what does it take to be a skald? what special things do i need to do? Much thanks
Sæll (eða sæl) vinur, (Hello friend,)
I must say that I am no skald. Although I have chosen to bear the title, I have not actually earned it. I hope to be able to eventually say otherwise, though. Yet, it really does all depend on how we choose to treat the ‘profession’ today. Back in the Viking Age, though, the requirements were quite steep and often required a lifetime of dedication. Being a skald was actually a prestigious position to have in society.
Also, both men and women (Jórunn Skáldmær being my favorite) could be considered a skald, although it was more common for men than it was for women (though, we might be able to debate that, given that sources could have had a bias against truly considering all of the women, but perhaps that could be a discussion for a later time).
I am no expert about skalds, nor their poetry. I am far better with prose and the Icelandic sagas. Still, I will tell you what I know, and perhaps that will at least give you a place to begin this journey. I may leave certain things out, but hopefully nothing that is too crucial.
The Expectations of a Skald:
Anyway, to be a skald (in historical terms), there are a few essential requirements:
A skald must memorize various poetic meters so that he or she may recite verse instinctively. Many skalds are able to conjure up insults and praises without any immediate preparation.(1.)
A skald must have intimate knowledge of mythological material, so that he or she may make use of the hundreds of kennings and heiti(2.) that aid in maintaining proper meter and rhyme. Yet, these kennings did not always have to pertain to myth.
A skald must memorize historical events and people, especially that which would be relevant to those currently in prestigious positions. They would be your patrons, after all.
A skald must know various genealogies, most importantly those of the most prestigious people within society.
A skald must often have many key stories and popular poems memorized, such as that of Sigurd, the slayer of Fafnir.
A skald must have intimate familiarity with language (Old Norse), so that he or she is able to create new kennings and use synonyms to maintain proper meter.
In short, a skald is a person who is well-versed in mythology, history, and lore. After that, the skald is expected to be able to recite those stories in poetic form, which would have involved singing and sometimes performance. This meant a lot of memorization and a strong command of language. A skald would be responsible for historical knowledge, especially in terms of specific people and their families. Skalds were also a critical part to the allocation of fame and honor within society. A person’s reputation depended on the songs a skald would sing, after all.
Reevaluating the Skald:
Regardless, those requirements are rather steep. Yet, I think we should take a moment to reassess what it means to be a skald in our own time, rather than being so strict to the standards of a past age. If we don’t, then the title of skald would nearly be unobtainable. The emphasis on memorization and spontaneity, for example, may not be as crucial in our current age.
There are two options: we can be strict and maintain the ‘sacredness’ of the tradition by leaving it unchanged, or we can lessen the strict need for memorization in favor for general familiarity and a focus on the quality of knowledge and artistic interpretation. The answer is not mine alone to determine, but I would favor a ‘modernized’ approach, with caution.
Today, I tend to consider a skald as someone who is familiar with history and lore, but also with language. Given those requirements, there is actually some degree of flexibility, then, to who could become a skald. The poetry itself is important to maintain without much change, but the approach to composing that poetry can be more open (being able to write it out in advance, rather than speaking it off the top of your head all the time).
How to Develop these Skills:
As mentioned above, you should know a considerable amount of history and lore. As a skald, you would be expected to know stories from the past, both for retelling and for references in other works. Start by reading mythological material, folklore, and even history books. Yet, the history you are after is not how society functioned, but rather the stories told about powerful people, or even people you admire enough to sing or compose about.
Yet, we skalds-in-training are in luck! A good man by the name of Snorri Sturluson just happened to write a book that is essentially a handbook for skalds. The entire Prose Edda, which you have likely already heard of before, has two sections specifically for skalds: Skáldskarpamál and Háttatal. Each of these sections tells us how various aspects of mythology are to be used in skaldic verse, as well as discussing the details and structures involved therein.
I recommend the Anthony Faulkes translation, which can be found either online (for free) or in a book format.
I recommend you start there.
While studying history and lore, work on language. Old Norse is likely the language of choice for most contemporary skalds that work with traditional material, though, technically the term ‘skald’ still applies to modern languages and modern poets. After all, skáld is still used in Icelandic for poet, for example.
Personally, I feel that we should compose skaldic verse in living languages, so that we may keep the tradition alive and well, rather than keeping it confined in the past. Though, I can understand the other sides of that debate. In the end, the choice of language is yours to make.
Personally, I prefer to compose in Icelandic, but you could technically pick whatever Scandinavian language you prefer. Honestly, you could even compose in English, if that is what you would prefer. I may be a bit too flexible about it, but do what will make you the most happy and comfortable. English would also expand your audience. I would compose in Icelandic and offer a translation, but, again, it is up to you, my friend.
The only special requirements, then, would be reading up on history, lore, and language. Start there and see where it takes you. Gradually you will find yourself becoming more and more like the traditional skalds of the Viking Age. It takes time, but don’t lose courage. Honestly, I have played with the thought of starting a ‘skaldic school’ of sorts, but that would be something more of a community for lovers of Norse lore and language to gather and help one another to learn and improve themselves. Although that is nothing that currently exists, you can always feel free to send me a message. I would be more than happy to discuss any of these things with you at any time, if that is something you would find helpful.
Otherwise, I wish you the best of luck. If you need anything along the way, please do let me know.
Með vinsemd og virðingu, (With friendliness and respect,) Fjörn
1. Here is a breakdown and an example of dróttkvætt (Court-meter):
Each segment has eight lines.
There are two four-lined stanzas that make it up, called helmingar.
Each line features six syllables.
Three of these per line are stressed syllables.
Three alliterative staves per line pair (bolded below):
þung til þessar göngu,
þinn, kinnalá minni.
All vowels alliterate with one another.
Even lines have one alliterative stave — höfuðstafr (head stave).
Odd lines have two alliterative staves.
There are two rhyming syllables per line.
The second rhyme always falls on the last stress.
Odd lines have half-rhyme (the vowel can change, but not consonant clusters).
Even lines have full rhyme.
Word order can be quite flexible.
Here is a full example of skaldic verse in dróttkvætt:
Títt erum verð at vátta, vætti ber ek at ek hætta þung til þessar göngu, þinn, kinnalá minni. Margr velr gestr þar er gistir, gjöld, finnumsk vér sjaldan, Ármóði liggr, œðri, ölðra dregg í skeggi. — Egill Skallagrímsson
Translation: I’m eager to acknowledge your meal with my cheek-surge (kenning for vomit). I bear heavy witness in venturing to come here. Many a guest pays a dearer price where they stay; we seldom meet. The dregs of ale lie in Ármóðr’s beard.
