anglo zulu war

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March 29th 1879: Battle of Kambula

On this day in 1879, the Battle of Kambula occurred, marking a decisive moment in the Anglo-Zulu War. The war in South Africa began in 1878 after the murder of several British citizens by Zulus and the Zulu king’s refusal to hand over the perpetrators for trial. However, authorities in Britain had long been seeking pretense to launch an assault on the Zulu Kingdom to consolidate British rule in the area. The indigenous Zulu warriors had some initial success against the European invaders, including at the battle of Isandlwana in January 1879, though this victory was offset by defeat at Rourke’s Drift. Wary of the enemy, British forces in the Zulu Kingdom led by Evelyn Wood fortified an area near Kambula. On March 29th the Zulu army launched an attack on the British position, but their advance was halted by a British mounted force. The Zulu forces continued their attack, and 11,000 fighters charged head-on into a hail of British fire. They sustained heavy losses, but the Zulu army successfully exerted pressure on the British stronghold and forced the defenders to retreat. Despite putting up a considerable attack, the Zulu forces were eventually forced to retreat under British fire. The battle was a decisive British victory, with the defenders losing 29 soldiers and the Zulu up to 3,000. Kambula also severely weakened the Zulu forces, allowing the British to ultimately defeat the Zulu and imprison their king in July. British victory spelled the end of the independence of the Zulu nation in South Africa.

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British Silver-Hilted Presentation Sword

Born in 1849, Edric Frederick Gifford with the grandson of Robert, 1st Baron Gifford, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas and Master of the Rolls. Entering military service with the 83rd Regiment of Foot (County of Dublin), Gifford later joined the 24th Regiment of Foot (aka the South Wales Borderers) as a Lieutenant for the First Ashanti Expedition, part of the Anglo-Ashanti Wars which took place in and around the territory of the Gold Coast Colony, serving as a Special Service Officer training and leading teams of native fighters. Lord Gifford’s service as a highly capable reconnaissance officer was noted in his Victoria Cross Citation, in particular his actions in the taking of Becquah (modern day Bekwai), in which he and his unit were the first to breech the town’s defenses in advance of the main unit. Following the Ashanti Expedition, Lord Gifford served as Aide-de-Camp to General Garnet Woolseley during the Anglo-Zulu War, and finished his career as a brevet Major. After leaving the service, Lord Gifford served as Colonial Secretary to Western Australia from 1880 to 1883, Colonial Secretary to Gibraltar from 1883 to 1887, and made a director of the British South Africa Company in 1889. Upon his death in 1911, the title of Baron Gifford passed to his younger brother, and remains active today. The sword measures 38 inches in overall length, with a lightly curved 32 inch single fuller blade, numbered “18847” on the spine, with the etched “HENRY/WILKINSON/PALL MALL/LONDON” address on the left ricasso, gilt brass “HW” proof seal on the right, and scroll decorated panels up each side, featuring scroll designs and a Queen Victoria cipher on the left. The right side bears the inscription “LIEUTENANT EDRIC FREDERICK LORD GIFFORD 24TH REGIMENT OF FOOT/26th FEBRUARY 1873 WISHING HIM GOD SPEED, FROM HIS FRIENDS IN THE 83rd./NON SINE NUMINE”, the final Latin line translating to “not without divine favor”. The hilt hardware is silver finished, with attractive raised scrollwork on the 3-branch guard, featuring a cut-through Victoria cipher in a wreath, additional scrollwork running down to the pommel, a woven gold wire sword knot hung from a piercing in the guard, and a multiple strands of twisted silver wire around the ivory grip, which is carved with raised scroll designs to compliment those on the hilt. The metal sheath also bears a silver finish, with near full coverage engraving, showing vine patterns along the suspension bands and down the front and back, scroll accents, and a series of floral patterns on the drag and down the sides, set into an interwoven geometric pattern.

Gerbera - simple cheerfulness

The Gerbera hybrida hasn’t even existed for much more than a century, and it’s already joined the ranks behind roses, carnations, chrysanthemums, and tulips as one of the most popular flowers in the world. Maybe it’s its uncanny flowerness that does it- when you look at them they look too much like a cartoon, almost plastic, made by somebody told to sculpt the most generic flower-shape they can imagine.

