ancient seas

Scientists explain ancient Rome's long-lasting concrete

Researchers have unlocked the chemistry of Roman concrete which has resisted the elements for thousands of years.

Ancient sea walls built by the Romans used a concrete made from lime and volcanic ash to bind with rocks.

Now scientists have discovered that elements within the volcanic material reacted with sea water to strengthen the construction.

They believe the discovery could lead to more environmentally friendly building materials.

Unlike the modern concrete mixture which erodes over time, the Roman substance has long puzzled researchers.

Rather than eroding, particularly in the presence of sea water, the material seems to gain strength from the exposure. Read more.

The Last Jedi Poster - An Astronomical Hint?

The poster of The Last Jedi shows a blood red background with what looks like the constellations of Orion and Scorpio behind Luke and Kylo respectively.

In Greek mythology, the Gods sent a scorpion to kill Orion for his hubris, and both Orion and the Scorpion were placed in the skies by the Gods.

The constellations of Orion and Scorpio are never seen in the sky at the same time. When Scorpio climbs the eastern sky, Orion disappears under the western horizon as if hiding from his killer.

However, every six months the roles get reversed. As Orion rises in the East, Scorpio scurries below the western horizon, as if fleeing from the great hunter he killed who now seeks revenge.

The two are destined to consciously interact, brought together by higher forces,  so that each one brings a dramatic change to the other one.

Luke suffered a “death” of sorts when his jedi order was destroyed, and he went into exile, and is being pursued by Kylo. Could it have been due to some arrogance on Luke’s part in the past?

Does this also mean that the rumors of exploding huts is true, and we’re going to see Luke as the pursuer and Kylo as the pursued in Episode 8?

Where does Rey fit in all this? I believe that Rey (with the glowing lightsaber) represents Polaris, the star that never sets, and all the stars in the Northern sky appear to rotate around it. Polaris is also known by other names such as the Pole Star, Highest Peak of the World Mountain, Lodestar, the Steering Star, the Ship Star and Stella Maris (Star of the Sea) .

The ancient Greek referred to Polaris as Kynosoura, from which the word Cynosure is derived. Cynosure means an object that serves as a focal point of attention and admiration or something that serves to guide.

This reinforces Rey’s role as the central character and hero of this adventure. She will also be the voice of reason and guide to both Kylo and Luke, helping a lost and fractured family find their way.

nature.com
Seawater is the secret to long-lasting Roman concrete
Ancient recipe has lasted 2,000 years thanks to chemical reactions that result in a rare mineral.

Ancient Romans built concrete sea walls that have withstood pounding ocean waves for more than 2,000 years. Now, an international team has discovered a clue to the concrete’s longevity: a rare mineral forms during chemical reactions between the concrete and seawater that strengthen the material.

Structural engineers might be able to use these insights to make stronger, more-sustainable concrete, says team leader Marie Jackson, a geologist at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. She and her colleagues report their findings on 3 July in American Mineralogist1.

Continue Reading.

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Heya guyz. this time i brought some fan gem babble!

some of you may have seen her on my past posts, but anyway, this is “Ammonite”. she was one of my first fan gem i made and one of my beloved one and now i wanna share my own story and stuff w/ you guys! :>

So, unlike other gems, she is naturally emerged from Earth very long time ago, even before the Homeworld’s colonizing attempt. She was formed from a crystallized remains of an ancient sea dwelling creature and out of extremely low chance she gained self-consciousness and emerged.

She was found by a research team sent by Homeworld before colonization. At first she was very wild, agile and sensitive like a wild animal but after Yellow Diamond took her in and used her as a personal attack dog to hunt down rogue gems she act more like a very skilled hunter. But still very wild compare to other gems, also sometimes she even act like a predator.

Initially, Yellow Diamond’s plan was to replicate Ammonite for massive army of feral warriors but due to her origin, it was very hard to reproduce Ammonite to the point where it’s too much inefficient. So, to dispose odd one, Yellow Diamond sent Ammonite on a suicide mission after another. However, to Ammonite, Yellow Diamond was the master who gave her a reason for her existence after so many centuries living like an animal, so she did everything she can to pleases her by succeeding her tasks.

