and europe in general

It being well known, of course, that in 1940 Britain’s richest people went off to war and saved us all.

Family Trip

20m, last year my Father had to visit Spain where another company wanted to merge with his. Having been on the rocks with my Mother at the time he thought it would be best to bring her and myself with him. Thinking this would bring the spark back into their lives he booked a five-star hotel for the month. My Mother and I were more than excited having never been there or Europe in general. We did not know what to expect at all. The moment I found out about this I began looking up things to do while there. Making a list at the very top was to hit some beaches since it was the middle of summer there. My Mother had the same idea packing a carry on bag of just bikinis and towels. When we got there it was everything you seen in movies plus so much more. The first two weeks my Father would be meeting his potential partners during the days working with their company to see how they function and stuff. So it was just my Mother and I, which was much better than their bickering all the time when he was around. Our first day we decided to find a beach so she had me look up the closest one. Telling me she can’t wait any longer to get in the water she didn’t care how nice the beach was only that it was the closest. I found a highly rated one on google and we called a taxi and went straight there. It was mid day on a Monday so there won’t be a lot of people there the driver told us. She was even more excited about this since crowded beaches aren’t relaxing. When the driver dropped us off my Mom had me pay him as she ran off to the beach. When I caught up to her standing at the edge I soon realized what she had moments before. Unlike the U.S. this was Spain and it was very very normal that this was a Nudist beach. My Mom’s face was red and not from the sun and I too started to blush as mature men and women walked around with their privates freely flopping in the wind. She smiled awkwardly at me and I shrugged telling her I had no idea this was even a real thing. She said we should just go out there in our bathing suits and act as if its a normal beach ignoring the other people since there really wasn’t anyone there. I accepted and we found a nice spot pretty much secluded to ourselves. My Mom didn’t waist any time running to the water and diving in as I laid out looking at all of the old women in the distance. I had never seen mature women completely nude in person so seeing their unfit bodies was new to me and surprisingly a turn on. I think that was because it was so new and raw that my body couldn’t say no. Once my Mom got back from the water she laid down beside me to get some sun telling me how nice the water is. I could care less about the water at this point trying to make my half hard dick unnoticeable to her. A few minutes passed and I saw two older men walking our direction. The one was fat with his stomach completely overshadowing his dick and the other very average. They came straight over to us and began talking to us. Unable to understand Spanish my Mom told them and they repeated themselves in English for us. The average guy said, “this is a nudist beach and you must know it is very disrespectful to the rest of us that you wear your bathing suits.” Standing there with very aggressive looks they made it a point that we must either strip or leave. My Mom looked at me with a disappointed look as she tried to reason with me on why we could stay. Telling me she didn’t mind if I didn’t I then agreed. She said to the men that was fine we will strip so they can go back to enjoying themselves. They then shot me some mean looks before going away. Mom then smiled at me and said, “I guess it is no big deal seeing your mother naked”, as she untied her top straps. Watching her ample tits bounce out of the top was more than amazing having always wondered what they looked like. Stunned I never imagined they would be so amazing though. She has a thin waist from working out a lot and around 5'7" with 32DD. She then continued to take off her bottom and looked to see if I was doing them same. I froze since my dick was now hard as fuck and I feared what she would say. She seemed to notice my embarrassment and told me she will go to the water now so I could undress in private at least. Watching her walk away as her ass switched from side to side did nothing to help my problem. So I just pulled them off so those two guys wouldn’t come back. I tried to find a comfortable way to hide my dick, but nothing worked as it struck a flag pole pose. I bet if my Mom looked at it from the water she could have (not saying I am huge) it was just that obvious. A palm in the desert. Soon after she  started to come back and I decided to roll over on my stomach. I could feel her walking up from behind me and her voice call to me, “cute bald ass hun”. I couldn’t help but laugh since she was probably used to the site of my father’s hairy body. We hung out for a while like this and no matter how much time passed my dick wouldn’t go down. Buried in the sand beneath me I could feel it twitch at the sight of every naked woman passing. My mom must have figured something was up as she watched my back change from pale to crab red. Telling me she was going to take a nap she also turned over onto her stomach looking the other direction. I took advantage of this moment and rolled over feeling the sand stuck to my chest and stomach. I decided to head to the water thinking it might be best to cool down my manhood. As I walked up to the water it was super cold on my feet so I took my time getting in. This was long enough for a couple of mature women to approach me asking if I was alone. Watching as their eyes flashed from my dick to my face I knew they were after a young eager guy like me. Feeling flattered they were so flirtatious I played along to see what would happen. They were both easily in their 50’s with bodies to match. Tear drop breasts and average aged bodies I never thought I would find them attractive until now. Must be a mixture of curiosity and hormones. This did nothing to help with my manhood problem as they continued to flirt and one even gestured her hands while talking, which slightly grazed the tip. They continued to do this while asking me all about men in the States. The one even went as far as grabbing the shaft one good time giving it a slow stroke while asking if we like experienced women. I allowed this since it needed some attention anyways. We talked for a couple more minutes as they now tried to get me to come lay with them. Very tempted we were interrupted by another as my Mom come walking right up next to me. Surprise by her presence I nearly forgot I was with her. She shot dirty looks to the women who were much older than her as she took me by the hand asking me what they were talking about. I just told her they were wondering where I was from as she looked back at me knowing full well I was full of shit. She then asked if I would come back and put lotion on her back as the older women got the hint walking back to their spot. I followed my Mom to our spot where she handed me the bottle of cream. She smiled and said, “wow I never imagined my own Son would be a target for such mature women.” I told her it was nothing to worry about as I caught her eyes locked on my hard dick. Looking up she blushed and told me she could see why they were so interested. This was like gas to the fire as my dick twitched having never heard something so provocative. Hearing my own Mother say that drove me so wild I felt my dick swelling more as she glanced at it several more times. I almost busted at the thought of this all. She then laughed and said, “maybe you don’t need the cream, seems like you have enough of your own.” I then glanced down at what she was looking at to see a stream of precum pouring from my dick. Looking up at her my eyes drifted up her thick legs to her stubbly pussy then around her round tits and juicy lips. By the time I got to her eyes I could feel my dick throbbing again and more precum was surely leaking out. She saw my lust growing and then asked, “can we act as if we are not Mother and Son for just today?” I nodded my head slowly unable to speak as she crawled closer reaching out for my dick while keeping eye contact. Feeling her hand grab it drove me insane as she bent down putting it straight into her mouth. I collapsed as she took my length. Swallowing my dick like I have never had it sucked before she was so passionate. I couldn’t believe what was happening as she cupped my balls with her hand and swirled her tongue around my tip. She told me that it has been nearly a year since she has done this with my father and much longer since she had sex. The sound of that word was like lightning through my body. She crawled on top of me and lined my dick up with her pussy. I could feel it dripping wet as she slipped my tip past her lips. My heart slammed as I zoned out on her. She slowly slid it in sitting down on it as I could feel inside of her. It was amazing how tight she was and no surprise since she works out so much and hasn’t been taken by a man in such a long time. I am not going to lie all of the energy passing through me was so overwhelming that I couldn’t last more than a minute before I had to come. She pulled me out and stroked me as I came all over my stomach and her hand. I never came so much and she never seen so much come as she told me this laughing with excitement. Squeezing the last few drops out she complimented me on how hard it still was. I then asked her is she still wanted to continue and oh did she! Climbing on top of me without another word she started riding me again this time much harder. The cum was now spilling off of my sides as she bounced around. She even laid down on top of me rubbing her huge tits all over my chest covering herself in my cum. When she rose back up I could see strings of my sticky cum band from our bodies as she rubbed it into her tits. She was wild and going crazy as she then slid her fingers into her mouth tasting me. I could feel her pussy tighten when she did this as she began to come on my dick. Grinding harder now she moaned with her finders in her mouth while her other hand slid across my stomach only to scoop up more cum to taste. Feeling her pussy surging she came and I couldn’t help but cum with her. Trying to warn her it was far too late I unloaded inside of her. I am not sure if she knew so I kept my mouth shut scared she might flip. When she finished she looked down at me with a bright eyed smile and said, “come let go get clean in the water”. I followed her down to the water where she and I washed the cum from out bodies. I was so happy to see how cool she was about what just happened. We left the beach soon after and spent the rest of the night with my Father. Every day after while my Father was working we went back to the beach and continued our fun as a couple. In the end my Mom convinced my Dad this trip saved their marriage so he made the deal and we now spend half the year in Spain.

