The Normandy Landings (codenamed Operation Neptune) were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 (termed D-Day) of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II. The largest seaborne invasion in history, the operation began the liberation of German-occupied northwestern Europe from Nazi control, and contributed to the Allied victory on the Western Front.
The amphibious landings were preceded by extensive aerial and naval bombardment and an airborne assault—the landing of 24,000 American, British, and Canadian airborne troops shortly after midnight. Allied infantry and armoured divisions began landing on the coast of France at 06:30.
When the seaborne units began to land about 06:30 on June 6, the British and Canadians on Gold, Juno, and Sword beaches overcame light opposition. So did the Americans at Utah. The U.S. 1st Division at OmahaBeach, however, confronted the best of the German coast divisions, the 352nd, and was roughly handled by machine gunners as the troops waded ashore. During the morning, the landing at Omaha threatened to fail. Only dedicated local leadership eventually got the troops inland—though at a cost of more than 2,000 casualties.
The campaign to capture the island of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands and its strategically important airfield from Japanese forces began on August 7, 1942 with amphibious landings by U.S. Marines. Although the initial landing was largely unopposed, it would take months of fighting until the Japanese withdrew their forces in February, 1943.
July 10 1917, Nieuport [Nieuwpoort]–In recent weeks, the Germans had noticed a buildup along the Belgian coast, the extreme northern end of the Western Front. British troops had replaced French ones, and Allied artillery fire had picked up. In fact, the British were preparing for amphibious landings along the Belgian coast just behind the front line, in an attempt use their naval advantage to outflank the Germans and potentially capture the German U-boat ports in Belgium. The Germans began to make preparations to counter such a move, which included an attack on the British lines near the coast, hoping to forestall any British advance on land. This attack was called Operation Strandfest; literally “Operation Beach Party.”
The Germans opened with an artillery barrage early in the morning of July 10. The British positions on the coast were particularly vulnerable. Located on the east bank of the Yser river, they were quickly cut off when the German artillery destroyed the bridges over the Yser. The sandy terrain also meant that their fortifications were rudimentary and were quickly destroyed. Some units took 80% casualties from the bombardment alone. When the German infantry attacked in the evening, the remaining defenders fought valiantly (two platoons resisting to the last man), but they were quickly overwhelmed; the Germans reached the Yser and captured over 1000 prisoners of war. From the two battalions closest to the sea, only 68 men escaped, all by swimming the Yser at night.
Photos by: CPL Matt Bickerton, and CPL David Said, Hawaii, USA.
Australian Army soldier Lance Corporal Joel Baron, Section 2IC, 1 Platoon, Alpha Company, 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (2RAR), participates in Exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2016, working closely with US Marines and other nations on a range of training activities at the United States Marine Corps Base on Kaneohe Bay from 29 June to 10 July 2016, before proceeding to the Big Island for live fire range activities.
Exercise RIMPAC is the world’s largest maritime exercise enhancing Australia’s relationship with the United States and contributing nations. It is aimed at strengthening international maritime partnerships, enhance interoperability and improve the readiness of participating forces for a wide range of potential operations.
The theme for RIMPAC 16 is “Capable, Adaptive, Partners” and provides a key opportunity for Australia’s Amphibious Force Landing Force to test their interoperability within the multinational amphibious readiness group.
Other nearby islands including Gavutu and Tanambogo were taken by Allied forces in quick succession over the next several days, but the campaign was not soon over. The Allies and the Japanese continued to engage throughout the region through air strikes and amphibious operations for six months, making Guadalcanal one of the first extended campaigns in the Pacific. Finally, on February 9th, 1943, following a four night long Japanese evacuation, Guadalcanal was declared secured – the Allies had won.
Many consider the Allies’ success at Guadalcanal to be one of the major turning points of WWII. As such, photographic documentation of U.S. activities and experiences at Guadalcanal is particularly insightful. The Still Picture Branch is excited to share many of the Guadalcanal photos that can be found in RG 127-GR. The entire series was recently digitized for online access and will soon be available to researchers through our Catalog.
The Allied strategy for the Guadalcanal operation is also seen in maps that accompanied General Douglas MacArthur’s reports. These maps detail various aspects of Operation Watchtower and provide context for the battle, including the location and types of weaponry used and the military units involved. Because they depict the situation during different parts of the battle, these maps provide a more complete picture of the campaign.
