Characters: Scott McCall, Stiles Stilinski, Lydia Martin, Kira Yukimura, Isaac Lahey, Alan Deaton, Vernon Boyd, Braeden, Reader.
Stiles was about to go into surgery. It was a routine surgery, a simple appendectomy, but all that mattered was that he was the first intern to go into surgery. You were all gathered in the gallery to watch.
You heard people whispering, making fun of him. “Ten bucks says he messes up the McBird.”
“Twenty says he cries.“ Kira nods.
“I’ll put twenty on a total meltdown.” Someone in the back says.
“Fifty says he pulls the whole thing off.” You say. Everyone looks at you, silent. “That’s one of us down there. The first one of us. Where’s your loyalty?” Everyone stays quiet a bit longer.
“Seventy-five says he can’t even ID the appendix.” Kira blurts out. You sigh.
“I’ll take that action.” Lydia nods and everyone mutters in agreement.
You watch as he grabs the scalpel from the scrub nurse, the scrub cap on his head is a bit too big, it makes him look like a little boy. Everyone cheers and Boyd motions from the OR for everyone to shut up.
“That Boyd…he’s trouble.” Kira grins and everyone laughs.
You glance at the camera, listening to Stiles and Boyd. “Damn, he got the peritoneum and he opened him up.” Someone says.
“I told you he’d pull it off.” You mutter.
“Scalpel.” Stiles sticks his hand out.
“Scalpel.” The nurse repeats and hands it to him.
“Appendix is out.” Stiles takes it out and sits it on the tray, inciting cheers.
“Now all you have to do is invert the stump into the secum and simultaneously pull up on the purse-strings but be careful not to..” There’s a ripping sound. “break them.” Boyd groans. “He ripped the secum. Got a bleeder. You’re filling with stool, what do you do now?”
“Uh…” Stiles looks panicked. “Uh…”
“Think. You start the suction, you start digging for those purse-strings before she bleeds to death. Get him a clamp.”
“BP’s dropping.” A nurse states.
Kira sits forward in her seat, “He’s choking.”
“Come on, Stiles.” You stare intently at the screen.
“Today. Pull your balls out of your back pocket, let’s go. What are you waiting for? Suction.” Boyd is becoming impatient.
The monitor begins to beep. “Getting too low, folks.” A nurse says.
“Get out of the way.” Boyd pushes Stiles back. “Pansy-ass idiot. Get him out of here. Suction. Clamp.”
“007.” An intern behind you mutters. You turn to look at him, he has curls falling in his face and he’s sitting in his chair like he’s at his mom’s house.
“007. Yep. He’s a total 007.” Another intern says.
“What’s 007?” Lydia asks.
“Licensed to kill.” You mumble.
You’re sitting in the spare beds in the hallway. “007. They’re calling me 007, aren’t they?” Stiles sighs.
“No one’s calling you 007.” You and Lydia say in unison.
“I was on the elevator and Murphy whispered 007.” Stiles pouts.
“Oh, how many times do we have to go through this, Stiles? Five? Ten? Give me a number or else I’m going to hit you.” Kira groans.
“He wasn’t talking about you.” Lydia nods.
“You sure?” Stiles looks over at her.
“Would we lie to you?” You raise an eyebrow.
Stiles is quiet for a moment, “Yes.”
“007 is a state of mind.” Kira shrugs.
“Says the girl who finished top of her class at Stanford.” Stiles shakes his head. “Maybe I should’ve gone into geriatrics. No one minds when you kill an old person.” He lets his head fall onto the wall.
“Surgery is hot, it’s the Marines, it’s the macho, it’s hostile, it’s hardcore. Geriatrics is for freaks who live with their mothers and never have sex.” Kira shrugs.
“I’ve got to get my own place.” Stiles sighs.
“4B’s got post-op pneumonia. Let’s start antibiotics.” You hear the intern that started 007 say.
“Are you sure that’s the right diagnosis?” The nurse asks.
“Well I don’t know, I’m only an intern. Here’s an idea, why don’t you go spend four years in med school and let me know if it’s the right diagnosis. She’s short of breath, she’s got fever, she’s post-op. Start the antibiotics.” He walks over to you. “God I hate nurses. I’m Isaac. I’m with Jeremy, you’re with the Nazi, right?”
You glance up at him, “She may not have pneumonia, you know. She could be splinting, or have a PE.”
He scoffs, “Like I said, I hate nurses.”
“What did you just say? Did you just call me a nurse?” You cross your arms.
He shrugs, “If the white cap fits…”
Your pager goes off and you begin to walk away.
“She seeing anybody?” Isaac leans over to Stiles.
“I don’t know.” Stiles shrugs.
Isaac whistles, “She’s hot.”
“I’m friends with her. I mean, kinda friends, I mean…not, you know, actually friends. Not exactly, but we’re tight. We hang out. I mean really only today-”
“Dude.” Isaac interrupts.
“But-” Stiles starts again.
“Dude. Stop talking.” Isaac shakes his head.
You walk into the room, your patient was on the bed, seizing. “What took you so long?” A nurse asks.
“She’s having multiple grand mal seizures, now how do you want to proceed? Dr. Y/L/N? Are you listening to me? She’s got Diazepam, 2 milligrams of Diazepam, I just gave her a second ago, Dr. Y/L/N, you need to tell us what you want to do. Dr. Y/L/N!” Another nurse shouts.