What we know as the Gerbera is an intensively cultivated hybrid between two South African species, viridifolia and jamesonii- the latter named after Robert Jameson, a Scottish immigrant to South Africa who fought in the Anglo-Zulu war who dug for gold in Barberton and sent specimens of the Transvaal daisies growing there to England. However, it’s not the English that really popularised the plant. Of course, the biggest commercial benefactors of this South African native flower were (who else) the Dutch. Dutch breeding programmes made the Gerbera the way we know it today, and even now it’s still changing: a sturdier stem, brighter colours with more variety, less light response… Anything to make a ‘perfect’ flower.

If the Gerbera is the perfect semiotic base example of “flower”, then that’s all it will ever need to be. It’s the most simple, surface gesture: cheerfulness with neither depth nor history. A perfect plant of artifice.

(illustration and writing by Mira Gryseels)

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January 22nd 1879: Battle of Isandlwana and defence of Rorke’s Drift

On this day in 1879, during the Anglo-Zulu War, British forces were defeated by Zulu warriors at the Battle of Isandlwana. On the same day, a small contingent of British soldiers successfully repelled a Zulu attack at Rorke’s Drift. The war in South Africa began in 1878 after the murder of several British citizens by Zulus, and Zulu king Cetshwayo’s refused to accept an ultimatum which required the Zulu to disband their army. However, British authorities had been seeking pretense to launch an assault on the Zulu Kingdom to subordinate the indepednent nations into a Confederation of South Africa. The indigenous Zulu warriors had some initial success against the European invaders, whose self-confidence made them unable to understand the Zulus’ fighting prowess. One of the major Zulu victories was at the battle of Isandlwana on January 22nd 1879, where, despite British technological superority, they captured the British camp and killed over 1,300 soldiers. The defeat was a humiliation for the British forces, who considered themselves far superior to the Zulu ‘savages’, as they called them. As authorities sought to cover up the scale of the defeat, they seized on the defense of Rorke’s Drift. The small garrison had come under attack on the same day as the battle, and was successfully defended against thousands of Zulu by 140 British soldiers over the course of 12 hours. They extolled Rorke’s Drift as a heroic display and a lesson in British fortitude, exaggerating its importance to diminish the impact of Isandlwana; 11 Victoria Crosses were awarded to the defenders. Their attempt was successful, and the defence was celebrated by the public, becoming one of the most famous stories in British military history. The Anglo-Zulu War ended in July 1879 when the British captured the Zulu king and burned their capital. British victory spelled the end of an independent Zulu nation in South Africa, and resulted in the division of Zululand.

More Harry trivia and facts
  • When they were younger, it was William who was the “naughty one.” He was nicknamed “Billy the Basher,” and Harry was overshadowed and bossed around by his big brother.
  • At Highgrove, the family’s country estate, Harry had a lop-eared rabbit. It lived in a hutch in a corner of the stable yard that he and his brother cleaned out themselves. He also loved the sheep and would spend hours filling their water buckets, giving them hay, and picking up the lambs.
  • At Jane Mynors nursery school in London, which he entered at age three, little Harry didn’t find it easy to mix with other children and was picked on by bullies
  • But Harry soon found his way into toddler society by playing a goblin in the Christmas play. The next year, he even had a speaking role as a shepherd.
  • One of his favorite films is Zulu. It’s a 1964 film about a battle in the Anglo-Zulu War in Southern Africa in 1879.
  • In his first year at Eton, the other boys didn’t easily warm to Harry because he gave off the impression of being smug. He struggled with academics and with comparisons with his brother, but he worked off his anger on the sports field and in the Drawing Schools, where he painted.
  • Harry’s military career began during his third year at Eton, when he signed up for the Combined Cadet Force. He reached the highest rank of Cadet Officer by his last year
  • During his gap year, he took English Rugby Football Union coaching qualifications and helped coach in five different schools. He’s now a patron of a program to introduce the sport to more schools in the country.
  • He is also a documentary film maker. When he was 19, Prince Harry made a documentary titled “The Forgotten Kingdom” focusing on the dilemma of AIDS victims in Africa.
  • In 2003 he was the Captain of Britain’s national school polo team.
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July 4th 1879: End of Anglo-Zulu War