Europe! Help me get this out- reblog 🙏!

@taylornation I respect you all A LOT. But on behalf of all European fans, please hear me out: I know it may not be completely under your control, but It is very unfair to release only limited information regarding the world tour. Especially when it comes to UK and the rest of Europe. Most artists in general release the entire leg of the UK and Europe tour knowing that close proximity of these areas allow for fans to do some traveling if their favorite artist is not coming to their home country. By you guys EXCLUDING the rest of Europe on this announcement creates confusion for the rest of the Europe fans and It makes them wonder whether or not @taylorswift will be coming to their home country or a place much closer to them than the UK. If no statement is made by nov 29 regarding Europe, not only will the UK dates be EXTREMELY OVERLY SATURATED due to all of Europe’s fans trying to get tickets, but fans will be spending more money with tickets and travel arrangements when it is possible that they may not have to (if other Europe cities will eventually be included on the tour). So please consider releasing at least a statement regarding some European cities so you can create less tension and confusion and possibly save us time and money too.

studyblr introduction!

Hi!  I’m bibliophilebasics, an aspiring studyblr, since I’ve been so inspired recently looking through all of the studyblr pictures, master posts, etc.  Everyone seems to be so positive and supportive of each other, and they’re dedicated towards getting a good education.  I definitely have a problem with procrastination and lack of motivation to study sometimes, and hopefully this studyblr will help me to be more motivated and excited to study!