You’re panicked, you don’t know what to do. “Okay, she’s full on Prazepam?” You pick up her chart.
“She’s had 4 milligrams.” A nurse answers.
“Did you page Dr. Bailey and Dr. McCall?”
“The Prazepam’s not working.” A nurse says.
“Phenobarbital. Load her with Phenobarbital.” You nod.
“No change.” A third nurse says.
“You paged Dr. McCall?” You ask.
“I just told you.”
“Well, page him again! Stat!”
“What do you want to do? Dr. Y/L/N, you need to tell us what you want to do!” A nurse looks at you. The monitor beeps. “Heart’s stopped!”
“Code blue, code blue! Code blue, code blue!” They pull out the defibrillators.
You take them, suddenly feeling in control. “Charge pulse of 200.” You yell.
“Still defib. Nothing.” A nurse tells you. “Charging. 19 seconds.”
“Charge to 300.” You order.
“300. Anything? 27 seconds.”
“Charge to 360.” You defib again. Nothing. “Come on, Katie.” You mutter.
“49 seconds..” A nurse alerts you. “At 60 seconds you’re supposed to admit her…”
“Charge again!” You defib and her blood pressure registers.
“I see sinus rhythm. BP’s coming up.”
Scott runs in, “What the hell happened?”
“She had a seizure and-” You start.
“A seizure?” He repeats.
“Her heart stopped.”
“You were supposed to be monitoring her.” Scott sighs.
“I checked on her and she-”
“I got it. Just…just..go. Someone give me her chart, please.” He waves you out of the room and you leave.
You approach Bailey, “You get a 911, you page me immediately, not in the five minutes it takes you to get to the emergency…immediately, you are on my team and if somebody dies it’s my ass.” You walk past her. “You hear me, Y/L/N?”
“Y/N?” Kira raises an eyebrow.
You walk past her and she follows you out the front hospital doors, it’s pouring rain. You throw up in the grass. You stand up and sigh before walking back in. “If you tell anyone about this, ever…” You threaten her.
You find her later in the skills lab. “What are you doing?”
“I’m suturing a banana, in the vain hope it keeps my brain awake.”
“What are you laughing at, 007?” She glares at him.
Stiles returns the glare, “You know what? I don’t care. I comforted a family today and I get to hang out in the OR. All is well.”
All of the interns are packed in a small room. Scott walks in and looks at everyone. “Well good morning. I’m going to do something pretty rare for a surgeon, I’m going to ask interns for help. I’ve got this kid, Katie Bryce. Right now, she’s a mystery. She doesn’t respond to her meds. Labs are clean, scans are pure, but she’s having seizures. Grand mal seizures with no visible cause. She’s a ticking clock. She’s going to die, if I don’t make a diagnosis. Which is where you come in. I can’t do it alone. I need your extra minds, extra eyes, I need you to play detective, I need you to find out why Katie is having seizures. I know you’re tired, you’re busy, you’ve got more work than you could possibly handle. I understand. So, I’m going to give you an incentive. Whoever finds the answer rides with me. Katie needs surgery. You get to do what no interns get to do. Scrub in to assist on an advanced procedure. Dr. Bailey’s going to hand you Katie’s chart. The clock is ticking fast, people. If we’re going to save Katie’s life, we have to do it soon.”
Everyone grabs a copy of the chart and runs out the door.
“Look, give the antibiotics time to work.” Isaac crosses his arms.
“The antibiotics should’ve worked by now.” The nurse argues.
Isaac sighs, “She’s old. She’s freaking ancient. She’s lucky she’s still breathing. Now, I’ve got a shot to scrub in downstairs with a patient who wasn’t alive during the civil war. Don’t page me again.” He walks away and Kira approaches you.
“Hey, I want in on McCall’s surgery. You’ve been the intern on Katie since the start. You want to work together? We find the answer we have a fifty-fifty shot of scrubbing in.”
“I’ll work with you, but I don’t want in on the surgery. You can have it.” You nod.
Kira looks taken aback, “Are you kidding me? It’s the biggest opportunity any intern will ever get.”
“I don’t want to spend any more time with McCall than I have to.” You shake your head.
She raises an eyebrow, “What do you have against McCall?”
“If we find the answer, the surgery’s yours. Do you want to work together or not?” You avoid her question. She grins and nods her head.
“Well, she doesn’t have anoxia, chronic renal failure, or acidosis. It’s not a tumor because her CT’s clean. Are you seriously not going to tell me why you won’t work with McCall?” Kira’s sitting in the library with you.
“No. what about infection?” You glance at a book.
“No. There’s no white count. She has no ceteal lesions, no fevers, nothing in her spinal tap…” She sighs. “Just tell me.”
You close the book and look up at her, “You can’t make a face, comment, or react in anyway. We had sex.”
Kira opens her mouth and closes it, “…what about an aneurysm?”
You shake your head, “No blood on the CT, and no headaches.”
“Okay..there’s no drug use, uh..no pregnancy, no trauma…was he good? I mean, he looks like he would be…was it any good?”
You don’t answer her question, “What are the answers? What if no one comes up with anything?” You groan.
“You mean if she dies?”
You nod, “Yeah.”
“This is going to sound really bad, but I really wanted that surgery.” Kira sighs.
“She’s just never going to get the chance to turn into a person. The sum total of her existence will be almost winning Miss Teen whatever. You know what her pageant talent is?” You ask Kira.