2. Kennings and heiti are round-about ways of referring to things. An example of a kenning would be using the word ‘water-horse’ or even ‘fjord-serpent’ (my personal favorite) to refer to a ship. With kennings, there are many ways to refer to the same object. These could get quite complicated, such as ‘the wound-sea’s reed’, where ‘wound-sea’ refers to blood and a ‘reed of blood’ is a sword. Heiti are similar, but use other references to refer to the same figure. An example of this might be using Ygg for Odin, instead of just saying Odin.
Two hearts that beat as one,
we were comrades in the woods, men who shared a bed
and the same deep sleep after heavy fighting
in strange territories. Apprentices of Scáthach, we would ride together to explore the dark woods.
“I’d welcome any other fate, than to fight you, Fer Diad.”
The Ultraterrestrial/Interdimensional, Fairy, Missing 411 connection explained perfectly.
(I did not write this)
I am an avid fisherman and hiker living in Southern New England who also has an interest in the Fortean and occult. Needless to say when I was made aware of your body of work in relation to unexplained disappearances, my curiosity was piqued. Over this past winter I have read both the Eastern and Western installments of the North American Missing 411 series. The quality of the research you have accomplished is remarkable. Also, the efforts you have made in pushing the National Parks Service in relinquishing more information on these cases deserves a thank you. My understanding is that the amount of time you have devoted to this project is on par with that of a full time job, and the quality of the work reflects that.
In addition to thanking you for your work, I am also writing you with some observations I have on the 411 phenomenon. The pattern outlined in the North American 411 books of sudden disappearances in rural settings, experienced outdoorsmen becoming inexplicably lost, clothing found missing or inside out, and survivors experiencing either no recollection or severely impeded recollections, fits a much older phenomenon. It is found in various folklores the world over. In each incarnation of it, it is described similarly, even among cultures separated by thousands of miles and hundreds of years.
There are countless stories and traditions centered around a race of non-human entities who occupy the world alongside us, outside our perception, yet occasionally pushing into it. They’ve been called fairies, elves, dwarves, puccas, boggarts, djinn, “The Fair Folk” elementals and countless other names. They have likely been derided as demons and worshipped as gods. The late Fortean John Keel referred to them as “Ultraterrestrials”, visitors not from another planet, but from rather a facet of this one that we aren’t typically familiar with. It’s been posited that they actually account for the bulk of the ET phenomenon and are also behind the more biologically unliekly cryptids.
Regardless of the name, the description of their actions is always the same: mischievous tricksters who specialize in abducting humans, confusing and leading travelers astray, having dominion over nature and the weather, being associated with particular locations and landmarks, and having a confused preoccupation human clothing. All of these factors combined makes the Ultraterrestrial phenomenon an interesting potential culprit in the Missing 411 cases.
Perhaps the most notorious trait of these beings is their penchant for abducting humans as well as tricking travelers. An excerpt from 17th century guide on the paranormal and the occult gives this description of it
“And many such have been taken away by the said spirits, for a fortnight or month together, being carried with them in their chariots through the air, over hills and dales, rocks and precipices, till at last they have been found lying in some meadow or mountain, bereaved of their senses.”
The fairy abduction phenomenon is best known in regards to “changelings”, human infants that are stolen away and are replaced with a stand in of some variety. However, there are many accounts of fairies abducting adults as well. Alleged reasons as to why fairies would abduct humans included punishment for perceived disrespect, interbreeding with fairies to strengthen their bloodline (a similarity to the modern UFO abduction phenomenon), and in some folklore accounts, to utilize human talents, such as musicianship, for fairy entertainment. One account of the phantom light phenomenon know as “Will O the Wisp” states that the lights hanging in some forests are the captured souls of humans abducted by fairies.
Fairies were said to carry humans away into their world by abruptly entering solid objects such as large boulders, crags, and earthen mounds. In many of the cases you outline, people go missing suddenly while a companion has their backed turned. Others are seemingly the victim of an abductor who infiltrates an area with impossible, almost supernatural stealth. Some are even discovered in areas thoroughly searched by SAR, as if placed there after the area was combed. And often, recovered victims’ conditions were far superior to than what weather would warrant, as if they were kept somewhere out of the elements. Also, tracking dogs are unable to pick up a scent in many of your cases, as if the victim has gone off the face of the Earth. Entities such as these that do not seem to be entirely physical and would be able to enter our “sphere of sensation,” reality as we know it, and then exit, bringing their captive with them, would potentially be able to achieve all of this.
Furthermore, upon returning, fairy abductees would have a very incomplete account of what happened to them as well as experiencing missing time. Abductees would feel as if they had been held captive for minutes, but in fact it had been hours or days. This matches the high incidence of hazy memories and missing time in living 411 recoverees.
Related to their abduction behavior, fairies were said to hold great powers of influence over human perception and were adept at misleading travelers. Through an ability known as “glamour” fairies are said to be able to affect human perception to such an extent that they could make their victims hallucinate. Through glamour, fairies could make a pile of leaves appear to be a vast treasure or a banquet of food. Also, glamour could allow fairies to persuade humans to do dangerous and counter intuitive acts.
A great example of this is a tale from the Cherokee Indians of North Carolina regarding their little people, which they called the Yunwi Tsundsi. They were said to leave small human like prints in the snow, but were dangerous to follow, as the little people would throw stones at them or put them under a spell. The story goes that a Cherokee hunter followed the Yunwi Tsundsi tracks through the mountains until he found them dancing in a cave. He stayed with them for sixteen days while they fed him and cared for him. During this time, his friends had abandoned their search efforts, thinking him dead. Eventually, the little people brought him partly home, until coming upon a creek. They told him that his home was across the creek, and that he must cross. Halfway across, he turned to look back, and they were gone. The creek was very deep, and being the dead of winter, his legs were badly frozen, and he died shortly after.
Fairy glamour could also be used into confusing travelers and leading them astray. The Celtic-Anglo term for this phenomenon was “pixie-led.” While one was pixie-led, they may find that a familiar woodland becomes woefully confusing as they pass the same set of landmarks continuously as they travel in circles. Others may trudge into a treacherous bog, believing themselves to be walking on a dry trail. In some accounts, victims hear a disembodied laughter, or feel as if they’re being followed by a malevolent pursuer.
An account from 1935 in County Mayo Ireland tells of a girl who found herself pixie-led. The girl claimed an invisible force prevented her from passing, and would even turn her around to the direction that she came. This continued until dusk, when she could see searchers looking for her, although they could not see her nor could they hear her cries for help. Eventually, the barrier lifted as suddenly as it came on, and she was allowed to leave.
Throughout both the Eastern and Western installments there was the mind boggling recurrence of experienced outdoorsmen seemingly violating everything that their well informed judgement and common sense would tell them. 411 accounts were replete with abandoned firearms, crossings of icy rivers, trudging through feet of snow, small children walking miles uphill and thousands of feet in elevation. All stark violations of common sense, and all done as if something was compelling them or affecting their mental faculties. As can be seen from the extensive history of fairy lore, perhaps something was.