About me: 

  • high school junior in the U.S.A.
  • super white (mostly German and Irish)
  • Ravenclaw, INFJ
  • I’m such a nerd that I work at a library

Things I like: 

  • READING/BOOKS.  I read pretty much anything I can, ranging from YA to classics, such as Harry Potter, The Great Gatsby, The Mortal Instruments, etc.
  • Forensics.  Since I’m aspiring to be a forensic pathologist, I love anything that has to do with CSI or criminal justice.
  • Musical theatre, like Hamilton or DEH, Legally Blonde, Les Mis, Phantom of the Opera, I could go on and on.  I’m always in my school’s productions of whatever musical they’re doing.
  • Going along with musical theatre, instruments, since I play the clarinet and am in marching band.
  • Calligraphy, bullet journaling, pretty much any aesthetic notes.  My notes are extremely ugly in comparison, but I’m fascinated by how beautiful writing can be.
  • Architecture, like the kind in Europe, Russia has some beautiful buildings, or like the skyscrapers in NYC. 
  • Speaking of various countries, traveling in general.  I’m lucky enough to have gone to Europe, but I’d go back in a heartbeat.
  • NETFLIX (pretty much the reason for my procrastination).  Also The Good Doctor has taken over my life recently.
  • Caffeine and chocolate are beautiful things that should be enjoyed equally and together.
  • Green tea
  • Taylor Swift 
  • CATS

Classes I’m taking: 

my school operates on a semester schedule, so right now I’m taking:

  • precalc
  • AP Lang
  • honors chem
  • honors world history
  • band/chorus
  • health

Next semester: 

  • honors anatomy and physiology
  • AP Lang
  • honors chem
  • honors French history and language
  • band/chorus
  • gym (blech)

My Goals:

  • become more motivated
  • have better notes/plan out more
  • contribute to the studyblr community
  • get into a good college
  • and a good medical school
  • become a forensic pathologist
  • s t o p  p r o c r a s t i n a t i n g

Studyblrs that inspire me: 

@emmastudies, @studyquill, @rhubarbstudies, @kay-law, @bookmrk, @hufflepuffwannabe, @mednotes, @notesworthtea, @ravnclaw, @soymilkstudies, @brainiakk, @academicsapphic, @cardiacstvdies 

just to name a few!

If you’re a new studyblr, please feel free to contact me, because I would love to connect with people in the community!

picture courtesy of @days-e

120 years ago today, the jewish labor bund was founded in vilne. before the turn of the century, they became the biggest socialist organization in the russian empire and, under the protection of bund militants, organized the first congress of the russian social democratic labor party, the future ruling party of the soviet union. between communism, nazism and zionism, the bund lost most of their members over the next fifty years, but the bund remains an important episode in jewish leftist history. read more about the bund:

  • Class Struggle in the Pale: The Formative Years of the Jewish Workers’ Movement in Tsarist Russia by Ezra Mendelsohn
  • The Emergence of Modern Jewish Politics: Bundism and Zionism in Eastern Europe by Zvi Gitelman
  • The Politics of Futility: The General Jewish Workers Bund of Poland, 1917–1943 by Bernard Johnpoll
  • For Our Freedom and Yours: The Jewish Labour Bund in Poland, 1939–1949 by Daniel Blatman
  • The Jewish Bund in Russia from its Origins to 1905 by Henry Tobias
Another Thing you shouldn't do in Italy

DON’T… expect that everyone in Italy speaks English for YOUR convenience. This isn’t the movies where all Italians speak some charming version of accented English or some other foreign language. In Italy, as in Southern Europe in general as compared to Northern/Western Europe, the majority of people will not speak much or any English whatsoever. Italy consistently earns moderate to low rankings on English proficiency indexes - among the lowest in Europe. You’ll do okay with English-only at hotels, the usual tourist sites, and restaurants in touristy areas like Rome or Naples, but once you’re out of those areas, it’s “good luck” to you. So try to at least learn some basic phrases in Italian before you visit Italy. 

why the fuck are people saying america doesnt have roundabouts? have you been to massachusetts? thats all we have around here is gottdanm roundabouts. dangerous intersection? theres a roundabout here now. one road kind of hard to get onto? roundabout. an intersection that would probably be fine with 1 light added to it? nope, roundabout now. just need to connect some fuckin streets? put a fucking roundabout in there right now. my entire damn state is just made of them, i drove through 3 on my way to fuckin school.

Why we need Italy to win Eurovision

(I’m sleep deprived from last night’s semi-final so I’m sorry if I don’t make a lot of sense just bear with me)

I think I can speak for us all when I say that last year was just a SHIT year in general, both in Europe and around the world. The uncertainty across not only the EU but the entire European continent with Brexit (and the idiot across the pond) has Europe feeling like it is balancing on a knife’s edge and Jamala winning really represented that. I personally think that Jamala is an absolutely incredible singer (one of the best that the contest has ever seen imo), but her song, although personal, was considered political by a lot of countries, and this year’s contest has been overshadowed by that to the extent that Russia hasn’t been able to/decided not to participate.