“They have talent?” She raises an eyebrow.
“Rhythmic gymnastics.” You deadpan and you both laugh.
“Oh, come on.” Kira shakes her head.
“What is rhythmic gymnastics? I don’t know…I can’t even say it, I don’t know what it is.” You laugh.
“Isn’t it like something with a ball, and a-” You go still and Kira stops talking. “…what? Y/N, what?”
“Get up! Come on!” You jump up. The both run out of the library. You walk by the elevator while Kira’s talking to you. She spots Scott and holds the door.
“-the only thing she could possibly need is a-..Oh, oh, Dr. McCall! Just one moment, um, uh, Katie competes in beauty pageants-”
“I know that, but we have to save her life anyway.” Scott shrugs
“Okay, she has no headaches, no neck pain, her CT’s clean, there’s no medical proof of an aneurysm…” Kira explains.
“Right.” Scott nods.
“But what if she has an aneurysm anyway?” She suggests.
“There are no indicators.” Scott looks at her.
“Ah, but she twisted her ankle, a few weeks ago when she was practicing for the pageant-”
“Look, I appreciate that you’re trying to help, but-”
“This is not helping!” Another doctor in the elevator shouts.
“She fell. When she twisted her ankle, she fell.” You explain to him.
“It was no big deal, not even a bump on the head, you know she got right back up, iced her ankle and everything was fine, it was a fall so minor her doctor didn’t even think to mention it when I was taking her history, but she did fall.” Kira nods.
“Well, you know the chances that a minor fall could burst an aneurysm, one in a million! Literally.” Scott shakes his head.
The both of you step back and sigh, letting the doors close. You hear a ding and look up, Scott walking out of the elevator.
“Let’s go.” He nods.
“Where?” Kira asks.
“To find out if Katie Bryce is one in a million.”
Yore in the scan room, looking at Katie’s recent scan. “I’ll be damned.” Scott shakes his head. “It’s minor, but it’s there. It’s a cerebachnoid haemorrhage. She’s bleeding into her brain.”
The three of you are walking down the hallway.
“She could’ve gone her entire life without it ever being a problem. One tap in the right spot-” Scott explains.
“And explode.” Kira nods.
“Exactly. Now I have to fix it. You two did great work. Love to stay and kiss your asses, but I gotta tell Katie’s parents she’s having surgery. Katie Bryce’s chart, please.” He says to reception.
“Oh, and Dr. McCall, you said that you’d pick someone to scrub in if we helped.” Kira calls out.
“Oh, yes, right. Um, I’m sorry I can’t take you both, it’s going to be a full house. Y/N, I’ll see you in OR.”
You and Kira stay planted to your seats, shocked as Scott leaves.
Kira is clearly upset.
“Kira..” She walks away, glaring at you over her shoulder.
You approach her and Lydia in the hallway. “I’ll tell him I changed my mind, you can-”
“No, no, don’t do me any favors. It’s fine.” Kira shakes her head.
“Kira…” You start.
“You know what, you did a cutthroat thing, deal with it. Don’t come to me for absolution, you want to be a shark, be a shark.” Kira waves her hands.
“I’m not-” You try to explain yourself.
“Oh, yes you are. Only it makes you feel all bad in your warm gooey places. No, screw you. I don’t get picked for surgeries because I slept with my boss, and I didn’t get into med school because I have a famous mother. You know, some of us have to earn what we get.” Kira rants. You didn’t know she knew about your mother.
You’re in the OR with Scott, he’s shaving Katie’s head. “I promised I’d make her look cool. Apparently being a bald beauty queen is the worst thing that happened in the history of the world.”
Did you choose me for the surgery because I slept with you?“ You raise an eyebrow.
“Yes.” Scott deadpans. “I’m kidding.”
“I’m not going to scrub in for surgery. You should ask Kira. She really wants it.” You shake your head
“You’re Katie’s doctor. And on your first day, with very little training, you helped save her life. You earned the right to follow her case to the finish. You…you shouldn’t let the fact that we had sex get in the way of you taking your shot.” Scott looks at you.
You sit outside with Stiles. “I wish I wanted to be a chef. Or a ski instructor. Or a kindergarten teacher.” You sigh.
“You know, I would’ve been a really good postal worker. I’m dependable. You know, my dad tells everyone he meets that his son’s a surgeon. As if it’s a big accomplishment. A superhero or something. If he could see me now…” Stiles shakes his head.
“When I told my mother I wanted to go to medical school, she tried to talk me out of it. Said I didn’t have what it takes to be a surgeon. That I’d never make it. So, the way I see it, superhero sounds pretty damn good.” You shrug.
Stiles looks at you, “We’re going to survive this, right?”
Later you’re inside with Deaton and Isaac. Deaton was the chief of surgery.
“She’s still short of breath. Did you get an ABG or a chest film?” Deaton asks.
“Oh, yes sir, I did.” Isaac nods.
“And what did you see?”
“Oh, well, I had a lot of patients last-”
“Name the common causes of post-op fever.” Deaton interrupts.
“Uh…yes, sir.” He pulls a notebook from his pocket.
“From your head. Not from a book. Don’t look it up, learn it, it should be in your head. Name the common causes of post-op fever.” Deaton crosses his arms.
“Uh…the common causes of post-op…” Isaac starts.
“Can anybody name the common causes of post-op fever?” Deaton shouts.
