and cosmology

What we know about dark energy:

All of the matter in the universe, such as atoms, electrons, and dark matter (an unrelated subject), take up only about 32% of all the energy in the current observable universe. The other 68% goes to dark energy; a mysterious force that fills up all of space, and is driving the expansion of the universe.

When Einstein wrote his theories of relativity, he believed we lived in a perfectly static world; it never began, it will never end, and it will always stay the same size. In order to make this work mathematically, he introduced a mechanism that would balance out the force of gravity: the cosmological constant. However, when Hubble discovered that the universe was expanding, Einstein threw out this idea, calling it his “greatest blunder.”

At the time, people expected that the expansion of the universe would be slowing down, since gravity pulls things together, but it seemed as if the expansion was actually speeding up! Not only were distant galaxies receding away from each other, but they were receding away faster and faster, against the known laws of gravitation. The only way we can explain this without sacrificing Einstein’s laws of gravitation was to again reintroduce the cosmological constant, but altering it slightly to beat out gravity instead of just balancing it.

So, what exactly does the cosmological constant mean? Essentially, it means that empty space actually has some energy in it, inflating it like the surface of a balloon. Since this energy comes from space itself, it acts as a feedback loop; dark energy creates more space, more space creates more dark energy, which means even more space, and so on. And yes, this does mean that energy is not conserved, which is actually allowed in general relativity. Still, you can’t use this energy in any useful way.

While the cosmological constant is the most likely source of dark energy, it’s not the only candidate. Other theories, such as quintessence and moduli, are similar to the cosmological constant, but are allowed to change throughout space and time. Because these theories would look so similar, it’s difficult to tell which one is correct. But whatever dark energy is, it determines the ultimate fate of our universe.


Solar Flares’ Shocking Influence on Sunspots | Space News

In the past, we have reported on many recent discoveries that call into question the foundational theories about our sun, and all stars. For the better part of a century, institutional science has told us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion at their cores. However, on our own Sun, many of the observable features remain anomalous for the nuclear fusion model, and the problems only continue to grow with ever finer technological data. Now, a new study conducted by a team of scientists at the New Jersey Institute of Technology provides yet another blow to standard theories about the sun. The problem is the discovery of a surprising relationship between solar flares and sunspots. In part one of this two-part presentation, Dr. Michael Clarage, a scientist on the SAFIRE project team, explores the significance of this discovery for the standard and electric universe theories of the sun, respectively.


Images of the cosmos from the late 1950s and early 60s. Most are from the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories. Don’t get me wrong, I love all the high definition and detailed images coming out of Hubble and similar telescopes today, but there is something about these old photos. What they lacked in detail and resolution they made up for with wonder and mystery. Can you imagination how mind blowing these pictures would have been when they first came out of the developing tank in the 50′s?

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Spectacular collision of stars will create new star in night sky in 2022

1800 years ago two stars were coming together in a huge cataclysmic explosion. The light from that collision will finally arrive on Earth creating a new star in the night sky - dubbed the ‘Boom Star’ - in an incredibly rare event which is usually only spotted through telescopes.

Before their meeting the two stars were too dim to be seen by the naked eye, but in 2022, the newly formed Red Nova will burn so brightly in the constellation Cygnus that everyone will be able to to see it.

For around six months the Boom Star will be one of the brightest in the sky before gradually dimming, returning to its normal brightness after around two to three years. 

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july 22, 2016 | 5:41 pm | (5/100)

my biology test was returned yesterday and i didn’t expect to actually get a good mark, but i did! yaay 🤓  here are my cosmology notes for today’s test 💫🌎🌟☄🌞🌛  one of the few tests i had to think through rather than rely on definitions, facts and other information! i hope u all have a productive weekend!!! 🤗💓


Finding Darkness In The Light: How Vera Rubin Changed The Universe

“Instead, the speeds rose rapidly, but then leveled off. As you moved farther away from a galaxy’s core, the stars’ rotation speeds didn’t drop, but rather leveled off to a constant value. The rotation curves, unexpectedly, were flat. Rubin’s work began in the Andromeda galaxy, our closest large, galactic neighbor, but quickly was extended to dozens of galaxies, which all showed the same effects. Today, that number is in the thousands, and our multiwavelength, advanced surveys have shown that it can’t be missing atoms, ions, plasmas, gas, dust, planets or asteroids that account for the mass. Either something is screwy with the laws of gravity on galactic (and larger) scales, or there’s some type of unseen mass in the Universe.”

When you look at a galaxy in the night sky, it’s easy to imagine that it’s just a system of masses like our Solar System, except on a larger scale. Instead of a single, central mass, you have many stars responsible for the galaxy’s gravitational pull. The stars revolving around the galactic center feel the tug from all the other stars and orbit accordingly, with the inner stars orbiting quickly and the outermost ones – the ones most distant from the gravitational sources – orbiting more slowly, just like the planets. At least, that’s what you’d expect. But when the techniques and the technologies for measuring this finally came to fruition, the result was a colossal surprise: the stars in a galaxy didn’t determine the galaxy’s mass or rotation properties. In fact, if you went out and measured the gas, dust, plasma, planets and everything else we can observe in the galaxy, they don’t explain it either. Something unseen and invisible was influencing the way galaxies behave.

On Sunday night, Vera Rubin passed away at age 88. Here was her most titanic, Universe-changing contribution to the enterprise of science.

A mere two years after completing his daring General Theory of Relativity in 1915 — where gravity is interpreted as resulting from the curvature of space and time around a massive body — Albert Einstein wrote a daring article, taking on the whole universe under his new lens.

Given that mass tells space how to bend, he reasoned, if he knew the mass contained in the entire universe, he could derive its geometry as a whole. For the first time in history, a single mind attempted to derive the shape of the cosmos not from theological or philosophical arguments, as so many had before, but as the result of solid physical and mathematical reasoning.

As an intellectual move, it took a lot of courage. In what follows, I’ll attempt to take you through Einstein’s reasoning, as close as possible to the famous 1917 paper.

How would someone apply equations that worked very well for solar-system-scale problems to a much grander scale?

Modern Cosmology Turns 100



august 14, 2016 (10/100) ☁️
spending d sunday reviewing for my midterms 😅 here r my origin of the solar system notes wooo hope u guys have a productive week ahead! wish me luck i hav 2 midterms tomorrow rip ty!

Pencil Nebula

The Pencil Nebula in Vela is a remnant of a supernova explosion that occurred about 11.000 years ago. It lies about 800 light years from Earth and spans a distance of about 5 light-years. The shock wave that created the nebula is traveling through space at about 500,000 km/hour, slamming into the interstellar medium and creating the bluish regions, which glow in the light of ionized oxygen, while the surrounding red regions are a cooler ionized hydrogen source.

Credit: David M. Jurasevich


Strange is our situation here on Earth. Each of us comes for a short visit, not knowing why, yet sometimes seeming to divine a purpose. From the standpoint of daily life, however, there is one thing we do know: that man is here for the sake of other men - above all for those upon whose smiles and well-being our own happiness depends.

The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and science.

Happy 138th birthday to Albert Einstein, one of the brilliant fathers of modern physics and the founder of physical cosmology and relativity.