THE column was an architectural invention which allowed for the support of ceilings without the use of solid walls, thereby increasing the space which could be spanned by a ceiling, allowing the entrance of light and offering an alternative aesthetic to building exteriors, particularly in the peristyles of temples and on colonnades along stoas. Columns could also be incorporated (engaged) within walls or be free-standing and carry sculpture to commemorate particular events or people.

The first use of columns was as a single central support for the roof of relatively small buildings but from the Bronze Age (3000-1000 BCE) more sophisticated columns with other functions beyond direct structural support appeared in the Egyptian, Assyrian and Minoan civilizations.

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Info by Mark Cartwright on Ancient History Encyclopedia 

Over the Edge

AN: Hi! So, something like last week an anon asked me to write some Percabeth fanfiction (Post BOO) and I totally wrote it as soon as anon told me to, except that the thought that anon might actually want to read it never occurred to me. So, um, here it is! Sorry Anon! *sheepish grin*

“All I’m saying,” Percy said, kicking his feet over the cliff side and squinting into the setting sun, “is that I think Poseidon should have some level of jurisdiction over the rain.”

Annabeth didn’t bother looking at him, her nose buried in an encyclopedia of Ancient Roman Architecture, but she did raise one eyebrow. “Rain comes from the sky, Percy. I know California doesn’t get a lot of it, but really, you should remember enough about rain from living in New York most of your life.”

“If you think about it, though,” he said, tossing a pebble back and forth between his hands, “It doesn’t come from the sky. It comes from the ground, or from the sea, so technically–”

Annabeth finally put her book down. “Technically, it becomes Zeus’s jurisdiction as soon as it evaporates into gas and then condenses into a cloud, Seaweed Brain.”

Percy sent her a mock glare. “You think you’re so smart.”

Annabeth laughed. “I know I’m smart.”

She didn’t see Percy’s hand move until the cap on the plastic water bottle she had just picked up had already popped off, the water gushing out of its container and splashing in her face.

Percy smirked.

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Moray -Peru

Unlike a number of the elaborate metropolis’ and statuary left behind by the Incan people the rings at Moray are relatively simple but may have actually been an ingenious series of test beds. Descending in grass-covered, terraced rings, the rings of rings vary in size with the largest ending in a depth of 30 meters (98 feet) deep and 220 meters (722 feet) wide. Studies have shown that many of the terraces contain soil that must have been imported from other parts of the region. The temperature at the top of the pits varies from that at the bottom of the ringed pits by as much as 15 degrees Celsius , creating a series of micro-climates that not coincidentally match many of the varied climate conditions among the Incan empire. It is now believed that the rings were used as a test bed to see what crops could grow where. This proto-America’s-Test-Kitchen is yet another example of the Incan ingenuity that makes them one of the most remarkable of declined societies in the planet’s history.

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By Anne Leader

Julius Caesar dedicated the Temple of Venus Genetrix in Rome on this day in 46 BCE. Caesar traced his ancestry to Aeneas, son of the Roman goddess of love and beauty. In dedicating the temple to Venus Genetrix, Caesar drew attention to her role as mother. Typical of Roman temples, the sanctuary was raised on a high podium and held a cult statue of Venus as well as portrait statues of Caesar himself. The original temple was destroyed by fire in 80 CE and was rebuilt by Emperor Domitian and restored by Trajan. Three columns survive from the second temple.

Temple of Venus Genetrix, rebuilt by Trajan 113 CE, Rome

Plan of Imperial Fora, Rome

Silver denarius of Julius Caesar, reverseAeneas carrying palladium and his father Anchises, 47-46 BCE. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Rogers Fund, 1908.170.80