“Wind, water, wound, walking, wonder drugs. The five W’s. Most of the time it’s wind, splinting, or pneumonia. Pneumonia’s easy to assume, especially if you’re too busy to do the tests.” You speak up.
Deaton gives Isaac a look before turning to you. “What do you think’s wrong with 4B?”
“The fourth W, walking. I think she’s a prime candidate for a pulmonary ambulus.” You nod.
“How would you diagnose?”
“Spinal CT, VQ scan, provide O2, dose with Heparin, and consult for an IVC filter.”
“Do exactly as she says, then tell your resident that I want you off this case.” Deaton says to Isaac. “I’d know you anywhere, you’re the spitting image of your mother. Welcome to the gang.” He smiles at you.
You’ve scrubbed in on Katie’s surgery, you’re in the OR with Scott.“
"All right everybody, it’s a beautiful night to save lives, let’s have some fun.” Scott says as the scrub nurse gloves him.
You spot Kira in the gallery.
After the surgery, Kira comes to find you, “It was a good surgery.”
“Yeah.” You nod.
Kira sits and sighs,“ We don’t have to do that thing where I say something, and then you say something, and then somebody cries, and there’s like a moment…”
“Yuck.” You laugh.
“Good. You should get some sleep. You look like crap.”
You scoff, “I look better than you.”
“It’s not possible.” Kira gets up and leaves.
Scott comes in, glancing at paperwork.
“That was amazing.” You sigh.
“Mmmm.” Scott continues looking at the paperwork.
“You practice on cadavers, you observe, and you think you know what you’re going to feel like standing over that table, but…that was such a high.” Scott looks at you and nods. “I don’t know why anybody does drugs.” You smile.
“Yeah.” Scott nods.
“Yeah.” You repeat.
Scott smiles, “I should go do this.”
“You should.” You nod.
Scott leaves, I’ll see you around.“
"See you around. See ya.”
After work you go to visit your mother. You walk inside the building, stopping a reception. You spot your mother in the corner of the room and you walk over to her.
“Are you the doctor?”
“No. I’m not your doctor. But I am a doctor.” You say.
“What’s your name?”
“It’s me, mom. Y/L/N.”
“All right.” She plays with her watch, “I used to be a doctor, I think.”
You take her hand, “You were a doctor, mom. You were a surgeon.”
Some doodles of my reploidsona which is based on fauns. I’m thinking of naming them either Fauna or Faunus.
They are both an environmental toxicologist who monitors chemicals/pollution in the environment as well as a ranger. So they spend a lot of time alone or in small research groups in the wilderness. They like to try and lure Anoxia out of the ocean.
They have wings which can give them a little more maneuverability in cliff and mountain areas, like boosting upwards and gliding down. They can’t legitimately fly though.
It also allows them to swim by boosting through the water, where the wings can work as rudders. But again the ability is limited, so they don’t swim near as well as aquatic reploids do. The back of the wings double as solar panels.
The horn bit can flip all the way front or back. It can be used as a visor when the sun is too strong, though its main purpose is to provide protection to the head from impacts like falling rocks or branches. It also flips forward when they’re provoked so they can headbutt while protecting their forehead gem.
The feet are special hooves that provide more balance and grip in areas tricky to navigate by foot, like the sides of mountains or ice. They’re especially useful for digging into the ground when charging for a headbutt. The claws/hooves on the hands are for helping them climb, dig, scrape samples, slash away vines, etc. They can be used for striking and slashing attacks but since this isn’t their main purpose it doesn’t make those attacks like, SUPER strong. Just stronger by being pointy.
The vials and capsules on the belt contain different material for collecting samples, testing chemicals, medicine supplies, investigating, etc. The orb on the collar helps to provide long distance communication even in very remote areas or far out in the ocean.
There are rumors they sometimes work for an underground maverick pizza delivery service involving a certain deer, ram, and peach.
Life as a Microscopist
- Q & A with Igor Siwanowicz
“Life as a microscopist” is a series about men and women behind the microscopes. I was very honored to exchange a few messages with Igor Siwanowicz - scientist, photographer and microscopist - who gives us some insight into the biology of the tiny organisms he likes to study, and how he became interested in them and in microscopy. It was all so interesting, I kept everything. Enjoy.
1) About your winning entry at the Nikon Small World: can you tell us more about that organism?
Aquatic bladderworts prefer clean, nutrient-poor ponds and lakes; they satisfy their nitrogen needs by trapping minute prey – water fleas, copepods, rotifers etc. – in specialized organs called bladders, which are considered the most sophisticated trapping organs in the plant kingdom, a true testimony to evolution’s ingenuity.
Finding the specimen was one of those serendipitous events – I stumbled upon bladderwort while collecting dragonfly nymphs for my research in a pond located few miles away from my institute (Janelia Research Campus of HHMI in Ashburn, Virginia). Perhaps it is the perversion of the role reversal when a plant is devouring an animal that makes flesh-eating plants so interesting; I have been fascinated with carnivorous plants since early childhood – watching “Little Shop of Horrors” might have something to do with igniting my fascination. Admittedly, bladderwort is – at the first glance - far less spectacular than, say, a Venus flytrap or a pitcher plant; when magnified though its trap reveals amazing complexity. I had a very fruitful run with this plant – with the samples I collected I was able to produce a series of images, and several of them won prizes.
