american-army

Motivations behind Union soldiers and what drove them to fight for the United States in the war

Although Union soldiers primarily fought to preserve the United States as a country, they fought to end slavery as well, stating that:

While restoration of the Union was the main goal for which they fought, they became convinced that this goal was unattainable without striking against slavery.

  • Confederate soldiers did not discuss the issue of slavery as often as Union soldiers did, because most Confederate soldiers readily accepted as an obvious fact that they were fighting to perpetuate slavery, and thus did not feel a need to debate over it:
  • Only 20 percent of the sample of 429 Southern soldiers explicitly voiced proslavery convictions in their letters or diaries. 
  • As one might expect, a much higher percentage of soldiers from slaveholding families than from nonslaveholding families expressed such a purpose: 33 percent, compared with 12 percent.

Ironically, the proportion of Union soldiers who wrote about the slavery question was greater. There is a ready explanation for this apparent paradox. 

  • Emancipation was a salient issue for Union soldiers because it was controversial. 
  • Slavery was less salient for most Confederate soldiers because it was not controversial. They took slavery for granted as one of the Southern ‘rights’ and institutions for which they fought, and did not feel compelled to discuss it.-
  • Reference: James M. McPherson, For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War (1997), pp. 109–110 
Your forward Zeal in the cause of liberty—Your singular attachment to this infant world—Your ardent & persevering efforts, not only in America but since your return to France to serve the United States. your polite attention to Americans—and your strict & uniform friendship for me, has ripened the first impressions of esteem & attachment which I imbibed for you into such perfect love & gratitude that neither time nor absence can impair which will warrant my assuring you, that whether in the character of an Officer at the head of a Corps of gallant French (if circumstances should require this)—whether as a Major Genl commanding a division of the American Army—Or whether, after our Swords & Spears have given place to the plough share & pruning-hook, I see you as a private Gentleman—a friend & Companion—I shall welcome you in all the warmth of friendship to Columbias shore…..
—  George Washington to the Marquis de Lafayette, September 30,1779.
BTS FESTA 2017 IN A NUTSHELL:

BigHit: F*ck you American ARMY, F*ck you Brazilian ARMY, Not you Korean ARMY you good, F*ck you very much European Army, F*ck you …

Originally posted by hoseoksbiwi

Korean Armys in the Home Party :

Originally posted by jikookshandshake

Meanwhile … International ARMYs … “can we just get a fancam plz fansite nim?”

Originally posted by mimibtsghost

Every notification this week scared us (anxiety attacks 24/7)

Originally posted by mysweetpuss

The ones who didn’t know “annyeonhaseyo”:

Originally posted by mimibtsghost

So they kept looking at korean ARMY comments not knowing anything but: “ ㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋㅋ ”: “Oh they are laughing …  It must be funny …  “

Originally posted by caughtinjimin

“Hey Please include us too HEY HEY what did they say?anyone? HALP!” *cries* those were 98% of the comments under each FESTA post

Originally posted by rapmunstar

5 minutes later ARMY translators save the day and we laugh at the dorks profiles too

Originally posted by taejinmin

How did festa go so far? We don’t talk anymore killed half of the fandom (Big massacre 1)

Originally posted by mimibtsghost

The other half was finished by R&V collab for 4 o’clock (Big massacre 2)

Originally posted by taetaehyungs

And vmin trended out of the blue because of RAPMON’s mention on fancafe

Originally posted by rapdaegu

Speaking of Fancafe, BigB*tch released some things only in the fancafe, but ARMYs shared them online anyway. WE WILD!

Originally posted by jeon-jungshooks

Aside from the suffering Festa was soooooo great (and informative: we know now the jibooty from every angle)

Originally posted by king-beluga

We enjoyed some elegant hip thrusting

Originally posted by sugasuite

Reaaaaaaaaaallly enjoyed it

Originally posted by pkjjm

BTS danced Not Today (yoongi wore yellow because in a basketball court he shines the most jin will be proud of what I just said lol)

Originally posted by hayoomin

They did BTS FM (Rapmon wore yellow and kept flirting with jin) It was funny, cute, gay… THE classic BTS package!

Originally posted by sweaterpawsjimin

The home party was full of surprises: 3J Fuck*d us danced

Originally posted by softjvngkook

R&V fuck*d us sang 4 o’clock live

Originally posted by beuits

Jin rapped just like Jay Z (Jin Z) and Suga sang like Beyonce (Beyoongce)

Originally posted by king-beluga

What is left now is Suga’s song also known as ARMYs-getting-a-beating-in-the-face 

Originally posted by bangtanbighit

BTS FESTA is not just us getting tortured a gift everyday. It about going back to the days that made both Bangtan and ARMY who they are today

Originally posted by bwichim

Happy 4th anniversary BTS, As we say “4 years down, FOREVER to go, because …

Originally posted by myloveseokjin

… we are a big, supportive and loving FAMILY”.

I tried to sum up this amazing week, I hope you enjoyed it ^^ 
Disclaimer: BigHit in no way hates international fans, it is an inside joke.
By @mimibtsghost

3

Call Me by Your Name, a film by Luca Guadagnino - November 24, 2017

Summer of 1983, Northern Italy. An American-Italian (Timothée Chalamet) is enamored by an American student (Armie Hammer) who comes to study and live with his family. Together they share an unforgettable summer full of music, food, and romance that will forever change them.

“I am insulted that this anime did/didn’t do a thing with race! POC deserve respect! I want them to change it to be more like I want!”