Italy’s song is ridiculous, to say the least. A dancing gorilla and the catchiest chorus that I have ever heard. But Italy’s song is also biting satire which addresses a serious issue (cultural appropriation by the west), Italy’s song is a wild party and such a happy song to listen to and to watch.

The tone of Jamala’s song described 2016, dark, desperate and emotional. I think that Italy’s song deserves to define 2017, ridiculous satire that calls out a serious issue in a way that just lifts everybody’s spirits in the best possible way.

After 2016, we just need a little bit of fun, and Italy’s song perfectly represents the attitude I think we all want to have this year, partying and having as much fun as possible while calling out EVERYBODY on their shit. Italy’s song is honestly the most fun song I have heard in AGES and it gets everybody dancing (seriously, try showing it in a room full of people, everybody is jumping up and down by the second chorus) honestly I think it’s exactly what Europe needs at this point.

ok so i have a hungarian friend and we watched hungary’s entry to eurovision together and essentially what’s going on is that the lead singer is romani (which is kind of a big deal for modern-day hungary and europe in general actually). he actually sang in both romani and hungarian and. my hungarian friend literally started crying at the rap part because it was so full of raw emotion and really really heavy lyric-wise like she couldn’t even really translate it because it was just so much. and she said it was almost definitely alluding to the persecution that romani people face. what im saying is that this song is more than just really catchy its also a huge statement and tl;dr joci pápai from hungary deserves to win eurovision 2017
Veiled people, veiled people everywhere! The entire bus is full of them!
“Verschleierte, überall Verschleierte! Der ganze Bus ist voll”

A German Twitter user posted this photo of unoccupied bus seats in September 2016, when there were discussions to ban wearing clothes that veil the face in public.

In late July 2017, the photo reappeared in a private Norwegian right-wing Facebook group with the comment “What do people think of this?”, sparking a heated debate about Muslim immigration into Europe in general and Norway in particular. Some of the discussants found a whole bus full of people wearing burquas frightening.

The media attention was there, even the Washington Post reported on this discussion in an article.

It turned out that the original poster on Facebook wanted to play a practical joke and was shocked how many people were easily fooled into believing that they saw burquas when they in fact saw empty bus seats, demonstrating the degree of hysteria in the public discourse. He also said that he hoped the resulting media attention would help distinguish between legitimate criticism of the current immigration policy on the one hand, and hateful racism and xenophobia on the other hand.

One user commented that he passed the test since the first thing he saw was a bunch of Darth Vaders.


This is an excerpt from my post, ‘THRACIANS, REAPERS OF THE BALKANS

Sitalces and the Scythians:

Teres’ son and heir, Sitalces, expanded its borders north to the Danube River, west to the Strymon River (Struma) and southwest to the rich Greek trade port colony of Abdera by the northern Aegean Sea. The Greek colonies within the borders of his kingdom paid the Odrysians tribute as well as the occasional gifts of “gold and silver equal in value to the tribute, besides stuffs embroidered or plain and other articles” (Thucydides, 97.3).

By these means the kingdom became very powerful, and in revenue and general prosperity exceeded all the nations of Europe which lie between the Ionian Sea and the Euxine; in the size and strength of their army being second only, though far inferior, to the Scythians.” – The Peloponnesian War by Thucydides, 97.5.

An early threat faced by Sitalces came in the form of a nephew named Octamasades who was of mixed Thracian and Scythian descent. This Octamasades usurped the Scythian throne from Scyles, his half-brother, who was disliked for the fact that he was half Greek, could read and speak Greek, married a Greek woman, built a house in the Greek trade colony of Olbia (north Black Sea coast), as well as publicly practicing the Greek Dionysian sacred rites. Scyles fled into Thrace seeking refuge. Octamasades chased after him but was met at the Danube River by Sitalces of Odrysia who sent Octamasades a message:

Why should we try each other’s strength? You are my sister’s son, and you have my brother with you; give him back to me, and I will give up your Scyles to you; and let us not endanger our armies.” – The Histories by Herodotus, 4.80.3. Both sides agreed and Octamasades beheaded Scylas.

Peloponnesian War (431–404 BCE):

The Athenian-led Delian League succeeded in expelling the Persians from Europe and claimed the coastal regions of the northern Aegean Sea (the Hellespont, Thrace, Amphipolis and the Chalkidikian Peninsula) where they continued establishing colonies. Colonies were even founded deeper into Thrace, Amphipolis for example. One reason for their interest in Thrace was its rich and abundant gold and silver mines. With the Greek triumph over Persia, the Athenians and their allies effectively held dominion over the majority of the Aegean Sea, its coastlines and its islands. We refer to this grand Athenian hegemony as the Athenian Empire.

^ The expanse of the Athenian-led Delian League in 431 BCE, before the Peloponnesian War.

