and muscle development

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FDA approves first treatment for CLN2 Disease (Batten Disease):
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Brineura (cerliponase alfa) as a treatment for a specific form of Batten disease. Brineura is the first FDA-approved treatment to slow loss of walking ability (ambulation) in symptomatic pediatric patients 3 years of age and older with late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2 (CLN2), also known as tripeptidyl peptidase-1 (TPP1) deficiency.

CLN2 disease is one of a group of disorders known as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), collectively referred to as Batten disease. CLN2 disease is a rare inherited disorder that primarily affects the nervous system. In the late infantile form of the disease, signs and symptoms typically begin between ages 2 and 4. The initial symptoms usually include language delay, recurrent seizures (epilepsy) and difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia). Affected children also develop muscle twitches (myoclonus) and vision loss. CLN2 disease affects essential motor skills, such as sitting and walking. Individuals with this condition often require the use of a wheelchair by late childhood and typically do not survive past their teens. Batten disease is relatively rare, occurring in an estimated two to four of every 100,000 live births in the United States.

Brineura is an enzyme replacement therapy. Its active ingredient (cerliponase alfa) is a recombinant form of human TPP1, the enzyme deficient in patients with CLN2 disease. Brineura is administered into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by infusion via a specific surgically implanted reservoir and catheter in the head (intraventricular access device). Brineura must be administered under sterile conditions to reduce the risk of infections, and treatment should be managed by a health care professional knowledgeable in intraventricular administration. 

What you see online does not portray what animal ownership is really like

Pet ownership online is extremely glorified, every time you see a goofy little pet your initial instinct is to scream “I want one!” because it’s cute and doesn’t seem that difficult to care for.

What is posted on Tumblr and other networks does not accurately display what it’s like really working with these animals on a daily  basis.

Here’s a few personal examples:

Online: “All the birds online do this, it must be a common behaviour, they all must love it! I want a bird so I can do this!”

Reality: Months of refusing human contact, seldom wanting to be around people, every moment of my free time spent training and working to create a positive bond where she would then allow me to do this, not all birds like being touched, there’s never a guarantee they would learn to like it

Online: “Wow this is neat, I want a bird so I can do this, I would look really cool!”

Reality: Years of setting up a good diet, years of basic training, years of trust building, her refusing to cooperate, lack of training interest, struggling to get her back on track, months of learning the concept, making sure the right muscles develop properly, feeding a diet to help muscle development, training her so she flies correctly without harming herself, gaining her confidence so she takes off on her own,

Online: “I want a bird so I can take it out for walks and show off!”

Reality: Months of getting used to the harness, learning to put on the harness, learning to be comfortable with the harness on, getting her used to the outdoors, climate adjustments, watching her behaviours, making sure every outdoor experience is a good one, months of recall training and trust building so if something goes wrong there’s a better chance of her coming back.

Online: “Aw they’re so cute I want them!”

Reality: Introducing them properly, making every encounter positive, weeks of quarantine, making sure they get used to each-other over the course of a few months, setting up multiple food bowls, eliminating aggression that occurred, spending a lot of time trying to figure out what they’re fighting over, solving the problems, there’s no guarantee two birds will ever get along

Online: “wow what a pretty blue! I want a blue bird, it’s such a cool colour!”

Reality: Trying to set up a proper diet, refusing to eat vegetables, developing fatty liver disease, feather pigmentation faded, spent several months trying to convert her on to a fresh food diet, running out of ways to serve foods so she’ll eat it, finally converting her, struggling to convert her on to pellets, spending every single present day working to feed this picky eater, spending hours preparing meals just so she will be healthy

Online: “wow those feather sure are pretty! I want a bird to be flighted so it can fly to me on command!”

Reality: Years of proper training, setting her up on the right path, making sure to exercise certain muscles so she can control her flight, bird proofing the entire house, having loads of safety precautions put in place, doing training to exercise her brain so the reactions develop properly, putting obstacles in the way so she learns to maneuver, flight training so she has the strength to fly against winds if she ever escapes, recall training in case anything goes wrong, working to build confidence in her flight abilities, daily flight sessions so she continues to build muscle.

That doesn’t even include all the cage cleaning, expenses, socialization, stimulation and day to day care these little birds need.

Almost everything online is glorified to some extent, if you see something you think is cute or that you would like one in the future please research it! Get hands on experience and learn about them, there’s a lot more that goes on behind the scenes that you may think.