The Japanese have a completely different racial and social history, so it may be that they are making it based on their own experiences. Are you basing this idea on Western ideas of race and racial relations? Wouldn’t making the Japanese make media that reflects a Western idea of race be cultural imperialism? Here’s a good way of knowing if you are informed of Japanese racial politics:

Are you aware that Okinawa was not originally a part of Japan, was conquered, and is often referred to as the Ryukyu Islands? That it has it’s own ethnic minority with its own rapidly-dying language, and Okinawa also has by far the largest concentration of detested American army bases? Here is a photo from the 19th century of a Ryukyu Island native, taken by a Japanese man to sell “ethnic photos” back on the mainland.


Did you know that the “Japanese” we know of are not technically native to the island at all, but arrived sometime in prehistory to displace the original inhabitants? This would be the Ainu, and genetic studies have shown they’re actually more closely related to Caucasians. They now mostly live in Hokkaido, most of their land having been taken and many been killed due to historic wars and slavery.

Did you know that countless ethnic Koreans and Chinese have lived in Japan since the colonial period, often because of having their land ownership and livelihoods forcibly taken and moved to Japan? That they were forced to not speak their native language and had to go by Japanese names? That even though many of them have lived there for generations, they could not obtain citizenship until 1980 without getting a Japanese name? That there were hate crimes committed against Korean schoolgirls as early as the late 1990’s?


And the ultimate taboo, did you know that Japan had its own class of “untouchables” like India? These are known as Burakumin, or at least that’s the nicest word for them. They were often relegated to “unclean” professions like tanning and butchery, and in premodern Japan someone could literally cut down a Burakumin in the street in broad daylight and receive no reprisal.  While they are legally no different from anyone anymore, socially is a different story. If you have Burakumin ancestry, chances are, you live in certain districts–because no one else will rent or sell a house to you. Employers use your address to openly discriminate against you. If you marry, your family may hire someone to trace your family history to make sure you have no Burakumin ancestors. To many, it’s taboo to even discuss them. Below is Jiichiro Matsumoto, a burakumin and considered to be the father of burakumin liberation.

There’s more, of course, but you get the idea. Most people outside of Japan are simply considered gaijin–whether you’re a black gaijin or a white gaijin. You’re a foreigner. Sure, due to imperialism, a Japanese is going to think of a white English-speaker first and there are some differences within the category, but know that this is the category the rest of the world has been placed in. We’re a goofy novelty sure, but there are random gaijin of all colors being the “talento” of Japanese television. Outside of the extreme Japanese right, we’re not very controversial.


As you can see, the Japanese are racial-ideology-wise far from perfect. But for someone to come in with no knowledge of this long and complicated history and insist that having more Hispanic/Black/POC(a meaningless term in a country full of POC) characters in anime, it’s saying that American racial ideas and politics are more important. Sure, I love when anime has diversity of any kind. But if you think an anime with a “POC” is more progressive and ignore something like Samurai Champloo–which has both a Ryukyu island native main character and several episodes devoted to the Ainu–then I’m sorry, but you’re being culturally ignorant and contributing to cultural imperialism. That yet again, the gaijin should be the star. And the West has a very, very long history of imposing its own sense of morality on everyone else. I can find way more foreigners of any color portrayed in anime than any Ainu, let me tell ya. I have no right to tell a foreign industry to stop making media that reflects them and their racial identity and instead make stuff that looks like an American sitcom.


This doesn’t mean let Japan off the hook. But that means that if you want to have your own opinion, if you want to be taken seriously, and if you want to promote social justice without doing the exact same white man’s burden act we’ve always done, then you have a responsibility to educate yourself.

The bayonet held especial fear for Americans as it embodied the superior martial professionalism of the British army; American troops were much less accustomed to bayonet fighting.” 

- Holger Hoock, ‘Mangled Bodies: Atrocity in the American Revolutionary War’ in Past and Present: A Journal of Historical Studies, Volume 230, Issue 1, eds. Alexandra Walsham and Matthew Hilton (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), pp. 157 - 158. 

3

AMERICA’S (ANTI) BLACK CODES

In 1865 and 1866, after the Civil War, Southern states passed “Black Codes” which were laws to restrict the freedom of Black people in the region. In the North these codes were viewed as a way for the South to get around the 13th amendment and to allow slavery to exist under a different name. The defining feature of the post-Civil war Black Codes were vagrancy laws which allowed for the newly freed Black population to be arrested and sentenced to hard labor.

Examples of Black Codes included, but were not limited to: no Black person (“freedman”) could own property or guns, Black people were prohibited from marrying white people, Black people were restricted in where they could live or rent, Black people could not join the militia, Black people needed permission to do work other than agricultural labor, domestic (service) work, or manual labor, no voting rights for Black people, Black people were not allowed to change jobs, and if a Black person had no job they could be arrested and forced to work for no pay, Black people could not testify against white people in a court of law, Black people were not allowed to assemble together without the presence and approval of a white person, it was illegal to teach Black people to read or write, and all public facilities were racially segregated, including cemeteries and all forms of transportation. (These discriminatory racial codes served as the model for many of America’s current unwritten social norms - as well as some written government policies - that are still in effect today, and not only in the South).

In 1866 Congress reacted to the Black Codes by placing the Confederate States under the rule of the American Union Army and as part of Reconstruction, passed laws such as the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the 14th Amendment.

Unfortunately, due largely to The Compromise of 1877, Reconstruction would last in the “former” slave states of the South only until 1877, for eleven short years.