This pictures depicts the awesomeness of the bladderwort trapping organ and scored the 1st place in 2013 Olympus Bioscapes contest. The image shows the inside of a trap of the aquatic carnivorous plant, humped bladderwort (Utricularia gibba). Several elements of the bladder’s construction are visible in the image, giving some insight into working of this tiny – only 1.5 mm long – but elaborate suction trap. The driving force behind the trapping mechanism is hydrostatic pressure: the plant “cocks” the trap by pumping water out of the bladder, accumulating potential energy in its thick and flexible walls like in the limbs of a bow. Specialized cells called bifid and quadrifid glands are responsible for the task of active transport of water. They line the inner walls and are visible in the image as bright-blue elongated shapes. An unsuspecting prey – usually a tiny aquatic arthropod – is guided toward the trapdoor by antenna-like branches surrounding the entrance. Quite literally, the trap has a “hair trigger” – touching one of the trigger hair cells extending from the bottom of the trapdoor (their bases are visible right in the center of the upper half as 4 small bright circles; they are much better visible in the Nikon contest image where you can see the entrance to the trap (or the bladderwort’s “mouth”)) causes the entrance – or “valve” – to bulge inward. Once the equilibrium is disturbed, the walls rapidly spring back to their initial position and the prey is sucked in within a millisecond (1/1000th of a second), experiencing acceleration of 500 G! In the image, the valve resembles a mosaic-covered Byzantine arch; it is made of a single layer of tiny, densely packed cells regularly arranged in concentric fashion. Once inside, the prey dies of anoxia and is digested by enzymes secreted by the bifid and quadrifid glands.
The intricately shaped objects visible in the lower part of the image are those aforementioned green algae called desmids; two species belonging to the genus Micrasterias and three species of Staurastrum can be identified. Various authors have described algae in Utricularia traps as commensals (algae that thrive and propagate in the nutrient-rich interior of the trap), symbionts (bladderwort benefits from the carbohydrates produced by algae) or as prey. Recent studies show that algae are able to survive only inside older, inactive traps; more than 90% are killed inside vivid, young traps. It may be that late in the season when I collected the specimens, most of the traps were already inactive, which could explain why the trapped desmids seemed to be doing fine.
2) How did you start in the field of microscopy? Do you think that microscopy can be considered a form of art?
My interest in natural sciences and nature photography were developing simultaneously - my parents are biologists and I grew up surrounded by biology textbooks. I enjoyed browsing through the illustrations and photographs long before I learned how to read. It wasn’t until 14 years ago – 2 years into my PhD studies - that I bought my first camera and found myself on the supply side of nature photography, with the special focus on macro technique. I quickly realized that microscopy would perfectly complement that activity and give me an even more intimate perspective of my “models.”
Six years ago - after abandoning protein biochemistry and moving to the field of neurobiology - I finally gained an access to a confocal microscope. For the past four years I’m spending most of my working hours imaging various bits of invertebrate anatomy – mostly dragonflies, since that is our group’s model organism. In this way I managed to merge my extracurricular expertise of macro photography and insect anatomy with scientific approach.
Although it is not the primary objective of scientific visual data, surprisingly many research-related images have aesthetic merit; to fully appreciate the beauty of those often abstract and surreal forms one needs to approach them with an open mind. A French polymath and philosopher of science Jules Henri Poincare said that “the scientist does not study nature because it is useful; he studies it because he delights in it, and he delights in it because it is beautiful”. Not many scientists these days have the privilege and comfort to apply this somewhat utopist approach to their research, but lots do share the appreciation of beauty and are fully aware of the aesthetic aspects of their work. The marriage of scientific approach and artistic talent can be best exemplified by awe-inspiring work of Ernst Haeckel, who’s “Artforms from Nature” is a continuous source of inspiration for me.
Olympus And Nikon contests are organized with such people in mind. Images are rewarded for the artistic merit and visual aspects on par with and often above their scientific importance; that definitely grants those contests a broad appeal among non-experts and contributes to redeeming the image of science as a somber, wonder-less, unexciting affair utterly unintelligible for a layperson.
A bit about sample preparation and data collecting:
Back in the laboratory I embedded isolated traps in agar-agar gel and cut them into 0.5 mm-thick slices with a vibrating razor blade. Due to the chance component inherent to the process, in only 6 out of two dozen or so specimens, the razor passed either through the midline to produce two nearly equal halves, or through the plane parallel to the bladder’s trapdoor – a satisfactory success rate.
To produce the image, I used a laser scanning confocal microscope, a device that collects images in a very different way than a brightfield microscope (your standard biology class microscope). The confocal microscope is a fluorescent microscope; it means that the imaged specimen is illuminated (excited) with light of certain wavelength and emits light of a different, longer wavelength. The source of the excitatory light is a laser; a confocal microscope can be equipped with several lasers producing light of different frequencies (i.e., wavelength, or simply color), since each fluorescent molecule (a pigment that emits light) used in research only absorbs certain specific wavelengths of light. The specimen is illuminated, point by point, by a focused laser beam that moves somewhat like an electron beam producing the familiar scanned image on the phosphorescent surface of a cathode-tube TV or computer monitor. The light emitted from the specimen is collected by the objective and passes through a pinhole aperture that cuts off stray rays of light arriving from fragments of the sample that are not in focus – only light that is emitted from the very thin area (optical slice) within the focal plane can pass. Emitted light is then detected by the microscope’s photodetector (photomultiplier), and the image is reconstructed – point by point – on the computer screen. Because most specimens are much thicker than the focal plane, a series of images - called a “stack” - is collected by moving the specimen up or down. From those images, a three-dimensional image of the sample can be reconstructed.