  • me: *googles the names of back muscles specifically so i can identify them on jensen*
  • me, later: jensen's got nice latissimus dorci, dAng
ADHD: Living as a Liminal Space

Is this the way things have always been?
The question is always nestled in the back of your mind, smile carefully in place as you nod along with someone’s conversation. You don’t know who they are - their face feels familiar, but the list of remembered names in your mind is very small.
You stare at their cracked lips, trying to commit their words to memory. You wonder if they had ever used chapstick, and just as that thought bubbled to the surface, time slipped sideways. You awake from your dream to find seconds have passed, countless words lost in the haze of existing and you look up at the person speaking.
“I’m sorry,” you say, with that careful smile painted delicately across your face, “Could you repeat that?”
They do, but the words slide like quicksilver in and out of your ears, darting just long enough to hear, but not long enough to understand. You blink, trying to remember, but that moment is gone as if it had never happened. They are already talking about something else, addressing you by name, but their own name remains lost.
Conversations flow like a river around you, snatches of meaning caught here and there, but holding onto conversations is like trying to dam a stream with a bucket. You learn to scoop down as quickly as you can, snatching just enough context to divine meaning.

Is this the way things have always been?
The light bulb needs to be changed.
There are two bulbs, one broken, one not. The room is dim, but not so dim that it is untreadable. You see the light bulb, and it registers as something that Needs To Be Done. You look down to the warm mug in your hands, and consider that to change the bulb, you need to have your hands free.
And the thought is gone, the significance of room dimness lost as your thoughts fizz like static to wrap around the mug’s heat. You find the mug the next day, left on the corner of your desk, drained of coffee. The room’s dimness is remembered, but you should take care of that mug first, right? It could mold.
By the time you place the mug in the sink, your thoughts are already occupied by dish soaps and lipid breakdowns, and the bulb lies forgotten, nestled dead against the ceiling. 

One morning, neither bulb turns on, and you navigate the kitchen by the light of your cell phone before work.
That night, you use your cell phone again, because you’ve forgotten where the bulbs are, and need to get gas to get to the store.
The next night and the night after that, you ate early enough in the day that light bulbs weren’t needed, so the deadness never registered as a problem.
At the end of the week, your hunger draws you to the kitchen late in the evening, but it’s too late in the day to go to the store - they won’t be open.
When the problem of the bulb is not in front of you - is not making an active nuisance of itself, it’s like it doesn’t even exist.  
Nothing in this world exists, when it’s not in front of you. 

Is this the way things have always been?
“You’re so good at traveling!” your coworker said, “Aren’t you homesick?”
Belatedly, you realize that you’ve been away from home for a week and a half. Each day seems like an individual lifetime. They flow back-to-back never quite related, for all their similarities.
Like picking up a new novel every morning, each set of problems is unique to that situation.
Like picking up a new novel every morning, the previous book’s worries shed like water. They’re not here anymore, so they don’t matter.
“Do your parents know you’re in California?”
No, you think to yourself, I haven’t talked to them in months.
It’s not any malice or dislike that stops you from calling, and that’s what frightens you, a little.
You’d be happy talking to them, but you just…. Forgot.
Like all things, when they aren’t in front of you:
They just don’t seem to exist. 

Is this the way things have always been? 

“You know I was only joking!”
I didn’t, you think to yourself, forcing a titter of agreeable laughter.
Every word, unless emphasized deeply with emotive gestures and tonal changes, seems genuine. Flat-faced delivery of falsehoods always rings true to your ears. It takes effort to remember to parse out people’s wording - their delivery - and compare it against their previously stated opinions and choices.
It takes effort to remember to analyze again and again and again and again, until every conversation is a minefield of potential missteps, drawing close a handful of responses that could be interpreted a hundred different ways. At least with those, you can play along.
“How come you’re being so quiet?”
It’s exhausting to dance the dance of smalltalk, when your feet just seem unable to develop that muscle memory. So every conversation becomes mechanical, automatic, words filtering through keyword searches and tonal registers to find the ‘correct’ response that is both situationally appropriate, not emotionally hurtful, and hopefully accurate enough not to elicit guilt.
Like all automations, It doesn’t always work.
Like all machines, it doesn’t feel real.
The people of the world seem like a thousand NPCs, all demanding answers from an endless multiple-choice list of dialogue options. Humans become something like obsticals, and conversations like challenges, fights waged with memorized expressions and rote responses. You become accustomed to spitting back wisdom from books and television shows written by actual people, in the hopes that their words can make your forced empathy seem real.
None of it feels real. 

Is this the way things have always been?
“Do you have a crush on anyone?”
Should I?
Sexual and Romantic relationships burn brightly, all-consuming while they last. Obsessive is a word fit for the hungry hoarding of dragons, and the vicious consuming of ghosts.
It is an accurate adjective for your heart.
While things are here they are all that exist.
While things are elsewhere they may as well have never existed at all.
It applies to tasks,
To objects,
To people,
To relationships.
To your own emotions. 

Existence itself remains a fleeting experience of not-quite-real spaces. Each moment feeling the most important thing you’ve ever done, yet once that moment passed it leaves only the briefest of marks on your heart or memory. Often the memory slides away completely, leaving nothing but the memories of others, and whatever few pictures were taken.
Your self exists eternally on the outskirts of other peoples lives, recollection of what you’re like always reminded by pictures and stories told by friends. That perfect, careful smile painted delicately across your face slips to neutrality when alone.
You simply consume the world, experience it, and let it go again.
An eternal catch-and-release, where there is no fish more important than the one caught in your gaze NOW.

