Blue-ringed octopuses are among the deadliest animals in the sea. Although they are about the size of a golf ball, they can pose a deadly threat to humans. When the octopus is agitated, the brown patches darken dramatically, and iridescent blue rings appear and pulsate. In a bite or even skin to skin contacts, this octopus passes on a deadly venom. Within five to ten minutes, the victim begins to experience numbness, progressive muscular weakness and difficulty breathing and swallowing. Death may result because of cerebral anoxia. (Source)
Global warming may cause major marine oxygen depletion.
Scientists investigating the changing conditions as the globe warmed 5 degrees Celsius during the several thousand year transition into the current interglacial epoch at the end of the last ice age (a rise similar to the outer limits predicted for the end of only this century) have come up with unsettling data suggesting that a period of extreme oxygen depletion in the sea accompanied the transition.
Near-death experiences, in which people claim to encounter a variety of unusual phenomena, including moving through a tunnel toward light, feeling lightweight, feeling peace and joy, and profoundly spiritual moments, have often been classified by scientific researchers as a function of anoxia, or oxygen deprivation in the brain. Learn more
why making leo fitz forget everything would be a poor decision
so, in the time since the season finale most of the speculation (and fiction) around Fitz has been to do with him being in a coma and waking up with no memory of the team and of Jemma. Personally I believe this is the worst route they could possibly take with Fitz’s character (as well as being almost Scientifically inaccurate). Full explanation (including science! under the read more)
Firstly, let’s look at what we know.
- His brain was without oxygen for several minutes. We do not know the extent to that, but we can gather he is suffering from Hypoxia/Anoxia. Hypoxia refers to a lack of oxygen in a general or specific area (in Fitz’s case, the brain) and Anoxia is complete and total lack of Oxygen (most severe). Prognosis depends on whether he experienced Hypoxia/Anoxia. I myself am taking the worst case scenario of Anoxia.
- Severe anoxia will result in coma. Longer the coma, more severe the consequences will be on waking. Some patients in a coma can move in to Persistent Vegetative State. They are highly unlikely to ever to achieve higher functions above a vegitative state. But considering comments by Iain and other cast members I don’t think this is likely.
- Anoxia can have several consequences that all depend on the severity of the condition. Several specific brain areas are more vulnerable to Anoxia leading to some distinct characteristics.
Largest Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone in more than a decade
Every year, farmers throughout the central United States deploy large amounts of nitrogen- and phosphorus-based fertilizers to help grow food. Every year, rains come. That water picks up a portion of those fertilizers and carries it downstream, where it eventually causes what is known as the Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone.
Climate: Cold to extremely warm; ocean acidification and anoxia, ozone destruction
Aftermath: Permanent ecosystem reorganization; low O2 for >106 years
There’s good reason why the End-Permian extinction is referred to as “The Great Dying”; 95% of all marine families, 53%of all marine families, 84% of marine genera, and 70% of known land species went extinct,
The extinction likely occurred in three stages: 1. Land extinctions over ~40,000 yrs 2. Very abrupt marine extinctions 3. Second phase of land extinctions
Calcifying marine organisms such as brachiopods and bryozoa were the hardest hit, representative of ocean acidification. The last of the Cambrian fauna also died off, and this was the only known mass extinction of insects
So what exactly made the End-Permian extinction so severe? There truly was a perfect storm to make this the deadliest million years in Earth’s history.
Earth had been emerging from a moderate ice age when the largest flood basalt event in history (the Siberian Traps) occurred, which released vast amounts of CO2. The oceans then became increasingly warm, acidic, stratified, and euxinic from decaying organic matter. The atmosphere also became flooded with light (biogenically fixed) C, possibly from seafloor methane hydrates or from coal gas released as a result of heating from the Siberian Traps. Greenhouse gases soon caused global temperatures to spike, leading to massive extinction. Global euxinia in the oceans then became a severe problem, with sulfate reducing bacteria releasing large amounts of H2S, poisoning the oceans and atmosphere and thinning the ozone layer. These systems then created a cycle of positive feedbacks: more die-offs → more euxinia → more H2S → more die-offs.
Marine ecosystems were forever changed after the extinction. Land ecosystems didn’t recover for ~5 My, and O2 levels remained low throughout much of Triassic time.
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