In most cases samples have to be made fluorescent by the use of dyes or conjugated antibodies specifically binding certain intra- or extracellular structures. To be able to image cellulose (building material of plant’s cell walls) I used Calcofluor White, adye first used in the textile industry for its propensity for binding cellulose fibers but then abandoned because of its toxicity; Calcofluor still finds use in medicine for identification of fungal pathogens in animal tissues.
A confocal microscope “sees” the sample very differently than we do - to our eyes the specimens appear very different than the final image. The amount of ultraviolet light in sunlight is – fortunately! – too low to appreciably excite Calcofluor, and all we see is green from the natural pigment chlorophyll. When illuminated with UV light (405 nm), the dye present in cell walls glows bluish-green. The same short wavelength light is absorbed by chlorophyll, which emits red light.
To produce the image, I recorded emission in three channels (colors) simultaneously. Assignment of the color in the captured image to any given channel is purely arbitrary; however, I do assign blue to the channel recording light of the shortest wavelength, green and red in similar fashion, in the “natural” order. Combining the three channels - three prime color images – into one produces the whole palette of colors – in effect, it is like the microscope had trichromatic “vision,” just as we do.
So apparently, and listen up younger ones because this would have been nice to know, you cannot just treat your body like shit for 20 years and expect it to just be all forgiving about it and cool when you turn 40.
Oh no. Bro has been taking notes this whole time, remembering everything wrong I ever ate. Everything. With extreme prejudice.
So, about 2 months ago, I had an attack of pain in my stomach that went straight through to my back between my shoulder blades. It lasted about 4 hours and it made me sweat it hurt so bad.
Well, I talked to my doctor today (yeah, yeah, I waited too long) and he said it was my gallbladder and that I needed to get established with a primary care physician who will then order an ultrasound and then they will take out my gall bladder. Like with surgery.
Ok, I’m a big baby because I’m crying right now. I watched a surgery once while I was in school and the patient went into convulsions and bit off part of his lower lip because he got hypoxic which means his oxygen level got too low. And then years later, I treated a girl with an anoxic brain injury which means that due to her surgery, her brain went WITHOUT oxygen for too long.
I don’t want surgery! I don’t want to get hypoxic or anoxic!
But if I don’t get it, my gall bladder could get gangrene which could make me very seriously ill or I could die.
So. I’m not okay.
I’m jumping the gun a bit because I haven’t even had the ultrasound yet, but my doctor said the symptoms were classic gallbladder. And you can’t just take out the stones, you take out the whole thing, and that means going to sleep.
So I went to Reddit and asked some anesthesiologists like, Hey, what are the odds of this oxygen depravation thing happening to me during surgery?
And you know what they said?
If you’re overweight, it’s more likely.
Guess who is overweight?
I just don’t even right now.
The cat bite and treatment was seriously scary enough for me. And now my crazy brain is about to be set loose on the hundreds (okay, maybe dozens) of ways the surgery could get complications, the recovery could go wrong, and I could end up with a brain that works even worse than it does now, or a body that doesn’t work right or just plain old die. And the odds of those things are low, and fat people get surgery every day. I’m telling myself that.
And I know that.
But I still don’t want to do this.
Here are some good things that happened today:
I cleaned out 6 bags of garbage from my apartment.
Dan liked my last post where I mentioned donating to his charity.
My doctor is very good.
I got my copy of Turtles All The Way Down.
My cat is healthy.
I did Tai Chi with my 98 year old Grandmom and 70 year old mom.
continuing my last post, i don’t know if it’s just me but the fact that bio med gel can support an isolated brain is really impressive. it means there’s a form of oxygen transport that’s not only accounted for but incredibly reliable, because again, the brain does not tolerate even the slightest of flubs and hypoxia/anoxia causes rapid damage.
in an attempt to explain post-cryogenic syndrome (though frankly the term ‘environmental rejection syndrome’ is a lot more fitting in this case), i like to think that complete submersion in bio med gel for extended periods of time leads to a differentiation in the chemical homeostasis of the entire organism. it’s still a stable physical state, or it wouldn’t be of any good use, but osmosis between the gel and the tissue/organism suspended within the gel comes into play.
additionally, rolling with the “bio med gel doesn’t react well with a compound in the air and forms a caustic byproduct or becomes caustic itself” theory, the act of external exposure as well as breathing air is what likely causes such a violent fatality in cases of people with P-CS.
Climate: Cold to extremely warm; ocean acidification and anoxia, ozone destruction
Aftermath: Permanent ecosystem reorganization; low O2 for >106 years
There’s good reason why the End-Permian extinction is referred to as “The Great Dying”; 95% of all marine families, 53%of all marine families, 84% of marine genera, and 70% of known land species went extinct,
The extinction likely occurred in three stages: 1. Land extinctions over ~40,000 yrs 2. Very abrupt marine extinctions 3. Second phase of land extinctions
Calcifying marine organisms such as brachiopods and bryozoa were the hardest hit, representative of ocean acidification. The last of the Cambrian fauna also died off, and this was the only known mass extinction of insects
So what exactly made the End-Permian extinction so severe? There truly was a perfect storm to make this the deadliest million years in Earth’s history.