 Is this the way things have always been? 

Yes. 

And will always be. 

Your mind is a Liminal Space, and the world around you can only briefly visit. 

Requested by @keeganwj

Bewear the Ides of March!

Julius Caesar was stabbed by the Roman Senators, not hugged. Yet, if the ancient senators were actually Bewears, hugging Caesar would have been equally effective as a method of assassination. According to the Pokédex, Bewear has a habit of hugging its trainers…to death. So today, let’s figure out how this might happen.

The human spine, also known as the vertebral column, is a vital part of our skeleton and nervous system. It is made up of 33 different bones called vertebrae, separated from each other with intervertebral discs. The first seven (colored in red) are called cervical vertebrae and are located in your neck. The middle twelve bones in your back (in blue) are called the thoracic vertebrae. The lower back (in yellow) consists of the lumbar vertebrae. The last 9 vertebrae (5 in green / 4 in pink) are fused together and form the sacrum and the coccyx, or your tailbone.

It’s not easy to break a spine; the discs between each vertebrae are made of squishy cartilage that is specifically designed to absorb shock and prevent your back from breaking. The segmented nature of the vertebrae allows the back to bend in several directions, also to avoid breaking by being flexible. Not to mention the walls of muscle that surround it. 

For death to occur, the individual vertebrae need to shift dramatically so they damage the nerve that runs through the middle of them. Typically, spinal-injury deaths are related to the phrenic nerve, which connects your brain to your lungs and allows breathing to happen. Several arteries also run through the vertebral column, and if they are pinched or crushed it can result in a stroke.

Of course, how much force needed to break a spine depends on whose spine you are crushing: children have more delicate spines than adults, and so on. However, it also depends on where on the spine you are crushing. The neck (cervical spine), for example, requires a force of 3,000 Newtons (roughly 700 pounds) to fracture. But Bewear doesn’t strangle its victims, it hugs them – so Bewear is attacking the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Various studies find the absolute limit for lumbar vertebrae to be about 1600 Newtons (360 pounds) of force.

This is surprisingly reasonable. Boxers and professional martial artists’ punches have been documented over 4,000 Newtons (900 pounds), and kicks can exceed 9,000 Newtons (2,000 pounds). Squeezing is a little different, since it is pure muscle work instead of a forward thrust, and human grip strength at its strongest is about 150 pounds. So you might not be able to crush a spine with your bare hands, but can Bewear crush a spine with its bear hands?

Probably. This shouldn’t come as a surprise, but most animals are stronger than humans in terms of muscle exertion. Some chimpanzees have been shown to be eight times stronger than humans. This is mostly because of the way we use our muscles: humans have developed a lot of control. We can finely tune our muscles, precisely control our finger movements, only using certain muscle fibers at one time. This saves us energy in many ways: you don’t have to use your entire bicep to lift up a pencil, like you might when you’re lifting weights. Other animals don’t have this control: It’s all or nothing for them. Physically, the way their muscles activate prevents them from having the fine control that we have. In other words, Bewear is incapable of giving a small hug. It can only give big, spine crushing squeezes.

Bewear’s hugs must deliver a force of 1600 Newtons (360 pounds) in order to break a trainer’s vertebral column.

CP bachelor AU: part 12

part 1 | part 2 | part 3 | part 4 | part 5 | part 6 | part 7 | part 8 | part 9 | part 10 | part 11

***

The clouds that threatened rain earlier in the day have subsided, bunching themselves cosily near the horizon as though they’re aware that what Laurent needs more than anything else is a good sunset to serve as a backdrop. Laurent sits in the grass near the edge of the headland, looking down onto the dark sand of the beach. The water shades abruptly from turquoise to teal a few hundred metres offshore, a meandering divide that becomes less and less distinct as the sun creeps down.

Part of the reason Laurent has been so strict with the show’s budget is that he’s been determined, all along, to produce a finale that is truly spectacular. Sunsets over the ocean aren’t exactly easy to come by, on Australia’s east coast, and it’s an irony of geography that the nearest west coast belongs to another country entirely.

But that makes it better, Laurent thinks, gazing out over the vista of Te Henga. Crossing the sea. The romance of destination.

“I don’t suppose you’d be prepared to give us a hint,” says a voice from behind him.

“And spoil your authentic, on-camera emotional response?” Laurent shoots back. “Please, Jokaste.”

Jokaste steps up next to him; Laurent has to tilt his head to take her in. Her hair is braided back, one plait forming a headband and the others looped intricately into a knot at the back of her head. She’s wearing a long flowing dress of pale lavender, just a shade away from overtly bridal, and it somehow manages to accentuate the porcelain of her skin instead of calling out unpleasant pink or yellow tones. Laurent makes a note to give someone in wardrobe a bonus for that.