On this day in 1879, the Zulu capital of Ulundi was captured by the British, thus ending the Anglo-Zulu War. The war in South Africa began in 1878 after the murder of several British citizens by Zulus and Zulu king Cetshwayo’s refusal to accept an ultimatum which required the Zulu to surrender parts of their sovereignty. However, authorities in Britain had long been seeking pretense to launch an assault on the Zulu Kingdom to consolidate British rule in the area. The indigenous Zulu warriors had some initial success against the European invaders, including at the battle of Isandlwana in January 1879, though this victory was offset by defeat at Rourke’s Drift. The Zulu forces were decisively defeated in March 1879 at the Battle of Kambula, which paved the way for British victory in the war. On July 4th 1879, British forces attacked the royal villages of King Cetshwayo at Ulundi, where they defeated the last of the Zulu soldiers and burned the capital; this defeat essentially marked the end of the Anlgo-Zulu war. Over 1,000 Zulu died in the fighting, and Cetshwayo fled, eventually being captured in the Ngome forest in August and exiled. British victory spelled the end of independence of the Zulu nation in South Africa, and resulted in the division of Zululand.

myheatoppressedbrain  asked:

asshole england is rare and precious and i need more of him and his historically accurate dick moves

i shall endeavour to draw more of that

England was a successful empire because he managed to balance being a dick with portraying himself as a benefactor

but yeah. That’s why blushing!uke England just doesn’t compute in my brain. You’re telling me the guy who forced Qing China into the Treaty of Nanking was this blushing uke? The guy who fought and won the Anglo-Zulu wars that grabbed much of South Africa?

Like nope… Human AUs leave more scope for different characterisation. But if he’s gonna be “England” imo that characterisation is like wrong? Just my personal view.

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Today in Black History- February 8th, 2014

  • On this day in 1990, Andy Rooney suspended for racist comments. Andy Rooney, a CBS “60 Minutes” commentator, received a 90-day suspension from work because of racist remarks about African Americans attributed to him by Chris Bull, a New York-based reporter for “The Advocate,” a bi-weekly national gay & lesbian newsmagazine published in Los Angeles. Bull quoted Rooney as having said during an interview: “I’ve believed all along that most people are born with equal intelligence, but Blacks have watered down their genes because the less intelligent ones are the ones that have the children. They drop out of school early, do drugs, and get pregnant.”

  • On this day in 1996, Figure skater Debi Thomas wins the Women’s Singles. Debra Janine “Debi” Thomas ( is an American figure skater and physician. She is the 1986 World champion, two-time U.S. national champion and 1988 Olympic bronze medalist, having taken part in the Battle of the Carmens at those games.Thomas became the first African American to win the Women’s Singles of the U.S. National Figure Skating Championship competition, was a pre-med student at Stanford University.

  • On this day in 1986, Oprah Winfrey becomes the first African American woman to host a nationally syndicated talk show.Oprah Gail Winfrey  is an American media proprietor, talk show host, actress, producer, and philanthropist. Winfrey is best known for her multi-award-winning talk show The Oprah Winfrey Show which was the highest-rated program of its kind in history and was nationally syndicated from 1986 to 2011. She has been ranked the richest African-American of the 20th century, the greatest black philanthropist in American history,and is currently North America’s only black billionaire. She is also, according to some assessments, the most influential woman in the world. In 2013, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Barack Obama and an honorary doctorate degree from Harvard.

  • On this day in 1985, Brenda Renee Pearson an official court reporter for the House of Representatives was the first black female to record the State of the Union message delivered by the president in the House chambers.