Stretcher-bearers in the mud near Ypres on August 1.
July 31 1917, Ypres–Haig had long been pushing for a renewed offensive in Flanders, with the goal of securing the Belgian coast and preventing German U-boats from using the ports in Ostend and Zeebrugge. Lloyd George was highly reluctant to launch another offensive on the Western Front; the Somme had cost previously-unimaginable casualties for little gain, and that was with French support and Russian pressure in the East. In late July 1917, the French were still recovering from their mutinies and the Kerensky Offensive had collapsed. Apart from a small Romanian effort, and assistance from the French troops already in Flanders, the British would be attacking on their own. However, ultimately Lloyd George felt he could not “impose my strategical views on my military advisers” and ultimately deferred to Haig and Robertson, to his later regret.
The Germans were also well aware of Haig’s buildup around Ypres, starting with the (highly successful) Battle of Messines in June. The Germans had responded by attacks along the coast (to pre-empt a planned amphibious landing) and by deploying mustard gas for the first time. The preliminary bombardment around Ypres had begun on July 16, firing over four million shells (four times more than in the leadup to the Somme) at the German positions.
At 3:50 AM on July 31, at dawn but under thick cloud cover, British and French troops left their trenches, along with 136 tanks. Their objective was a tactical one–not to break through the German lines entirely, but simply to seize the German positions along the Pilckern Ridge to the east of Ypres. All of the objectives were close enough that the advancing infantry would have artillery support for the whole day. The initial attacks were successful, especially in the north. However, coordination between infantry and artillery soon broke down, as was often the case during the chaos of the offensive. This was not helped by the cloudy and then rainy conditions which limited visibility of the artillery spotters before turning the Flanders clay into a thick mud.
The Germans counterattacked at around 2 PM, forcing the British to give up a fair amount of their gains, though they eventually recovered with help from their artillery. Altogether, the British were more successful than they had been on the first day of the Somme, gaining more ground for far fewer casualties. Nevertheless, the British had not reached their tactical objectives, and Ostend remained as distant as ever.
Brig. Gen. Richard G. Moore Jr., 86th AW commander, flies a C-130J-30 #08-8603 from 37th AS at Ramstein AB, past Mont Saint-Michel, France, June 3, 2017. This event commemorates the 73rd anniversary of D-Day, the largest multinational amphibious landing and operational military airdrop in history. [USAF photo by SrA Devin Boyer]
Thanks to talks with one @paragonrobits , I’ve been able to clarify some headcanons of mine about ancient Trolls and how some of them evolved.
These ones are mostly biological, plan on doing ancient history ones later.
- Though considered vestigial now, Trolls used to have an internal set of organs that allowed them to produce their own eggs. Two or more trolls could mate and a mix of eggs of whatever their blood colors were would come from the mix.
- The Troll concept of quadrants evolved from their natural inclination towards polyamory. It makes sense for one troll to carry the eggs at a time and protect the offspring, while the rest of their mates search out safe spots, gather food, and do whatever else is necessary to ensure their offspring and mates survive. Quadrants themselves may have come from a need for a social dynamic that would prevent too many scuffles and jealousy between multiple quadrant mates over one egg carrier.
- The general dynamic exploration period was to have warmer bloods avoid the ocean (for both danger and reasons of colder temperatures), while the cooler and stronger ones might walk the shore to find things like shells, gathering salt water to make into salt or use in healing, or to gather certain seaside foods like coconuts (or the Troll equivalent of such).
- Before becoming amphibious beings, sea dwellers were considerably more monstrous. Having fish or snake tails instead of legs, and being incapable of breathing unless submerged in water at least over to their chest gills.
- Ancient sea dwellers were typically separated into Shallow Dwellers (the ones who stayed in the zones where there was at least a bit of sunlight and might surface from time to time to catch low flying birds to eat or spy on the Land Dwellers near the shore [or to catch and eat said Land Dwellers]), or Depths Dwellers (those making their homes in the deep aphotic zone and feasting on deep sea squids, whales, etc., usually their tails might look like those of whales, or of squids/octopi).
- While a mature Shallows Dweller might grow to be twice as big as a Land Dweller, a fully grown Depths Dweller might grow to be three times that.
- Shallows Dwellers and Depths Dwellers both had phosphorescent markings over their bodies. Both also, over parts of their bodies, had hard scale-like armor on belly and chest, and undersides of arms.