One of the most odd aspects of the pattern you have outlined in these cases is that bad weather strikes following these disappearances, hindering search efforts. This occurs with such regularity one would almost suspect that there may be an intelligence guiding these weather events. An aspect of some fairy lore ascribes unto them ability to control the weather. Some fairies are said to hold special dominion over the wind, while others were said to bring on rain and snow. In Russian folklore there is a forest steward known as the Leshiye, a sometimes ferocious protector of the woods who would intimidate humans with their control over the weather. While it is entirely possible that this is just folk superstition, it is certainly a trait that again shows correlation to the 411 pattern.
Another aspect of the 411 pattern is clusters, the fact that these disappearances are centered around certain areas, with sometimes similar cases happening mere miles from another. Just as how 411 cases are geographically concentrated, so too are faires. Fairies are not found everywhere, and they are said to favor certain locations more than others to the extent that some locations are infamously associated with them. Similarly, Ultraterrestrials are paired with the advent of high strangeness and “flaps” of Fortean activity. Weird critters, lights in the sky, and odd visitors seem to occur in some places far more than others, and often at once.
Specific rock formations, mountains, hills, burial mounds, effigy mounds, and bodies of water have all been said to be fairy hotspots. Iceland is a prime example of a modern culture in which the hidden folk are still revered, and there, this belief in fairy locations is so strong that highway projects are diverted to avoid disturbing elven ground.
Related to this is that it is often believed that human civilization and development have a repulsive effect on fairies. As such, it is said that they are far more frequently encountered in highly rural environments. This is also true of these very specific disappearances. Furthermore, our national parks would be especially fertile soil for them as they are intentionally undeveloped.
Many 411 locations have their histories of high strangeness and/or Ultraterrestrial/fairy legends. In Janet Bord’s book Fairies: Real Encounters With Little People there is an account of a woman witnessing a ring of dancing blue fairies on Mount Shasta. Glastonbury Mountain in Vermont sits in a high strangeness area known as the “Bennington Triangle” and according to Native American legend, is the home of a man eating stone. Crater Lake has the following reputation among some of the Klamath people:
“People were stolen and taken down into Crater lake by beings there. Some say they have found no water in the lake. Instead there were rocks as big as trees and deep tunnels in the bottom.
There are animals, snakes, and a sort of people who live at (or in) the ocean.”
And Alden Johnson went missing in Rehoboth Massachusetts in 1934, a town that makes up a corner of the high strangeness area called the “Bridgewater Triangle.” This swampy area of Southeastern Massachusetts has held court to UFOs, large hairy bipeds, thunderbirds, and a race of little people dubbed “Puckwudgies” by the Wompanoag tribe. Like every other race of little people, Puckwudgies were said to delight in kidnapping humans, tricking them, and leading them astray in the wilderness. They were also said to capture and use the lights of human souls to lure people into the woods, an alarming parallel to the Will O The Wisp of Anglo-Celtic lore.
Many 411 locations likely have had a historical reputation as a place where strange things happen and bizarre entities are encountered. As you yourself pointed out, the word “Devil” is recurring in many of the series’ place names. And although the word in some cases could be a reference to a rugged and unforgiving landscape, I do not think that this is the case for all.
Researcher Loren Coleman in her book Mysterious America has compiled a list of American locations belonging to the Devil, and many of them are sites of high strangeness. Examples in her research include Devil’s Lake in Wisconsin, Devil’s Kitchen in Illinois, Devil’s Den in New Hampshire and the Diablo Valley of California.
Also in her work she makes mention of the Algonquin word “Hockomock" which means “place where the spirits dwell” and its derivative “Hoccomocco” which means “evil spirit.” The most notable place to feature this term is the Hockomock Swamp of Southeastern Massachusetts, which is the heart of the Bridgewater Triangle. In an interesting coincidence, the English settlers had their own name for this swamp: “Devil’s Swamp.”
A note worth making on this is that in Ireland the word “Fairy” is used much in the same way our place names utilize “Devil” as is “Djinn” in the Middle East and “Boggart” in England.
Lastly, there is another element to some 411 cases that leads me to think that there is something odd associated with these locations. In some of these cases, searchers or individuals close to the case acted in ways that would suggest that they had special knowledge of the area that no one else did. As if something odd may have been showing itself on a regular basis to those in the area.
Keith Parkins, age two, was found by an SAR member 12 miles from where he disappeared, grossly outside the standard search range, suggesting that the SAR member knew that something out of the ordinary was going on.
Rosemary Kunst went missing near Spirit Lake while attending a spiritual ceremony conducted by Chief Charlie “Redhawk” Thom. When asked about her disappearance, Redhawk opines that Rosemary likely ended up in an area called “Devil’s Backbone” a conclusion that he gives no explanation of as to how he reached it. Again, it seems as if he knew something unusual about the lay of the land.
The best example of this is the case of Betty Wolfrum in Moosehorn, Manitoba. Neighboring farmer Roy Rosin walks into the woods to find the girl, and does so seemingly effortlessly. When asked about how he knew where to find the girl Roy responded “I did not expect to come back alive, or if I did come back I would be all broken up.” There was something or someone in this area of Manitoba that was quite odd and fearsome it seems. It also seems that it was enough of a fixture that Roy Rosin was well acquainted with it.
Yet another parallel between 411 cases and fairies/ultraterrestrials is regarding specific wildlife. Fairies were noted for playing favorites when it came to not only certain locations, but certain plants and even animals as well. They have been held by many cultures to be the guardians and stewards of nature. There are even accounts of people asking fairies what they’re doing when manifested to hear them say “I’m helping the plants grow.” Furthermore, they were said to become deeply offended when they perceived humans to act disrespectfully to something in their stewardship.
I mention this here due to the number of 411 cases that involve people picking berries and hunting. In fact, from a certain perspective berry pickers and hunters could be placed under one category “harvesters of nature.” Perhaps an unseen onlooker perceived these people as being disrespectful of their protectorate.
An example of this association between supernatural abductors and specific plants can also be found in the legends of the Alsea tribe of Western Oregon. The abductor was known as “Asin” and her botanical association bares startling significance to the 411 pattern:
“Asin is a cannibal ogress from the mythology of the Alsea tribe. Like other monstrous ogres of the Northwest Coast, Asin preys on children and is often the subject of “bogeyman” stories told to frighten children into avoiding dangerous behavior. Asin was particularly associated with huckleberry plants, so Alsea people (especially children) did not touch or eat huckleberries. Hearing Asin’s cries was considered an omen of death.”
Given the pattern of many in these books disappearing while picking berries, there may be more to Asin than a mere bogeyman figure.