Earth had been emerging from a moderate ice age when the largest flood basalt event in history (the Siberian Traps) occurred, which released vast amounts of CO2. The oceans then became increasingly warm, acidic, stratified, and euxinic from decaying organic matter. The atmosphere also became flooded with light (biogenically fixed) C, possibly from seafloor methane hydrates or from coal gas released as a result of heating from the Siberian Traps. Greenhouse gases soon caused global temperatures to spike, leading to massive extinction. Global euxinia in the oceans then became a severe problem, with sulfate reducing bacteria releasing large amounts of H2S, poisoning the oceans and atmosphere and thinning the ozone layer. These systems then created a cycle of positive feedbacks: more die-offs → more euxinia → more H2S → more die-offs.
Marine ecosystems were forever changed after the extinction. Land ecosystems didn’t recover for ~5 My, and O2 levels remained low throughout much of Triassic time.
Click HERE to see all Mass Extinction Monday posts
Hi! So, if you're strangled (by hands) by someone who's really angry and vicious right to the point where you're about to blackout and then get saved, what is there to expect? Can you talk afterwards? How bad is the swelling, the pain? I know you're supposed to get checked by a doctor, but what exactly would they be able to do? And lets imagine you go to the hospital like that and won't tell what/who happened, then I guess the hospital is calling the police, right? Thank you!
WARNING: TRIGGER FOR CHOKING, STRANGULATION, AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE.
Hey there! So your character’s been strangled… eep! That’s a really scary experience!
I’ll actually answer your last question first: at least here in the US, there are only a very few things that hospitals are mandated reporters of:
Suspected child or elder abuse/neglect.
Everything else, to my knowledge, is between your characters and their healthcare providers. Rammed packets of cocaine down your gullet until you had a massive heart attack? Nope, not reported. Contracted a bird disease from an illegal cock fight? Totally on the DL as far as the hospital is concerned. So no, a little choking is not, in fact, automatically reported.
That being said, most medical providers will encourage someone to press charges, whether they want to or not. Most strangulations are related to intimate partner violence, which is a situation that can rapidly turn lethal for the victim.
Now, on to the medicine. Mostly post-strangulations need to be evaluated by doctors for airway swelling. A lot will depend on the exact placement of the hands, amount of force, etc. But most chokes bad enough to make someone almost pass out will likely also produce bruising where the fingers were gripping.
The structures of the airway are both relatively well-defended, and also delicate. They’re pretty solid against direct injury, so a tracheal fracture (literally a broken windpipe) is unlikely (though possible; it’s something they’ll be evaluated for). However, swelling in the airway itself can rapidly become life-threatening if it occurs, and it’s a possible side effect of strangulation. It can occur up to 36 hours after the injury, too, so even after your character goes home, they may yet have serious issues that could even be life-threatening.
I’ll cut to the goodies, which are a list of possible injuries following strangulation:
Voice Changes—May occur in up to 50% of victims,may be as minimal as simple hoarseness (dysphonia) or as severe as complete loss of voice (aphonia).
Swallowing Changes—Due to injury of the larynx and/or hyoid bone. Swallowing may be difficult but not painful (dysphagia) or painful (odynophagia).
Breathing Changes—May be due to hyperventilation or may be secondary to underlying neck and airway injury. The victim may complain of dyspnea (shortness of breath) .Breathing changes may initially appear mild, but underlying injuries may kill the victim up to 36 hours later.
Mental Status Changes—Early symptoms may in-clude restlessness and combativeness due to tempo-rary brain anoxia and/or severe stress reaction.Changes can also be long-term, resulting in amnesiaand psychosis
Involuntary Urination and Defecation
Swelling of the Neck—Edema may be caused by any of the following: internal hemorrhage, injury of any of the underlying neck structures, or fracture of the larynx causing subcutaneous emphysema.• Lung Injury—Aspiration pneumonitis may develop due to the vomit that the patient inhaled during strangulation. Milder cases of pneumonia may also occur hours or days later. Pulmonary edema symptoms may also develop.
Visible Injuries to the Neck—These may include scratches, abrasions, and scrapes. These may be from the victim’s own fingernails as a defensive maneuver but commonly are a combination of lesions caused by both the victim and the assailant’s fingernails. Erythema on the neck may be fleeting, but may demonstrate a detectable pattern. Ecchymoses may not appear for hours or even days. Fingertip bruises are circular and oval, and often faint. A single bruise on the victim’s neck is most frequently caused by the assailant’s thumb
Chin abrasions—May occur as the victim brings their chin down to their chest, to protect the neck.
Ligature Marks—May be very subtle, resembling the natural folds of the neck. They may also be more apparent, reflecting the type of ligature used.Ligature marks are a clue that the hyoid bone maybe fractured.
Petechiae—May be found under the eyelids, periorbital region, face, scalp, and on the neck. Petechiae may occur at and above the area of constriction.
Subconjunctival Hemorrhage—This may occur when there is a particularly vigorous struggle between the victim and assailant.
Neurological Findings—These may include ptosis (droopy eyelid), facial droop, unilateral weakness, paralysis or loss of sensation. (This is an absolute worst case scenario wherein the choke has damaged the carotid artery or the person was choked long enough to cause brain damage – A.S.)