- The first amphibious Violet Blood came from a union between a Shallows Dweller and a Land Dweller Cerulean. The mixture of DNA allowed the new Sea Dwellers to have the limbs of their Land Dweller parent and the gills and fins of the Shallow Dweller. Though all Ceruleans produced from this type of union remained relatively the same save for some inheriting luminescent markings from their seaborne heritage.
- Later on, Purple Bloods came from a union between Amphibious Violets and a land Dwelling Blue Blood. By this turn, Purples have some vestigial fins but lack any gills save by mutations that result in that gene becoming activated. Those that do have gills tend to have respiratory problems. So while they are inclined toward moist air, they could not breathe underwater. A good number of them could be born with phosphorescent markings, mostly around the face, but this gene tended to be repressed and became rarer in subsequent generations. Though vestigial fins remained.
- Amphibious Fuschias came from a union between a Depths Dweller and a Land Dwelling Lime Blood. Giving the amphibious Fuschia Sea Dwellers limbs and the like in a similar way to amphibious Violets through a form of convergent evolution.
- The union of the vague abilities of a Lime Blood, with the blood of a Depths Dweller, led to a fascinating biological change. The offspring of a union of Land Dwelling Warm Bloods and an Amphibious Fuschia had the Warm Blood genes for psionics and other psychic abilities (either turned off or weakly expressed) flipped on entirely. Giving Warm Blood offspring of this union usage of abilities throughout most of their population with a small number of exceptions. This also gave those who inherited these turned on genes a tendency towards having a few glowing markings.
- These genes, when made into the Jade Bloods, had an interesting effect on their genotype and phenotype which made those with that heritage resistant to sunlight, and began the line of them becoming Rainbow Drinkers after their heart stopped beating once.
- Later unions of Warm Bloods with powers and Cooler Bloods eventually led to the advent of the rare Cerulean who had mind control abilities, but had much more prevalence in Purples (possibly because of their Violet lineage) which gave them their characteristic chucklevoodoos.
- For reasons unknown, trolls such as Olives, Teals, and Blues were exempt from gaining these powers
British Arrange for Fake Battle Plans to be Captured by Turks
October 10 1917, Gaza–Throughout the summer, Allenby and his staff had been preparing for a new offensive in Palestine. The previous attempts to take Gaza had failed to break through the substantial Turkish lines there, and simultaneous efforts to outflank them failed due to a lack of available water. Allenby’s plan rested on taking the wells at Beersheba, around 30 miles southeast. The ground there was difficult, but taking the city seemed to be the only viable way of outflanking Gaza. To make sure the Turks did not counter this by heavily reinforcing Beersheba, the British conducted an extensive misinformation campaign to suggest that the British would simply be attacking Gaza a third time. A naval buildup off the coast also hinted at a possible amphibious operation just behind the Turkish lines at Gaza.
The most successful part of this intelligence campaign occurred on October 10, when a Capt. ACB Neate rode within range of a Turkish patrol, seemingly by accident. The Turks fired at him, and Neate, feigning a wound, dropped a haversack covered in (horse’s) blood before escaping. The Turks found the haversack, which contained various documents, including a fake agenda for a meeting of Allenby’s staff. The documents suggested that the upcoming attack on Beersheba would be a feint, and that the main attack would still be at Gaza, supported by an amphibious landing. Many of the Turkish staff officers were rightfully suspicious of this find, but apparently Kressenstein, in overall command in the area, was taken in, and Turkish preparations for the remainder of the month focused on Gaza and the coastline rather than the area around Beersheba.
Hi, Enrique. Love the page. I was wondering, can you post a compilation or atleast pictures of every Allied amphibious landing done in WW2?
Holy cow my dude, I’m flattered, but that’s just too much for a single ask to cover!
Have the most famous of them all: Operation Overlord, AKA D-Day, when the west finally brought the fight back to Western Europe (the Italian quagmire notwithstanding), avoiding total Soviet dominance over Europe.
An AH-1W Super Cobra from the Thunder Chickens of Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron (VMM) 263 performs a low-altitude surveillance pass during a Visit, Board, Search and Seizure (VBSS) drill aboard the amphibious dock landing ship USS Fort McHenry (LSD 43). (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Kristopher Wilson/Released)