“You do know who he’s going to choose, don’t you?” she says.

“Of course,” Laurent lies, cool and easy.

Keep reading

INTERVAL TRAINING

- Periods of high intensity exercise followed by periods of low intensity or recovery periods.
- Can be adapted to suit variable anaerobic needs:
-> Sprinters use shorter work intervals at high intensity and longer recovery periods
-> Endurance runners do longer work intervals at high speeds in order to adapt their natural pace for a marathon
- How to adapt sessions over time:
-> Change duration of work interval
-> Change intensity of work interval
-> Change duration of recovery
-> Change number or work intervals and recovery periods
- Benefits:
-> Muscle fibre recruitment = development of neuromuscular system
-> Cardiovascular benefits = cardiac hypertrophy, lower resting heart rate, increased elasticity of heart walls etc.
-> Improved anaerobic power
-> Increased myoglobin stores in muscles
-> Increased metabolism in the short term
-> And so many more!

- My Session Plan:
- 5 minute warm-up (light jog and stretch)
- 30 sec sprint followed by 30 sec rest
- 30 sec sprint followed by 15 sec rest
- 45 sec sprint followed by 30 sec rest
- 45 sec sprint followed by 15 sec rest
- 60 sec sprint and finish
- 5 minute cool-down (walk/light jog and held stretches)

Tips:
- During the sprints, your heart should be working at above 80 per cent of your maximum heart rate. (My average for the session was (172/203)x100 = 85%
- It’s okay to slow down a bit, just make sure you’re working as hard as you can. Remember, don’t over-exhert yourself though. If you begin to feel dizzy or unwell, stop immediately, sit down and drink plenty of water.
- Be aware that these sessions are extremely high intensity and you will be tired for at least a day after. This is natural because your body maintains a high metabolic rate for 24 hours after, so more energy will be used to recover from the session.

anonymous asked:

...I just realized...Actually, neither transgender people nor "non-binaries" exist, nor will they exist. You can feel the opposite sex. You can operate to look like the opposite sex. You can change the shape of your genitals to those of the opposite sex. You can dress with socially designated clothing for the opposite sex. But your set of chromosomes remains the same. You are still female or male. Same, ''non-binary '' people...There are only two genres: Male or female+

+And you are, like it or not, one of them. Why do people insist on that? Why do people insist that you can change something that is inherently impossible to change? You can be homosexual perfectly, because either genre can attract you sexually or romantically, it doesn’t really have to do with whether you feel masculine or feminine, it just has to do with what atracts you. But you can’t avoid being one of the two genders, nor can you change it. You’re still one gender, like it or not. 

I am going to break from my usual sarcastic routine for a moment and answer under the assumption that you are speaking in good faith from a place of ignorance, not as a malicious troll. Judging by your spelling errors, I’m also guessing you are young. Perhaps that is my mistake, but I will offer you some patience that you are unlikely to receive elsewhere. 

First of all, the idea of “biological sex” is really only useful when referring to reproductive capacity. There’s a whole lot more to human sex and gender than that, which I will get into in a moment. 

You may or may not be familiar with the concept of “intersex”. Humans, like virtually all other animals, experience a great deal of diversity when it comes to how sex chromosomes are constructed and expressed. You probably know of XX (”female”) and XY (”male”), but some people may be X, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXX. These constructions are less common and may be associated with certain complications, but the point is: XX and XY are not the full story, nor some unbreakable rule. Even having “typical” chromosomes is no guarantee of physical development - some people with XY chromosomes develop typical “female” characteristics, including breasts and vaginas, because their bodies do not respond to androgens to a greater or lesser degree. These people may go their whole lives believing they have XX chromosomes. Others may have XX chromosomes, but will not develop wombs and will have typically “male” sexual traits. Still others may develop traits that are “in-between” and resist simplistic classification as “male” or “female” - ex., both functional ovaries and testicles. Some people are even intersex chimeras, possessing DNA that is both XY and XX after the in utero absorption of a fraternal twin’s genetic material. One cell might be “male”, another “female”. I’ve read estimates that as many as 1 out of 100 people have an intersex condition. Common? Well, enough so that rigid, “opposite” understandings of sex are just plumb wrong. 

Importantly, intersex and transgender are not the same thing. Some intersex people do ID as trans, and many of the hormonal and surgical treatments they may seek are the same. 

“Sex” describes several very different things: chromosomes, genitalia, secondary sexual characteristics, and the physical structure of brains. Sex chromosomes, as I explained, are not completely correlated with physical expression. Genitalia exist on a spectrum of size and functioning. Secondary sexual characteristics, such as hair, breast tissue, voice pitch, and skin type, are dependent on hormones. Brains are where it gets tricky - while there are sexual differences between brains, they’re extremely variable and it’s currently impossible to determine how much of that is genetic, hormonal, or affected by social conditioning. 