The clothing of the missing plays a significant role in the strangeness of the 411 cases. Many of the missing are found naked with their clothes piled next to their body or strown through the woods. Sometimes the clothing is found inside out. Sometimes it’s just the victim’s shoe or one of their shoes. Human clothing, and shoes in particular, are also oddly featured in both the fairy lore and the more modern Ultraterrestrial encounters.
Human clothing was said to have a baffling effect on fairies, and as such many superstitions to ward them off centered around it. Sleeping with one’s shoes pointing away from the bed was said to secure a fairy free sleep. When one was being led astray by a fairy, or “pixie-led” turning one’s clothing inside out was said to break their glamour, a possible theory being that it confused them. Furthermore, if one should try to rescue a person from a ring of fairies, the rescuer was instructed to pull the victim out of the ring by their clothing.
Related to this, in many accounts fairies were said to be either naked, or wearing a skin tight garment the same color as their skin (a parallel to many alleged ET abductors). While on the topic, in many ET abductions the contactee is stripped of their clothing.
What all this suggests to me is that these entities do not seem to have a complete understanding of human clothing, and/or it has some sort of inhibitory effect on them.
This befuddlement about clothing becomes more apparent when the modern Ultraterrestrial cases are examined, particularly when it comes to shoes. There’s a genre of paranormal case that’s been dubbed “Stranger Accounts” or as Charles Fort called them “the procession of the damned.” These have come to include grinning men, black eyed kids, black eyed adults, the men in black, and other near human but unnerving entities. The traits of all of these, subtly unhuman, appearing and disappearing at will, and their mischievous and sometimes belligerent behavior, places them within the Ultraterrestrial phenomenon and makes them modern day fairies.
What’s odd is that these entities are capable of looking human with the exception of one clothing detail: shoes. Mysterious airforce men, a variant of the men in black, would appear at UFO witnesses’ homes in an airforce uniform but with tennis shoes. A tall gaunt looking figure was reported eating at a diner. Despite his strange proportions, his clothing was normal, except for his shoes that had a compartment for each toe as if they were gloves for his feet. And if they do get their human costume correct, it’s either a very generic imitation of a modern style, or a perfect depiction of a style that’s decades come and gone. This again suggests a sort of ineptness in regards to this aspect of human living.
Therefore there seems to be that this class of entity has a confused fixation on human clothing, making for a possible correlation with the bizarre treatment of victims’ clothes in the 411 cases. The particularly odd relationship with footwear potentially does the same with the numerous missing shoes of 411.
There is a theme scattered throughout these cases. It does not occur in every case, but it does appear multiple times in each book. It is a factor in these cases that is perhaps the strangest and most difficult to explain. It is also the factor that most clearly suggests that at least some of these cases are being carried out by non-human entities. Also, this factor cannot be explained by popular theories such as time slips. This factor is the strange abductors reported by living victims. I have broken them down into three categories: the dog/bear man, the odd couple, and the wild men. What is more, is that all of the bizarre kidnappers of 411 have corollaries in fairy lore and Ultraterrestrial literature.
A consistent quality of fairies and invisible races the world over is that when they do take on a form, they are adept shapeshifters, appearing as whatever they choose. The crux of the Ultraterrestrial theory in regards to high strangeness is that the light in the sky, the monster in the woods, and the guy in the black Cadillac who grilled you about it, are all the same thing. Or at least the same type of thing manifesting three different ways.
Often, the form is reported to be either a particularly short or tall humanoid with distorted facial features and dark skin complexion. However, legend and Ultraterrestrial encounters are filled with other forms. Shaggy unkempt humanoids, grotesque hairy red-eyed monsters that wreak of sulfur, and various hybrids of human and animal form are all accounted for. An example would be the boggart of Longar Hede in Yorkshire, England, which was said to be a gigantic creature, the size of a calf and had long shaggy hair and enormous eyes. This description of the invisible folk creature the boggart correlates neatly with the big hairy monster (BHM) Ultraterrestials like Momo the Missouri Monster, the “White Things” of West Virginia, and the Popelick Monster.
There are several accounts in both 411 West and East where surviving children make mention of a “bear” or a creature that appears roughly humanoid but with features of a bear and/or wolf. Larry McGee, Janet Mcgee, and Steven Cross went missing in the Sante Fe ski basin and report being chased up the mountain by a bear and claim they were afraid to make their presence known to searchers due to fearing that they may have been “big gorillas.” Ida May Curtis went missing in the Kootenai National Forest of Montana spoke of being held by a “mother bear” in a crude shelter made of cedar slashings. Katie Flynn who went missing in Walhalla, Michigan described her abductor as “a big dog” who took her up in his arms, carried her off, and ate her hat. During her stay with the entity, it fed Katie wintergreen berries and kept her warm in a bed it made for her. The details of this cases appear closely again with Millard David who went missing in New York who claimed that a “big bear” had taken her.
The details of these accounts, a bear or wolf that takes children up in their arms and carries them off, makes it impossible that the creatures mentioned here are actually bears of wolves. It defies bear and wolf behavior, as it does bear and wolf morphology. Although both animals are capable of standing on two legs, it’s physically impossible for either to run on its hind legs, let alone do so while carrying a small child. And a species of undiscovered wolf or bear that has evolved to possess a humanoid morphology would be an improbable case of parallel evolution. Taking all of this into consideration, it becomes very unlikely that these creatures are biological entities.
Paranormal researcher Linda Godfrey has sizeable body work dedicated to upright canines. Nestled in her expansive work is the opinion of a Ho-Chunk tribe elder who believed that these entities are visitors from a spiritual plane that take on a physical form temporarily. This fits the definition of an Ultraterrestrial to a tee. Godfrey has also noted a correlation between dogmen sightings and effigy mounds, which is similar to how fairies in the British Isles were long associated with similar mounds there. Also relating these entities to the Ultraterrestrial phenomenon is the category of UT’s dubbed “Big Hairy Monsters” whose physics defying antics like walking through solid objects, and sudden appearances and disappearances place them within the UT category.
The second category, the “Odd Couple” differs greatly to the dog man. These abductors appear in two 411 cases, Betty Wolfrum and Florence Jackson, and appear to be very human. The abductors either make up a couple or a family living deep in the woods and are unknown to locals, and after taking the child in, they let them free.
Betty Wulfrum went missing from the remote farming community of Moosehorn, Manitoba. She was found five days later by farmer Roy Rosin, who as mentioned earlier, inexplicably knew where to find the girl, and that what took her was potentially dangerous. Upon examining Betty, a physician determined that she had been kept out of the elements, to the extent that she was completely dry despite heavy rains, and had been given food and water. Also, during this time, a farmer’s cow had twice returned from the woods, milked. Betty spoke of meeting a mother and a daughter, a cat, and a man who pointed her in the direction of her home the morning that she was found.
Florence Jackson was found wandering naked near Indian Creek, Arkansas four days after she went disappearing in 1937. Upon questioning, Florence told of having slept in a log, “crying for mother to come” seeing a “strange man” and being abducted by a “black man and black woman.”