  • On this day in 1978, Leon Spinks defeated Muhammad Ali for heavyweight boxing championship. Ali regained the title on September 15 and became the person to win the title three times. Spinks is an American former boxer, who had an overall record of 26 wins, 17 losses and three draws as a professional, with 14 of those wins by knockout. In only his eighth professional bout, Spinks won the undisputed world heavyweight championship when he beat Muhammad Ali on February 15, 1978, in what was considered one of the biggest upsets in boxing history. However, he was stripped of the WBC title for fighting Ali in an unapproved rematch seven months later, which he lost by a 15-round unanimous decision. Besides being heavyweight champion and his characteristic gap-toothed grin (due to losing two and later all four of his front teeth), Spinks gained notoriety for the disaster which befell his career following the loss to Ali.

  • On this day in 1974, Lieutenant-Colonel Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana, president of Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), ousted the prime minister, dissolved the parliament and suspended the 1970 constitution. Major General Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana was the second president of Upper Volta (since 1984 renamed Burkina Faso), in power from January 3, 1966 to November 25, 1980. He held the additional position of Prime Minister from February 8, 1974 to July 7, 1978.
  • On this day in 1968, Gary Coleman was born in Zion, Illinois. Gary Wayne Coleman was an American actor, known for his childhood role as Arnold Jackson in the American sitcom Diff’rent Strokes (1978–1986) and for his small stature as an adult. He was described in the 1980s as “one of television’s most promising stars”. After a successful childhood acting career, Coleman struggled financially later in life. In 1989, he successfully sued his parents and business advisor over misappropriation of his assets, only to declare bankruptcy a decade later. in 2003, he was a candidate for the California recall election and later on placed 8th out of 135 candidates, receiving 14,242 votes. 

  • On this day in 1968, Officers killed three students during demonstration on the campus of South Carolina State in Orangeburg, South Carolina. Students were protesting segregation at an Orangeburg bowling alley. The Orangeburg massacre is the most common name given to an incident in which nine South Carolina Highway Patrol officers in Orangeburg, South Carolina, fired into a crowd of protesters demonstrating against segregation at a bowling alley near the campus of South Carolina State College, a historically black college. Three men were killed and twenty-eight persons were injured; most victims were shot in the back. One of the injured was a pregnant woman. She had a miscarriage a week later due to her beating by the police. It was the first unrest on a university campus resulting in deaths of protesters in the U.S.The event pre-dated the 1970 Kent State shootings and Jackson State killings, in which the National Guard at Kent State, and police and state highway patrol at Jackson State killed student protesters demonstrating against the United States invasion of Cambodia during the Vietnam War.

  • On this day in 1964, Malcolm X founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity. Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little and also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz] (Arabic: الحاجّ مالك الشباز‎), was an African-American Muslim minister and a human rights activist. To his admirers he was a courageous advocate for the rights of blacks, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans; detractors accused him of preaching racism and violence. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history. The Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) was a Pan-Africanist organization founded by Malcolm X in 1964. The OAAU was modeled on the Organisation of African Unity, which had impressed Malcolm X during his visit to Africa in April and May 1964. The purpose of the OAAU was to fight for the human rights of African Americans and promote cooperation among Africans and people of African descent in the Americas.

  • On this date in 1944, Harry S. McAlpin was the first African American journalist admitted to a white house press conference.McAlpin covered Presidents Roosevelt and Truman for fifty-one black newspapers. He was also a Navy war correspondent and spokesman for the Department of Agriculture. Later McAlpin practiced law in Louisville, Kentucky, and was president of the local chapter of the NAACP. He died in 1985.