A transgender person will not be able to change their chromosomes, but they are able to affect the other aspects of sex. Someone with XX chromosomes, who does not have an intersex condition, may take testosterone treatments that will deepen the voice, increase body and facial hair, create male-pattern hairlines, develop muscle, lengthen the clitoris, redistribute fat, halt ovulation and menstruation, and affect the womb and vagina. The hormones will also affect the structure of the brain, whether or not the individual had a “male”-typical brain before treatment. Someone with XY chromosomes who embarks on an estrogen/androgen-blocking treatment will experience fat redistribution, breast growth, possibly lactation, minor voice changes, changes in hair density and texture, halt production of sperm and ejaculate fluid, decrease erectile tissue, shrinking of testicles, ect. They may also develop more “female-typical” brains. 

(Related note: external genitalia is developed in response to in utero sex hormones. Ovaries/testes and clitoris/penis develop from the same tissues.)

I want to take a brief moment to talk about a couple of non-human animals, because neat biology facts is kind of my thing, I guess. Honeybees effectively have three genders: drones, males used almost exclusively for sexual reproduction; workers, genetically female but infertile bees which do typical “bee stuff”; and queen bees, which are the mothers of the hive and spend their lives laying eggs. A queen bee and a worker bee are genetically identical - queen bees start off as regular worker larvae but are fed an exclusive diet of royal jelly to induce their sexual development. Very, very rarely, a worker bee will have ovaries just barely developed enough to allow for reproduction under extreme and unstable circumstances, laying only a small handful of unfertilized, genetically male eggs that occasionally live to become drones. It does not make sense to classify honeybees as either “female” or “male”, because genetics end up playing a smaller role than environmental factors.

Also…. chickens! Many cities allow backyard chicken coops, but specifically ban keeping roosters within city limits due to them being noisy nuisances. Most urban coops contain only hens… that is, until one spontaneously becomes a sterile rooster. A hen may slowly transform by growing spurs, a large comb, crowing obnoxiously, and becoming protective of the other hens, and even trying to mate with them. Despite having the DNA of a hen, it becomes a rooster in every way that counts to city officials, your neighbors, and other chickens. (There are many other species that can change sex and become fertile/virile, but I wanted to talk about chickens ‘cause no one else does.)

ANYWAY. At the very least, I think we’ve established that the biology of “sex” is complicated, and perhaps you now understand why “gender” is a separate-but-related concept. If “sex” refers to a mess of DNA and physical traits, then “gender” describes social and mental phenomena. Because we straight-up just invented society and norms, “masculinity” and “femininity” are highly subjective terms and their relationship to biology is… the subject of thousands of years of debate. Really. But we’re social animals, so social constructs are “real” in a certain sense. We are constantly training each other to behave in certain ways from the moment of birth - enforcing some things, discouraging others, molding and influencing each other with cultural expectations. What that means to us depends on the unique cocktail of biological and social experiences of each individual. We are not currently able to give a definitive scientific answer to “why” people are transgender - not that there’s one universal Transgender Experience, anyway. We do know that it’s nothing new, and that we are currently living in an era where science and technology can provide realization to all kinds of needs and desires with relative ease and safety. People’s business is their business. Ultimately, we are little more than neural jellyfish, floating briefly in a sea of mystery. Instead of being afraid of and condemning what we don’t understand or empathize with, we owe each other patience, compassion, and respect. 

nature.com
Ancient bones reveal girl's tough life in early Americas
Teenage mother who lived 12,000 years ago was malnourished but still roamed widely.

For more than 12,000 years, the adolescent girl’s bones lay deep in a Mexican cave. Now analysis of her skeleton is revealing details of her harsh existence in the early Americas — which probably included pregnancy and childbirth before death at a young age.

The bones show that the girl, whom researchers nicknamed Naia, is likely to have travelled long distances on foot, but didn’t carry much on her journeys. The skeleton also reveals that Naia experienced severe and repeated nutritional stress that scarred her bones and teeth, according to results presented on 30 March at a meeting of the Society for American Archaeology in Vancouver, Canada.

“She’s telling us a story,” says James Chatters, an archaeologist with Applied Paleoscience in Bothell, Washington, and principal investigator of the research on Naia, a project of Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology and History in Mexico City. “It was a very hard life.”

Naia has already helped to illuminate the origins of the first Americans. In 2014, Chatters and his colleagues reported that her DNA confirms the idea that a single group of Asian emigrants gave rise to both the earliest American settlers and modern Native Americans1.

For that work, divers examined Naia in the water-filled cavern in the Yucatán Peninsula where she was discovered in 2007. But intruders subsequently tampered with her remains. To prevent further meddling, the bones were gently carried out of the cave in 2014 and 2016 — which also gave scientists easier access to the specimens.