At this point I have demonstrated that the world over has no shortage of folk beliefs and accounts of strange woodland dwellers taking children away. These two cases clearly fit well within these folk descriptions of invisible abductors. An additional oddity in Florence Jackson’s case is the mention of the black man and woman. Although it could be argued that she was referencing an African American man and woman, this coloring coincides with that of many stranger encounters. The most notable modern examples would be the Men in Black and the Black Eyed Kids. In Hoodoo, the “Iwa” or spirit of the crossroads was also dubbed “The Black Man.” “The Black Man” was also the name of the entity that witches were alleged to have conversed in the wood with by the Puritans. Woodcuttings from New England during this time depict witches meeting with a man dressed entirely in black offering them familiar spirits.
“Wild men” is the third category of entity and are notable in the cases of Eloise Lindsey and Dennis Martin. Eloise Lindsey alleged that she was chased and harassed through the woods by unseen pursuers. Although both of these cases bear striking links to fairy lore and Ultraterrestrial encounters, the Martin case abounds with them.
The family of Dennis Martin was vacationing in the Great Smoky Mountains in 1969 when they coincidentally met another family by the name of Martin. The two families decided to share their vacation experience when at around 3:30 in the afternoon it was noticed that young Dennis had not been seen for approximately five minutes. During this time it was estimated that Dennis was no more than fifty feet from the families. About two hours later and seven miles away, the Key family heard a “sickening scream” and saw what at first seemed to be a bear, then a disheveled man hulking through the brush with something over his shoulder. The Keys noted that the man was noticeably attempting to hide from them, and by 8:30 pm a severe storm and the typical litany of 411 meteorology had moved into the Great Smoky Mountains. A historically intensive search ensued which included armed Green Barrettes.
Follow up interviews with both Dennis Martin’s father and NPS ranger and author of Lost!: A Ranger’s Journal of Search and Rescue, Dwight McCarter, rendered odd statements on the case. Martin’s father opined that the head of the parks service was a figurehead that seemed to share information in congruence with the desires of some other personnel. McCarter made mention of wildmen in the parks, but then unsolicitedly and overtly added that these “Wild Men” were of flesh and blood.
There are peculiarities related to these statements. The involvement of armed Green Barrettes in a search and rescue is odd, and like in other cases, suggests that someone had an inclination that something very unusual was going on. Also, if the parks service head is a figurehead who merely shares information at another entity’s discretion, there is an implication that something is trying be kept secret from the public. And finally, it is odd that McCarter explicitly stated that the Wild Men are corporeal men. No one floated any theories that they were anything but to him in relation to this questioning, meaning that this proclamation is unsolicited and unprovoked. This possibly suggests that McCarter either knows or suspects there is something odd about these Wild Men but is preemptively dispelling that possibility to limit public knowledge of it.
The Martin case is undoubtedly one of the oddest cases in both of the North American 411 books, and oddly enough, it is arguably also the one that has the most connections to Ultraterrestrials and invisible folk. Firstly, in John Keel’s works on Ultraterrestrials, he makes mention that encounters with these entities are often marked by instances of synchronicity, or odd coincidences. UFO’s will appear over two different cities with the same name, or abduct two individuals by the same name, or other such odd coincidences. Two families by the name of Martin meeting and then sharing an enormously odd turn of events certainly fits this. Also in Keel’s work is mention of a sound that occurs when these mysterious entities appear. The sound was said to be a deafening shriek, on par with “a woman being killed” and theorized by Keel to be the sound of air being displaced by the sudden introjection of the creature’s form into our reality. The sound reported by the Key’s moments prior to seeing the wild man is certainly similar to this sound.
Mistaking a shaggy human form, no matter how shaggy, for that of a bear, is somewhat unlikely, even by a small child. The disparity in the two asserted forms almost suggests an occurrence of transmogrification, a feat a long associated with reports of fairy entities. Not to mention, a shaggy, long haired, unkempt humanoid appearance was frequently associated with fairies. Ancient Brettons and Celts believed their standing stones were brought to their islands by a race called the Korred, wild looking little men covered in shaggy hair with dark skin. The Italian Salvanel are said to be reddish brown and covered in hair. Also, the Salvanel is said to delight in leading travelers astray and abducting small children, particularly young girls, who he raises lovingly as his own in caves deep in the woods. The French speak of a fair folk called the Follet, a wild variant of which is again, dark skinned, and covered in coarse hair.
And finally a report of a dozen Wild Men fairies dancing in the rain was made by W.E Thorner on the Island of Hoy off of Scotland around the time of the Second World War:
“These creatures were small in stature, but they did not have long noses nor did they appear kindly in demeanor. They possessed round faces, sallow in complexion, with long, dark, bedraggled hair. As they danced about, seeming to throw themselves over the cliff edge, I felt that I was witness to some ritual dance of a tribe of primitive men.”
Undoubtedly something very odd happened to Dennis Martin. Two families share a pleasant afternoon in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, and a young boy disappears from under his father’s nose. In the same vicinity, a stranger is seen with something flung over his shoulder, trudging through the brush. As can be seen from the paranormal accounts of Wild Men, this stranger may have been far stranger than any of the witnesses realize.
In conclusion, it is my sincere theory the primary culprit behind the 411 phenomenon is abduction by Ultraterrestrials, classically referred to as “fairies.” As “fairies” in folklore and “Ultraterrestrials” in modern paranormal investigation, these entities revel in leading travelers astray, abducting humans, possess ability to influence the weather, are associated with particular locations, and having odd relationships with human clothing. As I have espoused in detail, these traits make Ultraterrestrials a likely source for the 411 disappearances.
As part of a final note on this issue, I have a related anecdote on this topic that comes from my girlfriend. As a young girl living in South Carolina, she was playing indoors with her cousin one evening while their parents entertained each other in a card game. Glancing up from her play to the window she saw a figure standing beneath the edge of the carport. It was tall, dark, impressionistic in shape, and slender, with large glowing red eyes. Its “head” just barely fit below the overhang of the carport, meaning it was approximately eight feet tall. It leeringly fixated on her, and no one else. She looked back down assuming that breaking her gaze and looking back at the carport, she would see nothing, as she assumed it was her imagination. Looking back, the figure was still there, leering just as before. Now not only could she feel it was fixating on her, but that no one else in the room seemed to notice it. She could also feel it imploring her to come outside and then become angered when she ignored it. She felt it want her, and no one else. Years later as an adult she asked a childhood friend who grew up in the area if she had ever felt that something wanted her to come out into the woods. Her friend affirmed that yes, she had that feeling while growing up there.