The Athenian empire was now tyrannically imposing their control over allied Greek city states and the rich trade networks of the Aegean Sea but was plagued by rebellions. Sitalces allied himself with the Athenians, promising them aid in Thrace if they helped him conquer the Chalkidikian peninsula (which had recently left the Athenian-led Delian League) which was to the east of Macedon. To this end Sitalces assembled an army of “more than one hundred and twenty thousand infantry and fifty thousand cavalry” (Diodorus, 12.50.3).

many of the independent Thracian tribes followed him of their own accord in hopes of plunder. The whole number of his forces was estimated at a hundred and fifty thousand, of which about two-thirds were infantry and the rest cavalry.” – The Peloponnesian War by Thucydides, 98.3.

Macedon under King Perdiccas II, which impelled the Chalkidikians into rebelling against Athens, was at odds with Athens so Sitalces invaded Macedon in 429 BCE. Sitalces was also spurred to invade Macedon with the purpose of placing Amyntas (Perdiccas’ nephew) on the Macedonian throne; Amyntas and his father were previously driven out from Macedon and sought refuge with Sitalces’ court.

And since he was at the same time on bad terms with Perdiccas, the king of the Macedonians, he decided to bring back Amyntas, the son of Philip, and place him upon the Macedonian throne.” – The Library of History by Diodorus Siculus, 12.50.4.

Sitalces ravaged the lands of both the Chalkidikians and the Macedonians, the latter feared to face this great army so some submitted to the Thracians while others gathered their crops and hid within their strongholds. The momentum waned as Sitalces saw that the Athenians had failed to fulfill their promise to aid the Odrysians with ships and an army, that the harsh winter was wearing down his men and that the Greeks (Thessalians, Achaeans, Magnesians, etc.) were assembling a vast army to repel them. Sitalces and Perdiccas II of Macedon came to terms, the Odrysians retreated and Perdiccas’ gave his sister’s (named Stratonice) hand in marriage to Sitalces’s nephew (Seuthes I). Sitalces, just like his father, died while trying to unify the Thracians (the Triballi killed Seuthes, the Thyni killed his father Teres).

^ Osprey – ‘Men-at-Arms’ series, issue 360 – The Thracians, 700 BC-AD 46 by Christopher Webber and Angus McBride (Illustrator). Plate A: The Invasion of Macedonia. A1: King Sitalces – “The Thracian king is based on archaeological evidence and wears a bronze bell cuirass, bronze Chalkidian helmet, bronze greaves, and a Thracian cloak. He carries two javelins and a kopis. His breast plate is decorated with dragons’ heads, and his helmet with a griffin and palmettos. The helmet comes from an unknown site in Bulgaria and is dated to the second half of the 5th century. The silver harness ornaments come from Binova tumulus in Bulgaria”. A2: Early Odrysian light cavalryman – “This horseman is based on a painting on a 5th century pelike from Apollonia. He carries two javelins, and a pelta is slung on his back. Greek vase paintings show Thracian light cavalry dressed the same as the peltasts, in patterned tunic, foxskin cap, fawnskin boots and long cloak. Other less sophisticated cavalry dressed very simply in a pointed hat and long flowing tunic, and they are indistinguishable from Skythian cavalry. Some 4th century Thracian metalwork shows the cavalrymen bareheaded and with bare feet, a medium-length flowing cloak and simple tunic.A3: Macedonian infantryman – “The Stricken Macedonian infantryman comes from the early 3rd century Kazanluk tomb paintings. He is thought to be Macedonian because of his location on the frieze, and his peculiar hat resembling the kausia of the Macedonian warrior nobility; but he may be Thracian, because the Macedonians do not use oval shields, and because of his similarity to the Thracian warriors on the same painting. He wears a blue cloak and carries a kopis and two javelins. His shield is oval with the top and bottom cut square, like the later Celtic thureos. A 5th century Macedonian infantryman would be carrying a circular wicker shield, animal-skin cloak and wearing sandals (or going barefoot) instead of shoes.

During the Peloponnesian War, thirteen thousand javelin-wielding swordsmen from the Dii tribe (Thracians) were hired by the Athenians to act join in the Sicilian expedition but they arrived too late. The Athenians sent them back to Thrace since they did not wish to be burdened into paying mercenaries they couldn’t make use of. This changed, however, when a series of failures befell them which pressured them into hiring the Thracian mercenaries once again as coastal raiders. When these Dii (Thracian) mercenaries arrived at the Boeotian city of Mycalessus:

“[4] The Thracians, bursting into Mycalessus, sacked the houses and temples and butchered the inhabitants, sparing neither youth nor age, but killing all they fell in with, one after the other, children and women, and even beasts of burden, and whatever other living creatures they saw; the Thracian race, like the bloodiest of the barbarians, being ever most so when it has nothing to fear. [5] Everywhere confusion reigned and death in all its shapes; and in particular they attacked a boys’ school, the largest that there was in the place, into which the children had just gone, and massacred them all. In short, the disaster falling upon the whole town was unsurpassed in magnitude, and unapproached by any in suddenness and in horror.” – The Peloponnesian War by Thucydides, 7.29.4-5.