Rail-skinny skeleton

Roughly half of Naia’s bones were recovered, including an intact skull, both arms and one leg, making her among the most complete of the handful of New World skeletons that are more than 12,000 years old. Her bones reveal a teenager aged 15–17 at her death, which was probably the result of a fall into the deep pit where she was found. She was “rail-skinny”, Chatters said, with one upper arm bone only as thick as his little finger.

Naia’s slight build might have been linked to nutritional stress. Her shin bone and knee are striped with lines etched by halting growth, perhaps as a result of too little food, or health problems — such as parasite infections — that prevented her from absorbing nutrients. Irregularities in her teeth reinforce the suggestion that her nutrition was “rather limited quite often”, Chatters says.

A small portion of Naia’s pelvis broke off when she plummeted into the pit, and was lost. But her remaining pelvic bones are pitted in a way often seen in young, slight woman who have given birth. That’s a strong indicator she had gone through labour, and the healing of the bone means that she gave birth well before her death, says Chatters, who is collaborating with scientists at the Autonomous University of of Yucatán in Mérida, Mexico.

Naia’s upper-arm muscles were not heavily developed, judging by the smoothness of the bones where those muscles were once attached. She didn’t routinely grind seeds, work animal skins or carry heavy loads — common tasks during her time. But Naia’s shin- and thighbone show that her legs were heavily muscled, meaning that she probably roamed widely over the landscape.

The team’s analysis was competent and thorough, says Gary Haynes, an archaeologist at the University of Nevada, Reno. He thinks Naia’s thinness might be due to “environmental changes of the time [that] were making life harder and harder by removing resources, or making them less dependable”.

“We get the sense that the lives of the first Americans were wonderful and easy,” Chatters says. “Well, it isn’t necessarily the case.”

2

Mkay, let’s talk srs for a moment. ‘cause every now and then, I get an influx of reblogs, and see #goals in some. It’s flattering, but also weird.

Sitting at around 22% BF, this is either the leanest, or close to the leanest I’ve been in a VERY long time. I don’t give a shit.

I don’t look like this for the aesthetic. I have a strong core and developed abs because I need them for stability in major lifts. My legs and ass look like this because I need to generate power and force. My arms and shoulders have shape so I can lock a barbell out overhead, and pull myself over a pullup bar.

I’m currently in a caloric deficit to cut weight so I can be a 69kg lifter, not a 75kg, because I don’t currently have the muscle mass to fill out 75kg.

I have identifiable and measurable goals I want to meet. I spend a lot of my free time training. Most of the time, it makes me happy. Somedays, it’s dragging myself through more squats sets, more accessory work, and feeling frustrated when what should be easy weights just aren’t moving right. But I’m still in the gym, working, because I want to get better.

My body looks right for what my goals are. Having strength related goals is what really moved me away from negative body image.

But guys and gals, don’t define your goals by someone else’s body. Literally every body develops muscle differently. Look for determination, purpose, happiness. They’re less fleeting that this flesh canoe.

**IN NO WAY do I mean any kind of negativity towards bodybuilding/physique competitors. Y'all are amazing**

Tumblr Themes & React and Redux: Part 1 - Setup and the Initial State

As a platform that prides itself on being a home for artists and creatives alike, it only makes sense that we allow our users to fully customize their Tumblrs to fully express themselves. Here at Tumblr, the world is your oyster not only in terms of looks but also in how you create your theme. I wanted to demonstrate how you too can develop a theme using Redux and React. Since there are plenty of docs and tutorials on how to use those libraries themselves, I will briefly describe how I got the libraries to work with the Tumblr theme engine, and share some handy tips that made developing more efficient and more enjoyable.

If you follow the ever changing landscape of JavaScript, then you’ve at least heard of these two libraries. Prior to building the Post-It-Forward theme, I only knew of them by name but never got the chance to actually use them. Developers couldn’t get enough of how React made it easy to create and reuse components. Many also praise how elegantly React manages and renders views, especially when paired with Redux for state management. All of this sounded great. I wanted to turn this project into a learning experience. I thought, “why not?” and gave it a shot.

An Extremely Brief Introduction to Tumblr Themes

The way themes work on Tumblr is that we have a theme engine that provides special types of operators. These operators insert dynamic data, such as your Tumblr’s title or description, or are blocks that serve as conditionals for rendering a block of HTML, like the “Next Page” link.