What we know as bio-phsyical reality is our sensory experience fitted into the contexts, categories, and expectations that we create through our experiences and cultural education. Our sensory experience is inherently limited and our cognitions often limit it even further still. The implication of this is that there is potentially and even likely facets of the universe that we are epistemologically tone deaf to. Over the span of centuries and in every culture, entire races of odd people are said to dwell here past our normal sensory perception. It is likely the case we are not the sole intelligence of this world. As John Keel so eloquently put it, our Earth is a “haunted planet.” Perhaps it is the case that in some corners of the Earth there still lay the stirrings and whispers and glimmers of an ancient and nearly forgotten force. And perhaps sometimes these brushes with the specters of our haunted planet are so close that they pose a danger. It seems that sometimes in these corners, in a whisper and a glimmer, we are whisked off somewhere, not destined for return.
Let’s make this a real snap election.
By snapping the United Kingdom apart.
Vote Scottish National Party.
Vote Sinn Féin.
Vote Plaid Cymru.
Vote Mebyon Kernow.
Hell, those are all lefty! Righties, worried we left you out?
Vote English Democrats!
Let’s use this election to fix the whole United Kingdom; by making it unwhole. English and Celtic identities should be what the people of the United Kingdom take pride in, not the lie of Britishness. Let’s make this election the one that makes everyone happy, the one that solidifies our many cultures into their own nations, and the one that succeeds Brexit in the future by giving true independence to the many cultures of the United Kingdom. Brexit may have been the United Kingdom’s independence day, but June 8 will be what allows Ireland to reunite and for England, Scotland, Wales, and Cornwall to have their own independence days. Now you just have to make independence happen! The door is open and we must vote in the best interests of our cultures and solidify our traditions, languages, and borders into their own separate nations. Good luck!
But isn't ethnicity different to race tho? (sorry for using the word, I don't know how else to phrase it, I promise I won't send another ask about this.) I thought ethnicity was like anglo-saxon, celtic, slavic etc? Or am I mistaken? What would those be called?
nah it’s okay I don’t mind if it’s because you don’t know it xD sooo, again.
in europe RACE as a concept is frowned upon because ‘different races exist and they’re different and one is superior to the other’ is basically what nazists used to say and what racial laws were about. like, the idea was that slavic/polish/jewish/black/romani/ETCETERA people were a different race than aryan/german/whatever so they were inferior so they had to be annihilated and that’s how we ended up with concentration camps and millions of dead people in the name of race purity.
therefore, after WWII, in general people tend to think of humans as one race, where EVERYONE is the same, and then within that race there are different ethnicities ie anglo-saxon, black african, japanese and whatever. at times they coincide with the nationality (ie japanese is a nationality and an ethnicity), sometimes they don’t (italians are a nationality but not an ethnicity, we’re… white mediterraneans/caucasians [I KNOW IT’S NOT THE BEST WAY TO DEFINE IT BUT IT’S HOW IT GETS TAUGHT HERE DON’T GO AT IT LIKE CAUCASIANS ARE ONLY PEOPLE WHO LIVE ON THE CAUCASUS I ALREADY HAD THIS DISCUSSION ONCE]). but no one thinks in *race* terms unless they’re right wingers who are also openly racist, because the moment someone says that idk someone black is a different race everyone goes like AH SHIT HERE IS THE NEONAZI WHO ACTUALLY BELIEVES RACES EXISTS.
like, in our definition of racism, we have also thinking that human races are actually a thing, because someone who’s not racist wouldn’t think that human races exist.
but what in the US is called *racial* discrimination here is *ethnical discrimination* and it’s tied to both ethnicity and nationality and culture/religious factors.
example: in italy romanians are heavily discriminated bc they’re the largest group of immigrants coming from one place which automatically makes them target victims and it’s on account of them being ROMANIANS, speaking romanian and the likes, but no one thinks romanians are a different race. their being romanian is enough to discriminate them. or: an african refugee will get discriminated on account of being black, poor and african (because skin-based racism does exist), but a black american on vacation or living here will not be discriminated BECAUSE THEY’RE AMERICAN and we love americans/we know americans are rich and Coming From The Land Of Freedom and the likes, same as black british people or black french people. Those people would face significantly less discrimination if at all because they’re british or american or french, regardless of their skin color, while the poor african refugee will get the brunt of it. same for the afghani or iraqi refugees versus idk saudi arabian rich people who go to milan and spend a bunch of money in fendi stores. but at the same time, only people who are actually racist would say that they dislike black africans because they’re a different race, most people wouldn’t go that far and would go like africans are terrible and they come here and steal our jobs and blah blah blah, but it would be discriminating them on account of being black africans who are poor and don’t bring immediate earnings, not believing they are a different race.
or: jewish people THEN were discriminated because people bought into them being a different race, now they still get somewhat discriminated because of their religion/ethnicity, but no one except neofascist would actually say out loud they’re a different race unless they want to risk half of the people they know to go like CHRIST DID YOU READ MEIN KAMPF YESTERDAY OR WHAT.
like, an anglosaxon is an ethnicity, british is a nationality and so on, and that is what our discrimination system is based upon these days, because after WWII using race to describe different people isn’t a thing anyone does. because it sounds like nazi propaganda. examples from the wiki page for nazi racial politics:
We are a master race, which must remember that the lowliest German worker is racially and biologically a thousand times more valuable than the population here.
The aim of measures taken by the State to defend the homogeneity of the German nation must be the physical separation of Gypsydom from the German nation, the prevention of miscegenation, and finally, the regulation of the way of life of pure and part-Gypsies. The necessary legal foundation can only be created through a Gypsy Law, which prevents further intermingling of blood, and which regulates all the most pressing questions which go together with the existences of Gypsies in the living space of the German nation.
As for the ridiculous hundred million Slavs, we will mould the best of them as we see fit, and we will isolate the rest of them in their own pig-styes; and anyone who talks about cherishing the local inhabitants and civilising them, goes straight off into a concentration camp!
also, the freaking nuremberg laws:
Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour
Moved by the understanding that purity of German blood is the essential condition for the continued existence of the German people, and inspired by the inflexible determination to ensure the existence of the German nation for all time, the Reichstag has unanimously adopted the following law, which is promulgated herewith:
Marriages between Jews and subjects of the state of German or related blood are forbidden. Marriages nevertheless concluded are invalid, even if concluded abroad to circumvent this law. Annulment proceedings can be initiated only by the state prosecutor
like, can you see why I have fucking issues with the concept of different races being a thing that exists? XDDDDDD
The Sun transits through Scorpio at about 8 degrees during the Celtic and Anglo-Saxon new years. This is Halloween on October 31. The sign of Scorpio evokes the mysteries of secrets and vampires, death and dracula, witches and wizardry. The sign of Scorpio promises new life after intimacy with death, and the karmic responsibility of Scorpio relates to igniting the invisible for the world’s consumption. Scorpio invites us to seduce the mystical and commune with ghosts, ghouls, shadows, goblins, demons, angels, and poltergeists. Halloween is the spirit of Scorpio activated through celebration. And yet the intensely purifying and sacred story is rich with Scorpio presence, as the individual guards the threshold of life and death with the miracle elixir of rebirth. As we contemplate the daily life of Scorpio, confronting demons and revelling with angels we reunite with the tale of Halloween, when divination is accelerated and the veil between worlds is thinner than ever.