  • On this day in 1925, Marcus Garvey was taken to Atlanta Federal Penitentiary and incarcerated for his conviction of mail fraud. Students staged a strike at Fisk University to protest the policies of the white administration. He was later on deported back to Jamaica from New Orleans after Coolidge commuted his sentence.Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr., ONH was a Jamaican political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator who was a staunch proponent of the Black nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, to which end he founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL). He founded the Black Star Line, part of the Back-to-Africa movement, which promoted the return of the African diaspora to their ancestral lands.Prior to the twentieth century, leaders such as Prince Hall, Martin Delany, Edward Wilmot Blyden, and Henry Highland Garnet advocated the involvement of the African diaspora in African affairs. Garvey was unique in advancing a Pan-African philosophy to inspire a global mass movement and economic empowerment focusing on Africa known as Garveyism. Promoted by the UNIA as a movement of African Redemption, Garveyism would eventually inspire others, ranging from the Nation of Islam to the Rastafari movement (which proclaims Garvey as a prophet).Garveyism intended persons of African ancestry in the diaspora to “redeem” the nations of Africa and for the European colonial powers to leave the continent. His essential ideas about Africa were stated in an editorial in the Negro World entitled “African Fundamentalism”, where he wrote: “Our union must know no clime, boundary, or nationality… to let us hold together under all climes and in every country”

  • On this day in 1894, Congress repeals the Enforcement Act which makes it easier for some states to disenfranchise African American voters.The Enforcement Acts were three bills passed by the United States Congress between 1870 and 1871. They were criminal codes which protected blacks’ right to vote, to hold office, to serve on juries, and receive equal protection of laws. The laws also allowed the federal government to intervene when states did not act. These acts were passed following the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which gave full citizenship to anyone born in the United States or freed slaves, and the Fifteenth Amendment, which banned racial discrimination in voting. At the time, the lives of all newly freed slaves, and their political and economic rights were being threatened. This threat led to the creation of the Enforcement Acts.

  • On this day in 1884, Cetshwayo, king of the Zulus, died. Cetshwayo kaMpande was the King of the Zulu Kingdom from 1872 to 1879 and their leader during the Anglo-Zulu War (1879). His name has been transliterated as Cetawayo, Cetewayo, Cetywajo and Ketchwayo. He famously led the Zulu nation to victory against the British in the Battle of Isandlwana.

  • On this day in 1734, Intendant Gilles Hocquart issued an ordinance to curb slave escapes, directing the militia to recover a runaway and imposing fines on those who aided him in New France (now called Quebec). Hocquart was born in 1694, in Sainte-Croix, Mortagne-au-Perche to Jean-Hyacinthe Hocquart. From September, 1729 to August, 1748, Hocquart served as Intendant of New France, this being the longest lasting intendancy contract in the colony’s history. Hocquart put his faith in the Canadian bourgeoisie as the main player in the development of a profitable economy for the colony. Although his ideas were grand, he did not recognize the flaws that were already impeding the economy at a smaller scale. After a few rentable years, New France’s fragile economy began to crumble, and by the end of his contract, Hocquart was held responsible for too many extraodinary expenses. He was called home and replaced by Francois Bigot. Nonetheless, the years between 1737 and 1741 were among the most prosperous in the history of New France.

The Last Sleep of the Brave by Alphonse de Neuville, 1881.

The painting shows the bodies of British Army officers Coghill and Melville, who we charged with rescuing the flags of the 24th Regiment following the disaster at the battle of Isandlwana, January 22nd 1879. Both officers were caught and killed by pursuing Zulu warriors.

The painting has several inaccuracies. Firstly, the 17th Lancers present in the painting didn’t leave Britain for South Africa until months after Isandlwana. Secondly, the painting shows the Regimental Colour of the 24th Regiment, when in reality Coghill and Melville had been carrying the Queen’s Colour (the Union Jack) of the regiment. Lastly, it shows them still in possession of the flag, when in reality they lost it in the river they’d been fording just before being caught and killed. The flag was later safely recovered downstream by a British patrol. 

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On this day in 1879 the defence of the mission station of Rorke’s Drift, under the command of Lieutenant John Chard of the Royal Engineers, takes place. The battle immediately followed the British Army’s defeat at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879, and continued into the following day, 23 January.

Just over 150 British and colonial troops successfully defended the garrison against an intense assault by 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu warriors. The massive, but piecemeal, Zulu attacks on Rorke’s Drift came very close to defeating the tiny garrison but were ultimately repelled. Eleven Victoria Crosses were awarded to the defenders, along with a number of other decorations and honours, no other regiment has been awarded more VC’s for a single action since. 

The action was forever immortalized by the 1964 film Zulu.