Their victory was short-lived however since the Thebans (Boeotians from the city of Thebes) rushed to the aid of the pillaged city and utterly slaughtered the Dii (Thracians) mercenaries. The Thebans took back the looted goods and pursued the fleeing Thracians back to their ships where the “greatest slaughter took place while they (the Thracians) were embarking, as they did not know how to swim” (Thucydides, 7.30.2).

those in the vessels on seeing what was going on onshore moored them out of bow-shot: in the rest of the retreat the Thracians made a very respectable defence against the Theban horse, by which they were first attacked, dashing out and closing their ranks according to the tactics of their country, and lost only a few men in that part of the affair. A good number who were after plunder were actually caught in the town and put to death.” – The Peloponnesian War by Thucydides, 7.30.2.

Battle of Sphacteria, 425 BCE:

The famed Athenian politician and general Cleon rallied support from his countrymen by conveying his lack of fear against the Spartans, boasting that he could overcome the Sparta’s within twenty days’ time and declaring that he would achieve this without risking the life of a single Athenian by instead employing foreigners like Thracians peltasts from Aenisas. These Thracians took part in one of the greatest triumphs over the famed Spartans. After the Athenian naval victory over the Spartans (Battle of Pylos, 425 BCE) and its succeeding skirmishes, the remnants of the Spartan forces became stranded on the nearby island of Sphacteria.

^ Osprey – ‘Campaign’ series, issue 261 – Pylos and Sphacteria 425 BC by William Shepherd and Peter Dennis (illustrator). (pg. 78-79).

Here the Spartans were besieged into starvation, dehydration and exhaustion then constantly pursued by Athenian hoplites while being harassed by enemy archers, javelinmen and slingers until they were forced to surrender.

^ Osprey – ‘Campaign’ series, issue 261 – Pylos and Sphacteria 425 BC by William Shepherd and Peter Dennis (illustrator). The Battle on the island: the Spartan last stand (pp. 82–83). “After a fighting retreat over more than half the length of the Island the main Spartan force, depleted by casualties, joined the small garrison in their naturally defended and partly walled stronghold on the highest point at the north end, overlooking the Athenian position across the narrow channel separating Pylos from the Island. For most of the rest of the day they defeated all Athenian attempts to dislodge them. They were much less vulnerable to missile attack and were at last able to do what they did best to beat off efforts to force the position with spear and shield, but they now had little or no water. However, the Athenians could not afford to wait for them to collapse from dehydration because they too had supply problems with their much larger force. Then Comon the Messenian and his mixed, non-hoplite force, managed to work their way round to the rear and scale the cliffs without being seen. They crossed the dead ground in the saddle behind the peak in the centre of the Spartan position and occupied it (1). This is the moment when the small force of about 40 archers, slingers and javelin men attack the defenders from above and behind at a range of 20–30m. ‘The Spartans were now under attack from front and rear and were in the same dire situation, to compare small things with great, as the men at Thermopylae. Just as those men were annihilated when the Persians outflanked them by taking that path, so these Spartans could not hold out any longer now, caught as they were between two fires. They were few fighting many and weakened by lack of food, and they began to fall back with the Athenians controlling every approach to their position’ (IV.37). The Spartans’ weakness would actually have been due to lack of water and probably sheer exhaustion. They may well have had nothing to eat all day but they were not actually starving; Thucydides later mentions that the Athenians discovered a stockpile of food on the Island. In the southern sector the thin Spartan line combining Spartiates (2), perioikoi (3) and Helot attendants (4) is holding firm on the natural and manmade defensive perimeter while the more numerous Athenians hang back as the first missiles find their target. The Harbour with the captured Spartan ships at anchor (5) and the Messenian mainland (6) are in the background to the east.

At the end of this so-called Battle of Sphacteria, 292 Lacedaemonians (Greeks living under the Spartan state) were taken captive, 120 of which were Elite Spartiates (“Spartans”, full citizens of the Sparta) and the rest being either perioikoi (non-Spartan inhabitants of Lacedaemonia) or Helot attendants (serfs). Athens threatened to kill the captives if the Spartans were to set foot in Attica (region around Athens), holding this over their heads until a series of military setbacks and deaths of high leading commanders on both sides (Sparta’s Brasidas and Athens’ Cleon) opened the path to peace in 421 BCE (Peace of Nicias).

^ Osprey – ‘Men-at-Arms’ series, issue 360 – The Thracians, 700 BC-AD 46 by Christopher Webber and Angus McBride (Illustrator). Plate C – Attack on the Triballi Hill Fort, 424 BC. CI: Triballi peltast – “In 424 Sitalkes attacked the Triballi, and died fighting them. Thracians retreat to their hill forts when attacked; Tacitus (Annals, XLVII) later described the bolder warriors singing and dancing in from of their ramparts. Here a Triballi peltast armed with a long spear wears an unusual dappled cow-hide outfit that only partially covered his body, this is taken from an example of Greek illustrated pottery.C2: Odrysian archer – “The costumes on this plate are partially based on a scene on a 6th century Attic amphora showing peltasts, an archer, and a cavalryman in combat. This figure is also based on a 4th century silver belt plaque from north-western Thrace showing an archer with beard, plain conical cap, composite bow, and pattern-edged tunic. He would also have a quiver hanging from the waist belt, and possibly a dagger. The quiver would have held around 100 arrows, and would probably have been made from leather. The decomposed remains of quivers made of some organic material, probably leather, have been found at a tomb near Vratsa.C3: Dii peltasts – “This warrior is armed with a machaira. Many types of curved swords have been found in Thrace, and this example is based on a weapon now on display in a Bulgarian museum. He also carries a circular pelte – as discussed in the text, not all peltai were crescent shaped.