Traditional myths of Halloween relay stories of prayer services held for the departed, the festival of summer’s end, and the evening when fallen could once again return. Huge bonfires were thrown to scare off spirits. Mars rules fire, confrontation, and Scorpio. A crystal ball always spins in the Scorpio mind, there is profound intuition, soul, and supernatural eye. And the mysterious stories of Halloween reflect the concealed nature of Scorpio. There is often a compulsion associated with Scorpio to refute the surface for something deeper, something hidden. Scorpios shroud themselves in mystery, because they spend so much time seducing them. There are masks we wear on Halloween, to play, to scare, to celebrate. But there are masks we wear in everyday life. And the Scorpio can see straight through these ones as well. Something taboo or dark can beckon from deep inside Scorpio. They can flirt with spirits and welcome the departed. There is often a deep fascination or obsession with death, and the afterlife. Not all Scorpios believe in life after death. But they have spent an awful long time contemplating the possibility. Many times a Scorpio is their own ghost. They relive nightmares in everyday life. A million hymns are being sung to Scorpio, in deep swirling secrets of netherworlds.
Pluto becomes the nightlight during Halloween. Pluto represents the primal force, destiny, death, and what is of eternal importance. There are demons and devils evoked during Halloween, and these are the monsters Scorpios learn to throw all their black flowers to in thanks for their power. These are inner demons they have mastered. There are angels and ancestors crossing over, and Scorpio reveals this through their healing instruments, wisdom, and empathy. Tremendous spiritual energy pours through Scorpio as a mortal outlet, often overwhelming and troubling the individual. The Scorpio is a reincarnated version of themselves, again and again. This is the mystery and magic of Scorpio, the crises and confrontations lead to something higher. An activity burns in Scorpio, a soul that is burning on the edges of sanity. Scorpio sets the mood for Halloween. But Halloween is another day of the same for Scorpio. They carry this dark night around with them everyday.
I'm just curious, what your qualifications to being considered an American? The children of immigrants who were born in the US?The person who just got their citizenship? Or is it just white people? Just curious after reading the post between you and s3nator
For our purposes, I would consider an ‘ethnic’ American, aside from the Native population, as the groups of Anglo/Germanic/Celtic peoples who founded and settled what was and would become the United States prior to the American Civil War along with their descendants. One could make an argument for Africans that arrived in that same time frame. These are the founding people of the American nation, the nation that was their native home. Everyone after that point, while being American citizens, are not of that group. Much like how a Syrian or Turk could move to Germany and acquire German citizenship, but is not and could never be an ethnic German because he is not a part of the people for and by whom that nation came into being. I realise this definition could be considered somewhat tenuous and certainly offensive. This is not a ‘deportation post’ - but I do feel the ethnic and cultural heritage of that founding group of people needs to be preserved and respected, even if it is not trendy to think so.
Hey Badger, can you do some digging for me? I want to know if yew has any particular significance in Norse lore, but when I try looking up tree lore, I either get stuff about Yggdrasil or I get Celtic tree symbolism. Thanks!
So it’s not shocking that you’d get information on those. A lot of what we know about Norse tree lore comes from extrapolating from Celtic and Anglo-Saxon lore. As for Yggdrasil, some dispute the species identity and believe it to be a yew rather than an ash. So in addition to being the most central (hah) tree in the lore you’ve got that to contend with as well. So with that said, here’s what I can find on the yew.
As I said, some dispute that Yggdrasil is really an ash tree. In Voluspa it seems quite clearly to be stated to be an ash tree:
Ask veit ek standa, heitir Yggdrasill
An ash tree I know, called Yggdrasill
However F. R. Schroder argues that the etymology of the word Yggdrasil links it to the yew instead. He derives yggja from *igwja (yew) and drasill from *dher which means pillar or support rendering the name to mean “yew pillar”.
There’s some other potential links to the yew and to Yggdrasil. Yew is an evergreen tree like Yggdrasil. Yew is poisonous and therefore linked to death but also to reincarnation thanks to its evergreen nature.This harkens to Odin’s hanging on the branches of Yggdrasil, dying, and coming back. Further links can be found in the carved yew figures that were sexually ambiguous with damaged left sides of their face. These were often found in bogs, probably thrown in as a sacrifice to Odin - himself to himself.
There was also a temple in Uppsala, Sweden. Adam of Bremen wrote about it: Near this temple stands a very large tree with wide-spreading branches, always green winter and summer. What kind it is nobody knows. There is also a spring at which the pagans are accustomed to make their sacrifices, and into it to plunge a live man. And if he is not found, the people’s wish will be granted.
The tree-spring combination strongly parallels that of Yggdrasil and the Well of Urd. There is no way to tell but Laffler has proposed that this tree was a yew. This would indicate that perhaps at least for the Swedes, Yggdrasil was a yew tree in their cosmology. This could also link it to the god Freyr as the temple at Uppsala was dedicated to him.
Further links to Freyr might be found in the parallels between Skírnismál and the Celtic tale Aislinge Oenguso (The Dreams of Oengus). Both concern love-struck fertility gods who withdraw from the world due to their pining. Mortal assistants are sent to woo the object of affection and win her over despite disapproving family. Oengus falls in love with Caer Ibormeith whose last name means ‘Yewberry’. This would give her a connection to death and magic. Freyr’s love Gerdr, being a jotun, also has a link to the realm of death and magic. Furthermore, Schroder, the one responsible for the Yggdrasil meaning ‘yew pillar’ theory, also believes that Freyr’s name Ingunar-Freyr links him to the yew by actually meaning “Lord of the Yew goddes Ingun” (How likely this is to be true I can’t say but it might have some small basis in fact if indeed the tree at the temple was a yew.)
Yew also had clear magical connotations. In Anglo-Saxon heathenry, the yew was likely represented by the rune YR (though like everything in heathenry this is also debated.) Many wands and amulets composed of yew wood have also been found with runes carved into them. Frequently these were for healing or protective purposes. For instance, the German Tollhoz was made of yew wood and used to cure dogs of rabies. Elliott believes that many of the yew’s magical uses with runes were adopted from the Celts; an example of Celtic influence in his opinion is the casting of runes cut into yew being drawn from ogham and spreading from there.