My HTML started off a little something like this:

<!DOCTYPE html>
    <head>
    <title>{Title}</title>
        <style></style>
    </head>
    <body>
        <div id="post-it-forward-root"></div>
    </body>
</html>

As you can see, {Title} is a variable that will return the title of the Tumblr. The point of entry for this theme is the <div> element with the #post-it-forward-root ID. In your index.js file you’ll reference this DOM element in your ReactDom.render() method. If you want to learn more about the theme engine, head over to our Theme Docs

Creating the Initial State

To get things started, we need to create an initial state. How do we introduce this initial state if we have to rely on the theme engine to give us all our data? How do we get the data from HTML land to JS land? Well, here’s one way of doing it:

<script type="text/javascript">
    (function(root) {
        var ensureString = function(str) {
            return !str ? '' : str;
        };

        var basicVariables = {
            title: ensureString({JSTitle}),
            name: ensureString({JSName}),
                        description: ensureString({JSDescription}),
                        metaDescription: ensureString({JSMetaDescription}),
                        blogUrl: ensureString({JSBlogURL}),
                        rss: ensureString({JSRSS}),
            favicon: ensureString({JSFavicon}),
            customCss: ensureString({JSCustomCSS}),
            isPermalinkPage: !!ensureString(/*{block:PermalinkPage}*/true/*{/block:PermalinkPage}*/),
            isIndexPage: !!ensureString(/*{block:IndexPage}*/true/*{/block:IndexPage}*/),
            /*{block:PostTitle}*/
            postTitle: ensureString({JSPostTitle}),
            /*{/block:PostTitle}*/
            /*{block:PostSummary}*/
            postSummary: ensureString({JSPostSummary}),
            /*{/block:PostSummary}*/
            portraitUrl16: ensureString({JSPortraitURL-16}),
            portraitUrl24: ensureString({JSPortraitURL-24}),
            portraitUrl30: ensureString({JSPortraitURL-30}),
            portraitUrl40: ensureString({JSPortraitURL-40}),
            portraitUrl48: ensureString({JSPortraitURL-48}),
            portraitUrl64: ensureString({JSPortraitURL-64}),
            portraitUrl96: ensureString({JSPortraitURL-96}),
            portraitUrl128: ensureString({JSPortraitURL-128}),
            copyrightYears: ensureString({JSCopyrightYears}),
            isSearchPage: !!ensureString(/*{block:SearchPage}*/true/*{/block:SearchPage}*/),
            searchQuery: ensureString({JSSearchQuery}),
            safeSearchQuery: ensureString({JSURLSafeSearchQuery}),
            searchPlaceHolder: ensureString('{lang:Search Blog}'),
            noSearchResults: !!ensureString(/*{block:NoSearchResults}*/true/*{/block:NoSearchResults}*/),
        };

        root.tumblrData = {
            basicVariables: basicVariables,
            };
    })(this);
</script>

This creates a tumblrData attribute on the browser’s window object.

Sometimes the theme engine returns nothing for a particular variable if it’s not available. For example, if I made a post that does not have a title, the final root.tumblrData object will not have postTitle as a key. Sometimes the key will be available but the theme engine returned an empty value for it. For those cases, I created a helper method called ensureString() that turns those empty values into empty strings. Sometimes you might need a boolean value. In those cases, I’ll enter the conditional variables from the theme engine into the helper method to get the boolean value from it.

Once you’ve set up your initial state make sure that you place this script tag before the script tag that references the rest of your code that should be compiled and minified and uploaded through the asset uploader that the Tumblr text editor provides. This ensures that the tumblrData is accessible through the window object by the time the React app gets initiated.

tumblrData should look something like this:

const tumblrData = {
    basicVariables: {
        blogUrl: "https://mentalhealthquilt.tumblr.com/",
        copyrightYears: "2016–2017",
        customCss: "",
                description: "Mental Health Quilt",
        favicon: "https://68.media.tumblr.com/avatar_c402eedfb9d5_128.png",
        isIndexPage: true,
        isPermalinkPage: false,
        isSearchPage: false,
        metaDescription: "Mental Health Quilt",
        name: "mentalhealthquilt",
        noSearchResults: false,
        portraitUrl16: "https://68.media.tumblr.com/avatar_c402eedfb9d5_16.png",
        portraitUrl24: "https://68.media.tumblr.com/avatar_c402eedfb9d5_24.png",
        portraitUrl30: "https://68.media.tumblr.com/avatar_c402eedfb9d5_30.png",
        portraitUrl40: "https://68.media.tumblr.com/avatar_c402eedfb9d5_40.png",
        portraitUrl48: "https://68.media.tumblr.com/avatar_c402eedfb9d5_48.png",
        portraitUrl64: "https://68.media.tumblr.com/avatar_c402eedfb9d5_64.png",
        portraitUrl96: "https://68.media.tumblr.com/avatar_c402eedfb9d5_96.png",
        portraitUrl128: "https://68.media.tumblr.com/avatar_c402eedfb9d5_128.png",
        rss: "https://mentalhealthquilt.tumblr.com/rss",
        safeSearchQuery: "",
        searchPlaceHolder: "Search mentalhealthquilt",
        searchQuery: "",
        title: "Mental Health Quilt",
    },
}

Now we have the data that the theme engine gave us in a format that React and Redux can work with.