Eventually, Ammonite find herself on Earth on a mission to destroy a group of rogue gems and retrieve a Rose Quartz. Ammonite put up a good fight against Crystal Gems, but eventually she was defeated and this is when Ammonite found out she was abandoned by Yellow Diamond. Cast out after all her work and devotion just because she was old and odd, Ammonite was in deep distraught and once again found herself without purpose of existence. That is until Steven try he’s best to comfort her and convince her that she can find her place on Earth somehow. So, she try her best to find her place after leaving Earth so many ages ago.

Her weapon is Atlatl(Spear Thrower). Spear and Atlatl itself can be used separately as a Short Spear and a Club. Her spear can also Detonate on impact and she knows lot of tricks about traps.

As you can see, she is kind of intense person to begin with but as she slowly opens herself to others you can see her being a considerate, caring person. She is just kinda edgy around unfamiliar people. Also, when it comes to a conflict, she’s kinda lean to physical force rather than conversation and peaceful method because she just can’t understand the need of unnecessary effort  when there’s an easy way to produce same result. this is one of the issue that Steven works on with her, and as the time goes she gets around… slowly.

Currently she’s living on Mask Island among trees and ocean. She love being around nature because she find it more comfy and being home. Occasionally, Steven and Connie visits her, and Connie loves to learn about wild surviving skills from Ammonite. At first Ammonite was little bit uncomfortable about Connie but she quickly found her quite likeable.

Also she is quite familiar with eating food from the first place, because that was what she did back on Old Earth. But she is unfamiliar with sweet, salty kinda modern foods so every time Steven introduce her to new foods, it’s quite an adventure to her. 

Lastly, well… she does Haka dances and being close friend with one of Watermelon Stevens.. she eats bugs..?

Salts - Magikal Properties

Whether it is black salt, sea salt, pink salt or just plain old. Salt has a long history of use in rituals, purification, blessings and magical protection. Salt is created and thrives in the Ocean  (or the Womb of the Goddess) It is the taste of Earth in the waters of life. salt is a amazing and versatile natural source for cleansing, and  is a must have for anyone.

Regular Sea Salt - sea salt is overall very common, easy to obtain and affordable. It can be bought in either course chunks or fine like sand. White salt is associated with purification, purity, protection and blessings. 

 

  • Used in consecration
  • Placed in water to cleanse it
  • Purification, cleansing and removal or negative energies,
  • Can be placed around areas to protect them
  • Commonly used in circles
  • Used in Curses
  • Can be made into salt scrubs 

Celtic Sea Salt- is a “moist” unrefined sea salt that is usually found on the coastal areas of France. It has a gorgeous light grey, almost light purple color; it is harvested from the clay found in salt flats. This salt has similar properties to regular sea salt however because it is a much more natural and pure salt its properties are enhanced especially protective and cleansing. It also tastes amazing and is filled with vital minerals, I also find that since it is moist it clumps together nicely making it easy to work with and shape.

  • Used in consecration
  • Purification, cleansing and removal of negative energies,
  • protective spells 
  • blessings
  • curses
  • soothing
  • great for cooking 
  • medicinal 
  • perfect in bath scrubs 

Black Salt- black salt is as the title says black or very dark in color. It is commonly available at magic shops, and is also very easy to make. Not to be confused with black lava salt or kala namak salts used in fine cuisine.RITUAL BLACK SALT IS NOT FOR CONSUMPTION!!!. This salt is easily the most protective of the four as it is great at Nullifying or returning negative energy.

  • protective
  • Banishing
  • fire energy,
  • can be used for darker earthly Elementals & Deities,
  • the Crone or Triple Goddesses
  • working  with the dark moon
  • Warding, uncrossings, and binding work
  • can be spread around doorways & windows to keep out evil

Himalayan Pink Salt- is a pure, hand mined salt that is from the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains.  It is harvested from ancient sea salt deposits, it thought to be one of the highest quality and purest salts available. The salt ranges in hues from white to various shades of pink,  and even deep reds; this is the result of the salts high iron and mineralcontent. This salt has the most soothing and loving energizes of the salts and can be used for bringing about love. 

  • promoting love and friendship
  • promoting positive energizes 
  • Healing
  • cleansing 
  • spell bags 
  • baths or scrubs 

If working with salt keep in mind that it is a natural dessicating agent meaning it sucks all the water so if your working with it outside and are sprinkling it on the ground it will kill your grass and destroy the surrounding soil making it inhabitable for plants and such.