So basically it had strong magical powers but we just don’t know a lot and everything we do know is pretty speculative at best and wild-ass guessing hoping to make sense of things at worst. But if there’s any clear connections to gods it’s likely to Odin and possibly to Freyr as well. I’m sorry; I hope this helps :x
Runic Amulets and Magic Objects by Mindy Macleod and Bernard Mees
The Withdrawal of the Fertility God by Annelise Talbot
Runes, Yews, and Magic by Ralph W. V. Elliott
Trees in Anglo-Saxon England: Literature, Lore and Landscape by Della Hooke
why do you think imperialism is a positive thing? just asking because i'm genuinely curious what you have to say given its frankly abysmal track record
Well, let’s take the place I was born as an example.
Northern Albion was subject to Celtic, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, Danish, and Norman imperialism.
Is it worse off because of that???
What would it be if not for that imperialism?
I don’t think that Imperialism is ALWAYS GOOD.
That said; just as the existence of negligent or sadistic physicians shouldn’t make reasonable people disavow the field of medicine, nor should the abuses of corrupt imperialists be used to disavow imperialism.
The Sun transits through Scorpio at about 8 degrees during the Celtic and Anglo-Saxon new years, Halloween on October 31. Traditionally in astrology, the sign of Scorpio relates to themes surrounding life and death, horror, rebirth, witchcraft, the occult, the paranormal and everything unseen. The myths of Scorpio associate with the Autumn death of nature and the promise of eventual new life. As the portal to Winter, the holiday of Halloween ties to Scorpio’s karmic responsibility - to drag up the depths of the underworld and thrust them into society’s consumption. To engage with everything hidden, locked away and to remind us of the sinister and the mystical; vampires, ghosts, ghouls, fairies, pixies, goblins, wizards, witches, zombies, demons and poltergeists.
The traditional myths of Halloween tell the tales of prayer services for the departed, the festival of summer’s end and the night when the fallen could once again access our world. Huge bonfires were often thrown to scare off spirits, where on this day the souls of the dead were thought to revisit their homes. Divination often regarded Halloween as being the most favourable time in terms of love, luck, marriage, health, and death, and the time to placate the supernatural forces controlling nature. These parables relate closely to the Scorpio archetype; one which is shrouded in its own mysteries. There is a pressing urgency within the individual to provoke given reality and explore the hidden depths. They always seek to know the unknowable. The Scorpio individual is given profound capacity to divulge below the surface and provoke the masquerade. Scorpios see through the masks we wear during Halloween, likewise the ones we wear during every day life. The individual tends to live on the darker side of life and indulge in paranormal games, ouija boards, black and white magic and often the Tarot. Many maintain deep fascination and obsessions with death and the afterlife, and often hold unique and somewhat obscure beliefs about passing over.
The powerful and transcendent frequency rays from Scorpio’s ruler, Pluto, vibrationally align to the holiday of Halloween and the return of our fabled ancestors. The sign of Scorpio is exalted in revolutionary and progressive Uranus, where we hang up our spooky skeletons and free our consciousness from the burden of carrying around such dark forces. Like the fairies, goblins, spirits and apparitions that are said to wander back into our world on October 31; Scorpio carry the archetypes of these mythical creatures within them and harness their powerful energies during their multiple transformations. Halloween represents the eternal soul and the macabre horror of death. As the sign associating with the dissolution of our transition, Scorpio, carries Halloween around with them everyday. -Cherry
can you rec any books with lesbian protags, but like fantasy/adventure? i'm not really into slice of life/coming of age books unless they're done really well, but i feel like there are no wlw ya fantasy books. if you've already answered this would you mind linking me?
Ah same here, fantasy and adventure are my fave genres and most of my favourite wlw books are fantasy. They include:
* Mangoverse series - Shira Glassman. High fantasy with dragons about a young nerdy lesbian queen, her bi girlfriend and later wife, and the other members of their found family.
* Ash - Malinda Lo. High fantasy with faeries, f/f retelling of Cinderella.
* Huntress - Malinda Lo. High fantasy with faeries, pseudo prequel to Ash, two girls go on an epic quest to save the kingdom and fall in love along the way. They don’t end up together though neither dies.
* Otherbound - Corinne Duyvis. Paranormal high fantasy about switching between worlds.
* Seraphina - Rachel Hartman. High fantasy with dragons set in an Anglo-Celtic type of world.
* Engelsfors series - Sara B. Elfgren and Mats Strandberg. Urban fantasy about a group of girls with witchy powers.
Ones I haven’t read or haven’t finished
* The Legend Mirror series - Saruuh Kelsey. Urban fantasy with mythological creatures.
* The Glass Republic - Tom Pollock. Urban fantasy about an alternative London where inanimate objects come alive.
* Unicorn Tracks - Julia Ember. Urban fantasy, about two girls hunting unicorns.
* Of Fire and Stars - Audrey Coulthurst. High fantasy about a princess who falls in love with the girl who’s supposed to be her future sister-in-law, plus lots of horseriding.
* Brooklyn Brujas series - Zoraida Córdova. Urban fantasy based on Ecuadoran folklore.
* The Impostor Queen series - Sarah Fine. High fantasy with political intrigue.
* Tripping to Somewhere - Kristopher Reisz. Urban fantasy with faeries and a road trip.
* Bluebell Hall - Kayla Bashe. Urban fantasy, boarding school for witches.
* Deadly Sweet Lies - Erica Cameron. Urban fantasy with demons, about teens having powers.
* The Dark Wife - Sarah Diemer. Sapphic retelling of Hades and Persephone.
* Kissing the Witch: Old Tales in New Skins - Emma Donoghue. Short story retellings of various fairytales, all sapphic.
* The Halvarian Ruin Books series - Sara Gaines. High fantasy with political intrigue.
* Elemental Logic series - Laurie J. Marks. High fantasy with a warrior woman.
* Daybreak Rising - C. K. Oliver. High fantasy about a chosen one who fails her task.
* Chameleon Moon series - RoAnna Sylver. High fantasy about people with magical powers.
* When Women Were Warriors series - Catherine M. Wilson. High fantasy set in the Stone Age.
* Graveyard Sparrow - Kayla Bashe. Urban historical fantasy about detective ladies.
* Screaming Down Splitsville - Kayla Bashe. Urban fantasy, set in the 1950s about people with magical powers.
* The Quiet Ones - Ellen Goodlett. Urban fantasy based on Hawaiian folklore.
* Tiffany and Tiger’s Eye - Foxglove Lee
* We Awaken - Calista Lynne. Urban fantasy about magical dreams.
* Marian - Ella Lyons. Urban fantasy, sapphic retelling of Robin Hood.
* About A Girl - Sarah McCarry. Urban fantasy with Greek mythology.
* A History of Glitter and Blood - Hannah Moskowitz. Urban fantasy with faeries.
* As I Descended - Robin Talley. Urban fantasy with ghosts, boarding school retelling of Macbeth.
* Shallow Graves - Kali Wallace. Urban fantasy with zombies.