Head over to my post, ‘THRACIANS, REAPERS OF THE BALKANS’, to learn about their culture, religion, weaponry, armors, battle tactics, and their influence on the ancient world. Their history as well, from the tales in the Iliad to the era of the Greco-Persian Wars, the rise of Macedon under Philip II and his son Alexander the Great, and the Roman conquests of the Balkans.

mayor-rico “If people could stop tagging posts about Estonia with “Eastern Europe”…”

But if Estonia is beautiful, wouldn’t tagging it eastern Europe help people get rid of the negative notions?? Make eastern Europe beautiful

Eastern Europe already is beautiful. It’s not Eastern Europe that’s the root of problem here, it’s Western Europe and Western World in general who won’t let Eastern Europeans rightfully reclaim the word “Eastern Europe” and fix it’s reputation.

Western Europe treats Eastern Europe like it’s special-needs cousin it’s ashamed of and also convenient scapegoat whenever they need to blame someone. The general attitude towards EE is “they’re all uneducated plumbers” and when people living in that geographical area try to say something, they’re shut down almost immediately.

Prime example of it is always mentioning the unfortunate past of EE,  as all bigger mediaoutlets are very, very fond of mentioning “THE FORMER EASTERN EUROPEAN COMMUNIST COUNTRY OF X” without realising that most people here actually mean “better dead than red” literally when they say the phrase.

Countries in Eastern Europe weren’t born in 20th century, almost all of them have thousands of years worth of history. Twisting the communist knife deeper into the wound however will imply that their history started with communism and there’s been no advancements since fall of communism. 

Eastern Europe is also very wide in longitude - which means vastly different languages and cultures are summed into one label.

Label that’s actually hurtful for countries like Estonia, because thanks to us being in Eastern Europe people from elsewhere assume we’re all Russians and speak Russian in Estonia. No, we are Estonian and speak Estonian, a language from entirely different language group all together.

I saw that post about that person realizing how ancient the Gods are and I wanted to add something. Not only have they seen humanity go its way through the centuries but they also made sure they wouldn’t be forgotten (note: this mainly applies to Europe and the west in general and greco-roman deities). What I mean is, people of all centuries have used the Gods as mythological figures in art. The amount of non Christian art representing gods, especially during the Renaissance and afterwards is insane.

And I think that’s amazing, even after their temples were abandonned and fell to ruin, the Gods were silently inspiring devotion through art. Even Louis XIV wanted to be like Apollo, no matter how of a pious catholic he was.

Lets talk BLOCK B in London

First off, if you weren’t a B-Bomb stan before that concert, its pretty safe to say if you were sat anywhere within the vicinity of my seat, you damn well are now! That boy has some serious fan service that ropes you in without telling you! From his effortless beauty that shines the minute he steps on stage, to his favourite English food of Cottage Pie (Who taught him that?), to the intense stares he was giving the entire left hand side of the balcony which, might i just say, are literally soul-sucking whenever his eyes land on you! Its safe to say, i’d give my entire life’s earnings to see B-Bomb smile at me again. O.O

But i digress.

To be honest, i probably owe everyone an apology for being a little too excited the entire hour we were seated leading up to the beginning of the show, so if there was a girl by you with deely boppers and grey/purple hair that was shouting and dancing too much to the sound system, I apologize for any inconvenience i caused you!  (I was just trying to make everyone a little more hype!) ;)

But its safe to say, the minute the lights went down and the VCR began, i could not stop screaming. And the moment they all came out, skipping onto stage whooping, Zico going above and beyond the level of hype i expected- I was gone, im pretty sure the scream that left me was long and continuous and did not stop for the entirety of the concert.

But shall we get onto the bit, that i know you’re all here for?

Block B, when seen with your very own eyes, are the epitome of beauty, and in the strangest sense, when you see them, reality comes squeezing in around you, and you’re forced to realize in that moment that their little feet start dancing around the stage, that they are in fact ACTUAL human beings. 

Along with this, the most prominent understanding you are forced to come to, is that, that Taeil that you’ve always seen on screen and in pictures, is LITERALLY JUST AS CUTE AND SMOL as he is in real life. I could not stop staring at how adorable he is- regardless of how manly he might actually see himself as. 

I was also forced to accept the true herculean form of Kim Yukwon’s thighs, and the reality of exactly why he’s got a girlfriend and has had her since debut and beyond- the boy is GORGEOUS. 