I’ve got my eyes on you human 🐙💀 The #blueringedoctopus - if they bite and release their venom within five to ten minutes, you would begin to experience parasthesias and numbness, progressive muscular weakness and difficulty breathing and swallowing. Nausea and vomiting, visual disturbances and difficulty speaking may also occur. In severe cases, this is followed by flaccid paralysis and respiratory failure, leading to unconsciousness and death due to cerebral anoxia. Interestingly, your heart continues to beat until extreme asphyxia sets in. Some victims report being conscious, but unable to speak or move. They may even appear clinically dead with pupils fixed and dilated. So be afraid human- be very afraid. 🐙💀
I’ll arrange them into categories (multi-chap, oneshots/drabbles, NSFW, and such! I’m prone to missing ones I’ve enjoyed in the past, and probably got buried in my archives asjdlkj so I’m sorry in advance OTL
(This is all based on my opinions/experiences and my approval does NOT determine the quality of anyone’s work!)
Jimmy turned the page of Grandma’s old school textbook. The paper was dry and yellowed, and the pictures were faded and dull.
“Chapter 2.6. Extinctions.
An extinction is an event in which species of living organism die off. A mass extinction is when many species become extinct. Let’s take a look at some of history’s great mass extinctions, and what caused them.
What caused the Ordovician/Silurian mass extinction roughly four-hundred and fourty-four million years ago? Drops in atmospheric
CO2, glaciation and drastic sea level fluctuations, as well as overall climate shifts were responsible for this mass extinction.
What caused the Late Devonian mass extinction roughly three-hundred and sixty-five million years ago? Widespread anoxia in the ocean depths, and the diversification of plants, which lead to further reduction in
and also lead to eutrophication at a time when nearly all life on Earth was aquatic!
What caused the Permian/Triassic mass extinction, that saw the loss of ninety-two percent of all marine life and seventy percent of all terrestrial vertebrates, two-hundred and fifty-two million years ago? Possible causes include Tectonic plate movement, extremely active volcanoes, worldwide aridity, possible asteroid impacts, sudden and severe increases in atmospheric methane, and increased hydrogen sulphide emissions.
What about the Triassic/Jurassic extinction, roughly two-hundred million years ago? Half of the species known to exist on Earth at that time were lost. Scientists aren’t exactly sure on this one, but hypotheses include volcanism, heavy increases in atmospheric greenhouse gasses, gradual climatic shifts – including oceanic acidification and sea level fluctuations, and asteroid impacts.
And the Cretaceous/Palaeogene extinction event? The one that killed the Non-Avian-Dinosaurs – and, for that matter, seventy-five percent of all species at the time – sixty-six million years ago? Well, gradual climate change saw biodiversity slowly decreasing in the lead up to the extinction, but the real kicker was of course the Chicxulub impact. An asteroid or comet at least ten kilometres in diameter that collided with the Earth.
Ten kilometres doesn’t seem like much until you remember that it smacked into the Earth at a speed of about twenty kilometres per second. The impact force was nearly five million times greater than the largest nuclear bomb ever detonated, and melted and vaporised roughly four-thousand six-hundred and sixty cubic kilometres of rock. The impact would have thrown vast quantities of dust and ash into the air, blotting out the sun, causing an impact winter that may have lasted for years (possibly hundreds of years, even).
But what about the Holocene mass extinction? Greenhouse gas levels have risen and continue to rise. Sea levels are rising. Increased ocean acidity is taking heavy tolls on marine life. In addition, populations of otherwise prolific fish species are dropping. Forests are receding, and the ice caps are melting. Global temperatures are likely to increase by 1.7°C to 4.8°C by the end of this century. Current estimates suggest the loss of 140,000 species per year, and this rate is increasing.
What, some are asking, is the cause of this mass extinction? Is it volcanism? Is it asteroid impacts? Is it anoxia of the oceans? Is it sudden increases in atmospheric oxygen due to the emergence of terrestrial plants?”
Jimmy looked up from the book, and laid it down, open, on his lap.
“Grandma?” Jimmy asked, “Did they ever find out what caused the Holocene extinction?”
“Well, Jimmy,” Grandma spoke, her usually dower voice now more upbeat– punctuated by a laugh.
“As it turned out, the primary cause of the Holocene extinction was giant fucking idiots.”
why making leo fitz forget everything would be a poor decision
so, in the time since the season finale most of the speculation (and fiction) around Fitz has been to do with him being in a coma and waking up with no memory of the team and of Jemma. Personally I believe this is the worst route they could possibly take with Fitz’s character (as well as being almost Scientifically inaccurate). Full explanation (including science! under the read more)
Firstly, let’s look at what we know.
- His brain was without oxygen for several minutes. We do not know the extent to that, but we can gather he is suffering from Hypoxia/Anoxia. Hypoxia refers to a lack of oxygen in a general or specific area (in Fitz’s case, the brain) and Anoxia is complete and total lack of Oxygen (most severe). Prognosis depends on whether he experienced Hypoxia/Anoxia. I myself am taking the worst case scenario of Anoxia.
- Severe anoxia will result in coma. Longer the coma, more severe the consequences will be on waking. Some patients in a coma can move in to Persistent Vegetative State. They are highly unlikely to ever to achieve higher functions above a vegitative state. But considering comments by Iain and other cast members I don’t think this is likely.
- Anoxia can have several consequences that all depend on the severity of the condition. Several specific brain areas are more vulnerable to Anoxia leading to some distinct characteristics.