If you are new to these libraries, I highly recommend following the simple Todo App Tutorial that is on the Redux website. They do a wonderful job of explaining the process as you build the app.

Helpful Tips

Setting up a local server will make developing way faster than the current setup. If you’re using both the “webpack” and “webpack-dev-server” packages, in your package.json file under scripts you can place something like this in it:

In your package.json file

...
"scripts": {
    "local-server": "NODE_ENV=development webpack-dev-server --config path/to/webpack.config.js --port=3000 --inline --hot"
},
...

To run that script, in the terminal you will type this command:

> npm run local-server

In the Tumblr editor, be sure to replace your script tags referencing these external files like so:

<!DOCTYPE html>
        <head>
                <title>{Title}</title>
                <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="http://localhost:3000/path/to/prod/index.css">
        </head>
        <body>
                <div id="post-it-forward-root"></div>
                <script type="text/javascript">
                        // where the tumblrData gets created
                </script>
                <script src="http://localhost:3000/path/to/prod/index.js"></script>
        </body>
</html>

Once you run that script, it’ll enable live reload so that every time you save a .js_.css_.scss/etc. file, it’ll rebuild the assets and refresh your Tumblr blog for you. This is way faster than having to re-upload your assets every time you make a change, no matter how small. Just remember to return your script and style references to the uploaded assets when you’re done working. Localhost is only for development.

You could also add the Redux logger middleware to your project during development so that you can view how the state changes as you fire off different actions. For more information on how to set this up, the Redux Logger Github is a great resource.

Summary

Building a Tumblr theme using Redux and React is possible! Not only is there a workflow that makes development much faster, but it’s also a great way to flex your web development muscles. You can add more to the user experience of your Tumblr now that you have the world of JavaScript at your fingertips. Go forth and make some awesome themes!

Stay tuned for part 2 that will cover paginating.

- @0xmichelle

re·al·i·za·tion

noun

The moment of sudden clarity when feelings are finally recognized, or are made aware for the first time.

It hit you on a Wednesday evening while you were at the gym as per usual. School was killing you, but you were determined to stick with your workout schedule, even if it meant sleeping an hour less or watching one less episode of your current favorite kdrama. Just exactly why were you so passionate about working out?

Ding!

[7:33PM] Jeon: If you’re not here in 5 minutes then YOU owe ME all you can eat KBBQ. 

Ding! 

[7:33PM] Jeon: AND ice cream.

It was as simple as that – you just couldn’t, wouldn’t, lose this bet with Jeon Jungkook. 

Keep reading

Testosterone, Month 4

Haven’t made one of these update posts for a while, because it seemed like the pace of changes had slowed down.  Not in a bad way, but the immediate changes and the newness are over, and now I’m onto things that might take years to fully grow in.

- My voice has definitely changed.  I still don’t sound like James Earl Jones, I still get “ma’am” on the phone, but it’s definitely much lower than it was.  I’ll try and post a recording in a bit.

- I think my face has very subtly changed.  I still look “like myself,” whatever that means, but there’s a little less cheeks and a little more jaw.  I’m getting “sir” more often in person, although not totally consistently.

- I have acne.  It’s not awful, but I used to have really clear skin, and now there’s a whole bunch of zits around my jawline.  Oh well.

- I don’t have any facial or chest hair.  I do have hair on my thighs, though, which I didn’t before, and my lower leg hair is darker and thicker.  Arm hair is maybe very slightly thicker, but it’s still blond so it’s hard to tell.

- Emotionally I haven’t noticed any major changes from last time.  I do tend to kind of “crash” in both energy and morale when I’m at the end of an injection cycle and my T is dropping.

- I have not developed giant muscles.  Not that I’ve been trying very hard.  My overall body shape is about the same as it used to be, but then again, I was stocky and apple-shaped to begin with.

- So far: no weight gain, no uncontrollable rage, no uncontrollable lust, no inability to cry, no hair loss, no pelvic pain.  And no regrets.  Or not many.  Because my experience of body dysphoria was so vague, I was worried I was going to hit the much-threatened point of “oh no, I changed my body and now I have real dysphoria,” but that isn’t happening.  This feels good and right and I like seeing the way my body is changing.

- TMI TIME: My clit is freaking enormous!  Or my dick is freaking tiny, depending how you look at things.  As with the other changes, it’s still probably inside the range you might see in cis women, but it’s a lot more than I’m used to.

- TMI TIME, CONTINUED: My vagina still works!  Still gets wet, still accepts and enjoys penetration.  :)   Actually, it gets really wet, especially when I orgasm.  I’m not sure if it’s literally ejaculation, but wow, it’s quite a lot.  I didn’t use to need tissues to masturbate.

- In a lot of ways this is like being a thirty-one-year-old in the body of a fourteen-year-old.  It’s kind of strange in that respect.  Sure beats the reverse, though.