I had to confront myself about the reality that Jaehyo really is an extremely tall Ahjumma crossed with Adonis. And i cannot tell you the enjoyment i got watching him get to the end of the 3rd song, before seeing his face start to show the pain of exercise and dancing whilst all his other members were still happily bouncing away (because SAME). And by the half way mark, he had almost completely given up and had began to piss about with U-Kwon, who continuously tried to jab him in the ribs.

And then came Kyung. Now, im not the biggest Kyung stan as im sure most are aware. HOWEVER, i cannot deny him the fact that he is incredibly cute in his gestures, and he was SO HYPE to be in London! I swear to God he didn’t stop smiling the entire time, and i think that is one of the main memories that i will take away from that experience, is the huge arm heart that Kyung kept showing to the 2nd level- plus, when he smiles AS HES LOOKING AT YOU, you’re sure to go home happy. Although, can we just also talk about his miniature English q&a session (because he was all too aware he is the most fluent in English out of all of them), in which he asked the members about their favourite British foods, (hence B-Bomb and cottage pie) and he tried to rip into them for their adorable simplistic answers? Quick run down:

B-Bomb - Cottage Pie (proud of himself)
Jaehyo - burger and fries? (I think, was very shy and awkward when he said it xD)
U-Kwon - five guys (also pretty enthusiastic) 
Zico - fish and chips (very VERY enthusiastic, could be the new mascot for fish and chips tbh)
Taeil - (i feel like it was something generically English but i cant remember, my bad) 
Kyung - just giggled the whole time.

Now, lets move onto Zico. That boy, was LIVING for being in London. Before i got there, i got the feeling he was pretty excited to be here through his insta posts, but he could not stop going on about it the whole time, exceedingly smiley and energetic through the entire first half (and second half to be honest) but after Conduct for Zero (when he filled in for P.O- I was sad, but it was a lit stage) he just seemed so happy to be there, and seemed to genuinely be having the time of his life. He was ALL TOO HAPPY to speak English for pretty much the entire time, and just seemed so proud of himself to be able to do so, which was so adorable i cannot tell you! But after seeing Block B live, you can really understand what kind of a group leader he is; efficient, compassionate, and just BAWSE!! 

One of the songs which was a game changer for me, was the heavy rock version of Very Good they played!! Like holey moley, that was LIT TO HIGH HEAVENS!! (i’ll upload a video clip in a mo). But also NICE DAY WAS INSANE! And Taeil carried it SOOO well- if you ever do anything in your life, see Lee Taeil sing them high notes live man!! It is WORTH IT! But tbh, the highlight of that night, despite the lacking of P.O’s presence- which i think i would have legitimately fainted at- was Zero For Conduct. I’ve always been a HUGE Bastarz fan!…but seeing that live, has changed my life! Sincerely.

And also, you might be thinking, but how did the other members feel? Zico and Kyung were happily chatting away in English, but what about the others? However, despite wondering this myself, when the ‘thank you’-esq time came around, they had such a good translation system working, and although i initially thought it would be awkward, the minute the crowd started responding to what the translator was saying after the boys had spoken, it just became such a beautiful and warming atmosphere, because i dont know about everyone else, but i was soo happy to know how the boys felt about London, and the end of their Europe tour in general. And after Zico took his hat off for us like he said he would if we genuinely impressed him, i can honestly say, any normal band will never live up to the experience of a block b/kpop concert in general.

And on a final note, lets just talk about the fan service again, cause i still cant get over B-Bomb and i dont think i ever will. He is Apollo, he is sunshine on a rainy day, he is a tragically beautiful painting, and for as long as i live i will never forget the entire 5-6 times i locked eyes with that man and shared in his smile. Because even though I got to wave at Taeil who was waving and pulling many a sad/funny face at the second floor area, and even though Kyung may have shot a heart in my direction, and coupled it with the cheesiest grin i ever did see, neither of them for some reason compare to the utter, graceless beauty, that is B-Bomb’s smile when directed specifically at you.

I’d say more about Zico, but his attention was mostly on the front row and the standing crowd, and im not entirely sure he could see the balcony seats and up well- but he was having a grand time regardless. Jaehyo was smiling throughout, but i got the sense from him, that despite the fact he was having a good time, he was tired from the end of tour. And U-kwon was really just playing with the girls hearts in the front row the entire night- so if you were down there, r.i.p after Kim Yukwon.

And alas, here i sit. Crying over remembering all the little details of the show, that as soon as it started seemed like it only took 5 minutes before it was ending, cause i was simply enjoying myself so much. The Post-concert blues are real, and i think that concert truly did change my entire life, but if there is one bit of advice i’d give anyone who was thinking of going to a kpop concert, or any concert in general in the future…its simply to take a moment to take it in, it wont ever be enough, but as long as you take a moment for yourself to realize that what you’re experiencing is real, then it’ll all be okay.

P.S. imma probs do another post tomorrow with everything i’ve forgotten from this one, but for now, enjoy my reliving of ‘Blockbuster in London’. <3