound degradation of African American slaves in his appeal. He states, “we, coloured peoples of these United States of America are the most wretched, degraded and abject set of beings that ever lived since the world began” (Walker 27). On his most popular track James Brown exercises similar ideologies. Brown states, “We have been bucked and we have been scorned / We have been treated bad, talked about as just bones / But just as it takes two eyes to make a pair, ha / Brother we can’t quit until we get our share” (Brown, Say It Loud). In this portion of the song Brown acknowledges the manner in which African Americans have been persecuted and rejected in America as a result of their race. He goes onto say that blacks have been treated badly and talked about as if they were “just bones.” This no doubt refers to the mistreatment of African Americans under the institutions of both slavery and segregation. In addition, Brown also acknowledges the way in which these institutions revoked the humanity of the African American population. Since the release of his hit, numerous other black artists in other genres have also incorporated Black Nationalist principles into their music.

Famous Soul artist Marvin Gaye incorporates David Walker’s theme on the possibility of the occurrence of a new society of peace and justice by pleading with white America to change its suppressive ways. Throughout American history African Americans have been suppressed by institutional racism. Over the years there have been several attempts by the black population to get white Americans to acknowledge this oppression. Walker asserts that the only way that a society of peace and justice could come into existence is if white America acknowledges their oppression of blacks. He states, “The Americans may say or do as they please, but they have to raise us from the condition of brutes to that of respectable men, and to make a national acknowledgment to us for the wrongs they have inflicted on us” (Walker 90). Marvin Gaye implements this same ideology in his hit single What’s Going On. On the track Gaye says, “Picket lines and picket signs / Don’t punish me with brutality / Talk to me, so you can see / Oh, what’s going on” (Gaye, What’s Going On). On the track Marvin Gaye references the occurrence of protests against institutional racism in America. He then rebukes local law enforcement for the use of force against peaceful protestors. Gaye then instructs white America to acknowledge (talk) the wrongs that have been committed against the African American population. Marvin Gaye’s track What’s Going On resurges ideologies of Black Nationalism as outlined in David Walker’s Appeal.

Hip-hop duo Black Star’s song Astronomy (8th Light), also implements Walker’s tenent of solidarity among African American slaves by encouraging “black people [to] unite.” Often individuals outside of the influence of Hip-hop culture misinterpret it. In fact, the popular conception of the genre is that it is preoccupied with sex, drugs, and fame. However, contrary to the popular opinion Hip-hop often serves as a political platform that establishes the aims and principles of the black community. Though it has largely been erased from American history, Black Nationalism still manages to shape these aims and principles. For example, Walker’s ideology of the need for unity among African American slaves remains integral to black ideology. In the appeal he states that slaves, “were disunited…in the United States of America, the reason our natural enemies are enabled to keep their feet on our throats” (Walker 40).  This ideology is applied in the lyrics of Black Star members Talib Kweli and Mos Def. The track opens with the rappers stating, “Black people unite and let’s all get down / We got to have what? / We got to have that love” (Black Star, Astronomy (8th Light)). In this portion of the song Kweli calls for the immediate unity of African Americans. Like Walker, he too faults the lack of solidarity among blacks for the ongoing success of America’s oppressive system. Kweli asserts that the only way to destroy said system is to establish a sense of unity and love among the black peoples of America.

In addition, Astronomy (8th Light) applies David Walker’s ideology of the importance of education among slaves by educating listeners on the cruelness of slavery. As well as serving as a political platform to the black community, Hip-hop also frequently attempts to educate its listeners on black history and race demographics in America. Though a majority of America’s school systems neglect to include these subjects into the required curriculum, numerous hip-hop artists underlie their lyrics with statistics and events from black history in attempts to educate the black community. In his pamphlet Walker references the importance of the education of slaves with one of his tenants:
For the coloured people to acquire learning in this country, [sic] makes tyrants quake and tremble on their sandy foundation. Why, what is the matter? Why, they know that their infernal deeds of cruelty will be made known to the world. (Walker 52) On the track Astronomy (8th Light), Mos Def resurges Walker’s tenent of education:

Black like the planet that they fear, why they scared? / Black like the slave ship belly that brought us here / Black like the cheeks that are roadways for tears / that leave black faces well traveled with years (Black Star, Astronomy (8th Light))

Using his lyrical skills, Def references the changing demographic of the American population. That is, the exponential growth of America’s minority population and the likelihood that one-day the minority will become the majority. Def uses his sarcastic question (why they scared?) to reveal that white America fears the possibility of a predominantly black population and the changes it would bring. He goes on to reference the American institution of slavery and its traumatic effects on blacks of antebellum and modern America. Mos Def’s use of the term “roadways for tears” is meant to depict the long lasting depression endured by African American slaves as a result of slavery. Furthermore, the rappers use of the word “are” implies that he is speaking in the present tense. That is, he’s acknowledging the fact that the institution of slavery still has a negative affect on the modern day black population. Much like Walker, Mos Def attempts to educate the black community on America’s growing minority population and the cruelty of slavery so that they may use this knowledge as weapons to dismantle the racist system.

claerest  asked:

hey so obvs 18th century masculinity is very different today but is there a specific time when the change occured? like did it just sort of gradually change to masculinity today or was there a time u could pinpoint that it sort of flipped from Then to Now?

The change was gradual but there was definitely something of a flip point from the end of the 18th century into the early 19th century. I made a post about how men’s fashion changed drastically at this time, how it, and men’s bodies in general, became less sexualized: men’s legs and calves were no longer on display, the colors of the fabrics became dulled to browns/blacks/greys/, the male nude was no longer an inspiring art model (this is where you start seeing the fig leaf popping up to cover the peens), etc. 

There were a lot on contributing factors (the French Revolution, the decline of apprenticeship and the increasing self-made manhood, the rise of social darwinism, etc.), but the one factor that’s probably the most responsible for the rise of hypermasculinity was the rise of white male middle-class ideals, combined with white male solidarity in the Antebellum Era (most embodied in the glorification of his most esteemed fuckface, Andrew Jackson). Masculinity became defined by what the white male middle class deemed it, which mostly meant defining what it was not: African, Native, and Asian American men were removed entirely from the definition, since only, with very few exceptions at this point, European American men had the right to vote; in the 18th century, the white male vote was limited to how much property he owned, but now in the 19th century all white men were entitled. White middle class men were then defined by their independence and “manly” work ethics.

I made another post about how due to differing views of the body that came out of this rise in the sciences, the one versus two-sex model, the male and female bodies became even more strictly defined, and this carried social implications. A man’s place was in the public; women’s place became entirely reduced to the domestic. It’s also at this point that white women became desexualized and was thought that they didn’t have any interest in sex (tho while the nude male disappeared, the nude female form was increasingly sexualized), while in the previous centuries it was assumed that, in the ideal, a man was supposed to sexually gratify his wife, and there were even cases of wives divorcing their husbands due to impotence. 

The middle class ideal also came to disdain the dandyism that it saw as the construct of rich leisure - basically any man that had the time to devote so much attention to his appearance must be rich and thus a “deviant.” It’s this connotation that gave rise to the association of effeminacy with male homosexuality. And from that sprung “virtuous” and “pure” heterosexuality.

So pretty much most of the problems with masculinity nowadays has its biggest roots in the 19th century’s white middle class masculinity crisis.